The Flynn effect refers to massive intelligence quotient (IQ) gains from one generation to another. IQ gains are the key to the cognitive history of nations that have entered modernity. They reveal what education has accomplished, what it has not, and the challenges that lie ahead. The fact that IQ gains attend modernity allows for qualified optimism about the impact of education in the developing world. In the United States, Blacks have gained at a faster rate than Whites have and the racial IQ gap has diminished. This entry describes the increases in intelligence test scores since the mid-20th century, explores some explanations for these gains, and considers the social implications of these increases in IQ scores.

The United States and the Role of Education

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