Numerous perspectives have been offered in the literature concerning the ways in which individuals process and assume the risks associated with disasters based on environmental stimuli. Risk assessment research has in recent years argued that the individual assumption of risk is a product of both perceptions of hazards in the environment and of negative emotional responses associated with these perceptions. Consideration of both factors may be critical in evaluating and implementing appropriate responses to disasters and other emergencies.

Risk Equals Hazard plus Outrage

One recent and widely cited perspective proposed by risk communication expert Peter Sandman and colleagues Paul Miller, Branden Johnston, and Neil Weinstein, suggests that information pertaining to a disaster should ideally induce levels of both knowledge acquisition and affective response that are appropriate given ...

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