The concept of social exclusion has its roots and most frequent field of application in sociology in general and in welfare studies in particular. As a starting point, it is necessary to define some necessary prerequisites for using social exclusion. The idea of inclusion and integration must take its starting point from a society that has developed toward a differentiated and complex society, as noted by both Niklas Luhmann and Anthony Giddens. Western society is characterized by differentiation, which can be considered as a neutral state of things. Several phenomena related to modern society generate differentiation. Thus, when considering concepts such as integration, inclusion, and exclusion, it is important to ask, inclusion in what or exclusion from what. Inclusion is often interpreted as something positive, ...

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