The School Improvement Specialist Field Guide

Books

Deb Page & Judith Hale

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Figures

    • I.1 The Human Performance Technology Standards 2
    • I.2 Interview Questions 2
    • I.3 Focus of Human Performance Technology 3
    • I.4 Summary of CSIS Standards 7
    • I.5 Code of Ethics 8
    • 1.1 Examples of Data 15
    • 1.2 Collecting and Analyzing Data 18
    • 2.1 Advance Organizer 40
    • 3.1 Sample Systemic Performance Factors Review Worksheet 69
    • 3.2 Example Adapted Fishbone 71
    • 3.3 Enhanced Adapted Fishbone 71
    • 5.1 Task Breakdown Chart, Version A 105
    • 5.2 Task Breakdown Chart, Version B 105
    • 6.1 Influencers Chart 121
    • 7.1 Examples of Reflective Questions 141
    • 7.2 Guiding Questions 144
    • 8.1 Parallel Processes 160
    • 8.2 Example of an Interaction Worksheet 166
    • 8.3 Influencers and Outliers 168
    • 9.1 Sample Performance Dashboard: Third Grade Students Exceeding Standards in Math by Subgroups 178
    • 9.2 The Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle 181
    • 9.3 Logic Chain 186
    • 10.1 The Implementation and Sustainability Checklist 194

    List of Tools

    • 1.1 Guidelines for Analyzing the Data 18
    • 1.2 Initial Inquiry Worksheet 22
    • 1.3 Plus-Delta Chart 22
    • 1.4 Assumptions Worksheet 28
    • 1.5 Demographic Comparison Chart 29
    • 1.6 Performance Comparison Chart 30
    • 2.1 Performance Factors Analysis Worksheet 42
    • 2.2 Factor Diagram Guidelines 44
    • 2.3 Improvement Ownership Worksheet 46
    • 2.4 Improvement Team Purpose Worksheet 47
    • 2.5 Team Launch Guidelines 47
    • 2.6 Agenda Template 49
    • 2.7 Modified Nominal Group Technique 50
    • 2.8 The Performance Gap and Priority Matrix 52
    • 2.9 My Story Guide 54
    • 2.10 Commitments and Contributions Worksheet 56
    • 3.1 Systemic Performance Factors Review Worksheet 69
    • 3.2 The Five Whys 70
    • 3.3 Adapted Fishbone 71
    • 3.4 Intervention Selection Guide 75
    • 4.1 Project Commitment Agreement 90
    • 4.2 Improvement Project Work Plan 92
    • 4.3 Feasibility Worksheet 94
    • 4.4 Checklist of Understanding 96
    • 4.5 Communications Worksheet 96
    • 5.1 Task Breakdown Chart 106
    • 5.2 Milestone Report 110
    • 6.1 Roles and Responsibilities Chart 119
    • 6.2 Influence Planner 120
    • 7.1 Common Core Competencies Guidelines 147
    • 7.2 Hiring and Assigning Guidelines 148
    • 8.1 Trust Meter Chart 163
    • 8.2 Interaction Worksheet 165
    • 9.1 Logic Chain 187
    • 10.1 Evaluation Strategies 198
    • 10.2 Evidence of Increasing Capacity and Capability 202

    Preface

    Audience for This Book

    As expectations and accountability for student learning and performance have risen over the last decade, a new educational role has evolved: the school improvement specialist (SIS). This book is intended to support people who facilitate improvement and transformation in schools or aspire to do so.

    The SIS may be a person assigned from a government agency; a consultant hired to support a school, school district, or local education agency; an education administrator employed at the school or district level; or an instructional coach or teacher focused on systemic school improvement. Regardless of how the SIS came into this new role, his or her goal is to improve organizational processes and the performance of the adults who work in the organization to improve student achievement.

    Often, an SIS is a former principal, school superintendent, or other education leader who may have been effective as an administrator, teacher leader, or counselor but who has little-to-no experience acting in a consultative or adult performance coaching role without direct authority over people or the organization. Typically, SIS will have to make many adjustments and acquire new skills to influence sustainable results, especially if they are expected to operate without direct authority over school staff.

