Cosmetics are products used to temporarily modify the body surface for decorative or transformative purposes, normally in determined social situations or by members of specific groups. In contemporary consumer societies, cosmetics are mass-produced and mass-distributed goods applied especially by women to embellish their body and enhance their attractiveness. They include skin-care creams, lotions, perfumes, hair colors, deodorants, and makeup items such as powders, blush, lipsticks, eye shadow, mascara, eye liners, nail polish, and concealers.

The temporary beautifying of the body through dyes, ornaments, or perfumes, and permanent modifications through piercing, tattooing, or scarification are practices performed in all cultures. More particularly, cosmetic modification has been known since the distant past: archaeological evidence is found from prehistoric times, in ancient Egypt, Greek, and Roman societies, where men ...

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