Marginalization is a process of becoming or being made marginal to centers of power, social standing, or dominant discourses. People can become or be marginalized as a result of either individual circumstance, by being members of historically oppressed social groups, or by choosing associations with particular ideologies. Ideaseven entire disciplinescan become marginalized by virtue of their threat toward, or insignificance to, institutional, economic, or political centers of power. These centers of power can be local, national, or global in scope. Both human (individual and social circumstance) and ideological forms of mar-ginality are of interest to curriculum studies. Curricula can be examined on the basis of the ways they represent and relate to, or fail to represent and relate to, issues of race, class, gender, ability, ...

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