    Until the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) codified the role of the SIS through the research of Page and Hale (International Society for Performance Improvement, 2012), the set of skills for this role was not standardized or documented. Anyone who could print a business card could claim to be a school improvement consultant or specialist. Using the outputs of the study conducted by Page and Hale in April 2010 the ISPI launched a new, fully evidence-based job certification for individuals who facilitate systemic school improvement—the Certified School Improvement Specialists (CSIS). The school improvement certification standards are also rooted in the ten human performance technology (HPT) standards, developed and refined by the ISPI over the last ten years. The HPT standards reflect the work of accomplished practitioners in both the private and public sectors of performance improvement.

    Janie Fields is a CSIS who made the transition from the role of principal, leading a school, to the role of performance consultant, assigned to help other schools improve their performance.

    In my role as a principal, I led the turnaround of a low-performing school—a five-year process—[by] working with the faculty, staff and other administrators. When I was faced with the challenge of facilitating the improvement of schools where I was not the leader, I was not confident in my abilities. I had never been trained or prepared for the new role as a consultant. The organization I was working for, the Georgia Leadership Institute for School Improvement, brought in Dr. Judy Hale, who worked with us on understanding the role of a performance consultant and the methods for facilitation of improvement that is sustainable. At the time, I felt totally overwhelmed. As I did the work and followed what she taught, I began to see that there was a process for my work that would get the right results for those I was assigned to support. I am now an independent performance consultant, and I guide the schools and school districts who are my clients to improve their processes and performance so that student achievement improves and is sustainable. Every day, I use the tools that I now know are rooted in the field of Human Performance Technology and I apply the Certified School Improvement Specialist standards, the guide-posts of my consulting work. I am proud to be a Certified School Improvement Specialist with evidence that I am proficient in the work my clients hire me to perform, and I am grateful that I now have access to a professional network of others who do the same work I do, around the country and around the world.

    When I participated in one of the focus groups that provided the information that resulted in the Certified School Improvement Specialist standards, I was pleased and proud to recognize that those of us who had been successful in facilitating school improvement were following similar processes, although we had adopted them independently. I was one of the only people in the group who had any formal training in facilitating improvement. That day, those of us in the group came to realize that we have a unique and valuable profession, with a methodology that, when applied with fidelity, can facilitate others to produce sustainable improvement results. (J. Fields, CSIS, personal communication, August 12, 2011)

    The School Improvement Specialist Field Guide describes the skills and knowledge required of effective school improvement professionals. It provides school improvement practitioners with examples, tools, and guidance they can use to develop their craft and reflect on their practice. This book will also help experienced practitioners prepare their applications for the CSIS certification.

    Acknowledgments

    We would like to acknowledge the special contributions to this book by Dr. Georgia G. Evans, CSIS; Ms. Janie Fields, CSIS; and Ms. Penelope Smith, CSIS. We also want to recognize the experts who shared their time and expertise to define their school improvement specialist profession and its standards and value and the experts who developed the standards and practice of human performance technology. Our special thanks goes to Dr. Edith E. Bell, CPT and Dr. Jeanne Schehl for contributing their time and expertise to the organization of the book. Finally, our thanks goes to Arnis Burvikovs for his confidence in supporting the publication of this book.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Betty Alford, Department Chair
    • Department Educational Leadership
    • Stephen F. Austin State University
    • Nacogdoches, TX
    • Patricia Conner, District Test Coordinator
    • Berryville Public Schools
    • Berryville, AR
    • Michael J. Dawkins, Regional Representative
    • School Administrators Association of New York State
    • Latham, NY
    • Susan Hudson, President
    • School Improvement Services
    • Nashville, TN
    • Mylene Keipp, RTI and Intervention Coordinator
    • Los Angeles Unified School District
    • Los Angeles, CA
    • Patti Larche, Director of Curriculum and Instruction
    • Phelps-Clifton Springs CSD
    • Clifton Springs, NY
    • Betsy Rogers, Department Chair of Teacher Education
    • Orlean Bullard Beeson School of Education and Professional Studies
    • Samford University
    • Birmingham, AL
    • Bess Scott, Director of Elementary Education
    • McPhee Elementary School
    • Lincoln, NE
    • Gayle Wahlin, Director of Leadership Services
    • DuPage County Regional Office of Education
    • Downers Grove, IL

    About the Authors

    Deb Page is a strategy and performance consultant in systemic improvement of performance. She was awarded the evidence-based Certified Performance Technologist job certification in 2011 by the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) based on her work in education improvement.

