Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. (United States Constitution, Amendment 1, December 15, 1791, First Congress of the United States)

Freedom of opinion and expression is a fundamental right in most countries of the world, but each country interprets these rights differently. As these rights—and differences—extend into academic and Internet-based environments, they are especially relevant for online distributed learning, raising new questions about institutional and governmental control of online expressions by students or faculty. Individual rights of free speech and institutional rights of academic freedom are both ...

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