Serapis or, more accurately, Asar-apis, emerged as a state deity during Ptolemaic Greek occupation and oppression of Kernet (332–31 BC). Although Greek in image, Serapis engendered the highly admired healing attributes of two ancient African deities, Ausar, the lord of eternal life and resurrection, and the bull deity, Apis, the restorer of life, who was originally worshipped in Men-nefer as an incarnation of Ptah. Around 306 BC, Ptolemy I Soter introduced Serapis as a state deity in hopes of placating and uniting the Kemetians (Egyptians) and Greeks. Soon after, Ptolemy III Eurgetes (246–221 BC) founded a temple at Alexandria that firmly established Asar-apis as the god of healing in the Hellenistic world. Ptolemy made Serapis the main state deity of healing and located his temple ...

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