    Deb and Dr. Judith Hale of Hale Associates (http://www.HaleAssociates.com) developed the fully evidence-based Certified School Improvement Specialist, awarded through a collaborative arrangement with the International Society for Performance Improvement (http://www.ISPI.org). Together they founded The Institute for Performance Improvement (http://www.TifPI.org), a social entrepreneurial organization that develops Communities of Practice of high performing practitioners to facilitate meaningful work and sustainable improvement in education and the workplace. The Institute trains individuals to effectively facilitate improvement using human performance technology (HPT).

    Deb is a former K–12 educator who spent more than 20 years in corporate human capital management. She began her career as a high school teacher after graduating from the University of Georgia with a BS in Language Education. In 2001 she left her position as Sr. Vice President for Instruction and Business Development for Citibank, N.A. to form Willing Learner, Inc.

    In 2002, she led the start of the Georgia Leadership Institute for School Improvement (http://www.GLISI.org) a public/private initiative to improve education leadership. Under her leadership the Institute developed a solid track record for helping school systems improve student achievement and organizational effectiveness.

    Through her company, Willing Learner, Inc. she provides strategic planning support and performance consulting services. Contact Deb at deb.page@willinglearner.org or at 678–428–2363.

    Judith Hale, PhD, CPT is one of ISPI's more prolific writers and well-known consultants in the field of performance improvement, certification, and sustaining major interventions. She is the author of Performance-Based Certification: How to Design Valid, Defensible, Cost-Effective Program, second edition (2012); The Performance Consultant's Fieldbook: Tools and Techniques for Improving Organizations and People second edition (2007); Outsourcing Training and Development (2006); Performance-Based Management: What Every Manager Should Do to Get Results (2003); and Performance-Based Evaluation: Tools and Techniques for Measuring the Impact of Training (2002). She has served as Director of Certification and President of ISPI. Judith was awarded a BA from Ohio State University in communications, a MA from Miami University in communications, and a PhD from Purdue University in instructional design. Her doctoral research was on how to control bias in competency studies.

    Judy and Deb have launched a new venture—The Institute for Performance Improvement, L3C—dedicated to preparing professionals in the practice of human performance technology as it is applied to school improvement. They will apply project-based learning principles to help consultants (internal and external) to develop proficiency in performance improvement, performance consulting, evidence-based certification, and six 21st-century skills: Collaboration, Complex Communication, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Creativity, Comprehensive Digital Literacy, and Consultative Facilitation.

  • Readiness Assessment

    This assessment is intended to help you reflect on your areas of strength and areas for improvement. You may want to share your observations with others who know your work, as they may see strengths and areas for improvement that you have overlooked. Use the results as input to create your own development plan and to assess your readiness to apply for the Certified School Improvement Specialist (CSIS) certification.

