In the late 1970s, the concept of teacher thinking began to appear in the curriculum studies literature. Christopher Clark and Robert Yinger published the first review in the field of teacher thinking, gathering the work of U.S. researchers, work that, for the most part, originated conceptually with the scholarship of N. L. Gage. Researchers worked from a cognitive information-processing approach that was concerned with teacher judgment, decision making, and planning and focused on research that studied the psychological aspects of thinking in the areas of teacher planning, teacher judgment, teacher interactive decision making, and teachers' implicit theories or perspectives.

Around the same time, another focus, teacher deliberation, emerged from Joseph Schwab's understanding of curriculum. Initially, F. Michael Connelly focused on teacher deliberation, but he, with Freema ...

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