Within the Vodu ontological structure in Haiti, the human being is conceived of as being made of three parts: Although the most obvious one is the physical body, the human being also has a bipartite spiritual component, the tibonanj and the gwobonanj. Whereas the gwobonanj is the manifestation in human life of the immortal and divine spirit, God itself, the tibonanj represents the more personal side of an individual. This ontological structure is reminiscent of and derives from original African ontological models, such as the ancient Egyptian spiritual duality kalba or the Fon semedolselido.

The tibonanj has essentially two functions. First, it plays an identifying role because it represents one's unique qualities and one's personality. In that respect, the tibonanj can be controlled by another person ...

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