In Europe, citizenship education in schools remains the responsibility of nation-states or their constituent governmental regions. In practice, there are considerable variations in learner entitlement across Europe and within individual nation-states relating to curriculum, pedagogies, and learner access and participation in informal and informal education for citizenship provided by nongovernmental organizations. Nevertheless, across the continent, international organizations—notably the Council of Europe and the European Commission—play an influential role in shaping national citizenship education polices in both formal and informal settings.

The Development of European Citizenship

Citizenship education has been shaped, in part, by the gradual emergence of the concept of European citizenship since World War II, fostered in different ways by the Council of Europe and the European Union (EU). The Council of Europe was founded in ...

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