    Standard 1: Analyze and Apply Critical Judgment
    • How proficient are you in your ability to analyze qualitative and quantitative data to determine performance gaps?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to validate data?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to observe instruction in order to collect more complete data to help you assess performance?
    • How proficient are you in using data-gathering tools and protocols that help you stay focused, avoid judging prematurely, and be consistent in your approach?
    • How proficient are you in facilitating others to accurately interpret data?
    • How proficient are you in presenting data, so others recognize the implications?
    • How proficient are you in initially creating trust, building credibility, and demonstrating value to those you facilitate?
    • What evidence can you provide of your proficiency in Standard 1: Analyze and Apply Critical Judgment, based on improvement work you have guided in the past three years?
    • What data can you provide that shows a cause-and-effect relationship between your performance of the work of Standard 1 and improvements in the work, workers, and workplace of a school or schools?
    Standard 2: Facilitate Deriving Meaning and Engagement
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help groups identify factors about the following:
      • Work—how the work is designed, the adequacy and efficiency of the procedures, the clarity and reasonableness of the deliverables or expectations, the adequacy of the resources, and so on
      • Workers—how skilled the players are (superintendents, principals, teacher leaders, teachers, and others) and how motivated they are to support the needed changes
      • Workplace—the consistency of direction from leaders and the adequacy of the school or school system's infrastructure (facilities, equipment, information systems, incentive practices, etc.)
      • External environment—the dependability and adequacy of support from community leaders, families, and others
    • How proficient are you in your ability to facilitate the use of the tools in Chapter 2, especially the ones designed to lead people to recognize the implications of their decisions?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to use techniques designed to assure that everyone feels that his or her opinion was respectfully considered, to control dominant personalities in the groups, and to structure working sessions so that everyone is focused on the important work?
    • How proficient have you been in building support and peer networks?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 2?
    • Where might you get coaching to improve your ability to facilitate others in doing the work described in Chapter 2?
    Standard 3: Focus on Systemic Factors
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help groups focus on the systemic factors that affect student, teacher, and leader performance?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to guide the group in identifying and selecting interventions designed to improve people's performance?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to guide the group in identifying and selecting interventions designed to improve the work people do?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to guide the group in identifying and selecting interventions designed to improve the workplace?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to facilitate the use of the tools in Chapter 3, especially the ones designed to help people select an appropriate suite or menu of interventions?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to guide the group in identifying both opportunities and methods to develop 21st-century skills?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 3?
    • Where might you get coaching to improve your ability to facilitate others in doing the work described in Chapter 3?
    Standard 4: Plan and Record
    • How proficient are you in your ability to lead others in assessing the feasibility of a course of action?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to lead others in developing a project charter?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to develop action plans?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to explain the hierarchy of plans and what each level is expected to accomplish?
    • How proficient are you in the use of the Communications Worksheet (Tool 4.5) to help your team recognize the importance of keeping others informed and how to best do it?
    • How proficient are you in the use of a Milestone Report (Tool 5.2) to help your team recognize the importance of reporting accomplishments?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 4?
    • Where might you get coaching to improve your ability to facilitate others in doing the work described in Chapter 4?
    Standard 5: Organize and Manage Efforts and Resources
    • How proficient are you in your ability to break down work into manageable steps so that others see the work as doable?
    • How proficient are you in distributing the work so that others develop the skills and proficiency to assume responsibility for the outcomes?
    • How proficient are you in coordinating multiple teams and projects?
    • How proficient are you in using project management tools to keep others engaged and committed to meeting the agreed-on outcomes?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 5?
    • What can you do to strengthen your skills in this area?
    Standard 6: Guide and Focus Collaborative Improvement
    • How proficient are you in your ability to leverage your relationships with peers and people you know at work or who work with your client?
    • Which of the following requests are easy and which are hard for you to do: ask for information, ask for feedback, ask for counsel, or ask for someone to introduce you to others?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to establish a wider circle of influence?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help others select the measures that are aligned with the performance indicators, thus ensuring the group is on the right track?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to stay in the know when it comes to offering colleagues information they can use when it would be most helpful?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to model the behaviors you want to see in others?
    • How proficient are you in helping others ask the hard questions?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 6?
    • Where might you get coaching on how to facilitate others to do the work in this standard?
    Standard 7: Build Capacity
    • How proficient are you in your ability to use adult learning theory to build capacity in others?
    • How proficient are you at developing learning and development interventions that improve the performance of those carrying out the work of school improvement?
    • How proficient are you in modeling, setting expectations, and giving feedback so that leaders can more effectively direct the work of others?
    • How proficient are you at helping leaders define core competencies and then structure their hiring and talent management practices to attract people with those competencies?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 7?
    • What might you do to strengthen your skills in this area?
    Standard 8: Demonstrate Organizational Sensitivity
    • Rate yourself on a scale of 1 (Very Good) to 5 (Needs Help) for the following attributes:

