Higher education refers to education of undergraduate degree level or above that is generally, but not exclusively, undertaken within universities. It also encompasses the broader set of activities of universities including research and enterprise. The growth of consumption terminology, values, and practices within higher education arose within a context of rapid and complex global change that included the increasing commodification of education and research, which accelerated from the 1980s onward. Globally, universities have become comparatively more dependent on their relationships with industry and less dependent on their relationships with states. This contrasts with a former era where they were primarily aligned with states, and research and teaching were more frequently conceptualized as public sector activities provided as welfare. The new commodified higher education is characterized ...

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