Individuals with learning disabilities (LD) typically possess average or above average intelligence, yet their academic performance is weaker than expected and often not equal to that of their peers. Individuals with LD characteristically have weaknesses in processing and performance on reading, writing, and math tasks. Deficits may exist in memory and metacognition also.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines a learning disability as

a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning ...

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