The discipline of geography has neither a linear development nor a clear location in the academic world. Geography has long struggled with whether it is a science or a social science. The struggle partially reflects the uncertainty of human behavior in trying to make objective and predictable claims about the relationship between people and their physical environment. The struggle results in distinctions between human and physical geography and in questions about their unity. These struggles alongside various theoretical claims mean that the discipline is fragmented, but carries on. As the parent of geography education, geography's struggles are reflected in the history of geography education. A challenging aspect of describing the history of geography education is that is it not always a distinct subject. Geography has ...

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