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An information system—as opposed to concepts such as information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT)—is a fairly old concept that appeared as the first commercial applications of the computer were developed at the dawn of the general systems theory era. According to Davis and Olson, a management information system, as the term is generally understood, is “an integrated, usermachine system for providing information to support operations, management, and decision-making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware and software; manual procedures; models for analysis planning, control, and decision-making; and a database.” The U.K. Academy of Information Systems (UKAIS) defines information systems as “the means by which people and organizations, utilizing technology, gather, process, store, use and disseminate information.”

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