SCIENCE IS ALWAYS in motion and falsification is an inseparable and even constituent part of science (as Karl Raimund Popper and others pointed out). Research fraud can be divided into at least four major groups: 1) false titles or non-existing publications; 2) plagiarism; 3) forged material, invented experiments and non-existing or exaggerated research results; and 4) pseudo-science.

False titles or nonexistent publications are probably the most basic case of research fraud, whereby the results could be harmful for society, but are usually not for science itself. Forged diplomas of real universities, or awards from fake educational entities are increasingly commonplace. Anybody with access to the internet and a laser printer can create reasonable facsimiles of awards and diplomas.

Some forgers believe careers may be accelerated by such ...

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