THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION of the late 18th and early 19th century marked the most profound transformation of human culture since the agricultural revolution that had changed human society from nomadic hunting and gathering to settled agricultural communities. All aspects of human life changed during the Industrial Revolution. It transformed the economic system of production from hand tools, and handmade items to machine-manufactured and massproduced goods, moving Europe from an agricultural and rural economy to a capitalist and urban economy, and from a household family-based economy to an industrial economy. It changed human labor, consumption, family and social structure, and even the emotional and intellectual functioning of the individual person. The abandonment of the family economy was the most dramatic change that Europe had ever seen ...

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