Cultural modeling (CM) is a framework Carol Lee developed for the design of learning environments that scaffold students' everyday knowledge to support discipline-specific learning in schools. The framework draws on basic research in cognition, expert-novice studies of expertise in disciplinary knowledge, and various topics within the field of human development (e.g., motivation, attachments, perceptions, life-course development). CM is firmly located in the integrated field of the learning sciences. Learning sciences seek to investigate basic theories about how people learn in real-world contexts. Although Lee's research has focused on literacy (particularly the response to literature and narrative composition), other studies that embody similar principles can be found in mathematics and science education. This entry discusses the foundational research findings that inform the CM framework, illustrates ...

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