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Programming and Scripting Languages

Although they may be portrayed as such in the popular media, computers are not ‘smart.’ However, they are very fast at doing what they are told to do. Programming languages are how a user tells the computer what to do. Using programming languages, the user can tell a computer what input data to use, how to process those input data, and how to output the results.

Languages can be divided into two broad categories: operating system (OS) languages and application languages. Operating system languages include Microsoft's Disk Operating System (DOS) and Windows; Apple's Macintosh OS X; and network operating systems (NOS) such as Novell, Unix, Linux, or Windows 2000 Server. Operating systems and network operating systems are written in a mix of high-level languages and assembly ...

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