COUNTERFEITING HAS two branches: the forging of coins and the forging of banknotes or bills. As the history of coins begins much earlier than the production of banknotes or bills, the forging of coins has a longer tradition dating at least back to antiquity. The forging of coins needs some special knowledge of metals and the ways of crafting such materials, whereas the counterfeiting of banknotes or bills necessitates know-how about paper production (including watermarks) and about several forms of printing.

Very early in both coin and banknote history, measures were taken by the legitimate issuers of such items to protect these precious objects against forgery and fakes. Coins often have special corrugation or coinage of the edge, which dates from the time when coins had ...

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