IN THE UNITED States, the early 1970s signaled a new awareness of the effects of continued exploitation of the environment. Over the next 10 years, scientists developed an understanding that global warming was a reality rather than a theory. Despite the recognition that new environmental policies were crucial, environmentalists were forced to battle with conservative business persons who argued that economic interests should take precedence over environmental protection. However, environmentalists successfully lobbied for the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was created in 1970 and given oversight over environmental issues. The EPA was also charged with ensuring compliance with new environmental laws and regulations.

In the study of white-collar and corporate crime, environmentalists point to the ultimate criminal industrial act: the aggregate of ...

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