    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 8?
    • What might you do to strengthen your skills in this area?
    Standard 9: Monitor Accountability and Adoption
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help team members identify what behaviors to observe or interim results to monitor?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to facilitate leaders in recognizing when corrective action is warranted and how to best take that action?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to coach leaders in how to prepare to give feedback and how to have conversations during which they can cite specific behaviors or results that have to be stopped, started, or improved?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help leaders find ways to acknowledge improvements?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help people confirm that their performance improvement efforts are aligned with what other schools are doing?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to help leaders assess how their initiatives might impact other schools or other performance improvement programs?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 9?
    • What might you do to strengthen your skills in this area?
    Standard 10: Implement for Sustainability
    • How proficient are you in your ability to use the tools in Chapter 10 to help others continue to measure the right things, so their efforts are sustained long enough to reap the benefits?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to let go, so others can step up and assume responsibility for the work ahead?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to use adoption indicators to encourage continued engagement and celebrate successes and gains?
    • How proficient are you in your ability to facilitate others in finding and committing to practices that build 21st-century skills?
    • What evidence, supported by multiple types of data from the last three years, do you have to prove your proficiency in Standard 10?
    • What might you do to strengthen your skills in this area?

    Resources Listed by Chapter: Chapter 1

    The following publications offer practical advice about analyzing and presenting data:

    Coggins, C. T., Stoddard, P., & Cutler, E. (2003, April). Improving instructional capacity through school-based reform coaches. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
    Guerra-Lopez, I. J. (2008). Performance evaluation: Proven approaches for improving program and organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Henry, G. T. (1995). Graphing data: Techniques for display and analysis.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kaufman, R. A., Guerra, I., & Platt, W. A. (2006). Practical evaluation for educators: Finding what works and what doesn't.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990189

    The following website provides more information, tools, and support for Joel Barker's implications mapping:

    Barker, J. (2011). The implications wheel [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.implicationswheel.com
    The following book is a useful and easy-to-use guide for leading groups in school improvement.
    Conzemius, A., & O'Neill, J. (2002). The handbook for smart school teams. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

    This book is full of inspiring examples of people making a difference in the lives of others. Frances Hesselbein is the chairperson and founding president of the Peter F. Drucker Foundation. She also is a former CEO of the Girl Scouts of America.

    Hesselbein, F. (2002). Hesselbein on leadership.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    This pocket-sized guide contains useful tools and practices for supporting and facilitating school improvement.

    Magnus, A. (1992). The memory jogger for education: A pocket guide for continuous improvement in schools. Salem, NH: GOAL/QPC.
    Whitney, D., Trosten-Bloom, A., & Rader, K. (2010). Appreciative leadership: Focus on what works to drive winning performance and build a thriving organization. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    The following publications offer research related to controlling group dynamics:

    Cooperrider, D. L., & Whitney, D. K. (2005). Appreciative inquiry: A positive revolution in change.San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Debecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A. H., & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

    This seminal research is excellent reading. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was developed to mitigate the influence of group members who have greater positional power or are perceived as having greater social power. The goal was to improve groups’ decision making, specifically by reducing powerful personalities’ influence over the group's ability to generate and impartially examine ideas. The word nominal implies the people in the group are a group in name only; they do not necessarily work together or otherwise function as a group outside of this particular situation. NGT is an effective technique for generating a comprehensive set of facts and weighing those facts according to some variable, such as importance or frequency. Because responses are assigned points, you can identify those responses that are statistically significant.

    Greenbaum, T. L. (1998). The practical handbook and guide to focus group research.Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Hayes, T. J., & Tatham, C. B. (1989). Focus group interviews: A reader (
    2nd ed.
    ). Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.
    Tichy, N. M., & Cohen, E. B. (2002). The leadership engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level.New York, NY: HarperBusiness.
    Toseland, R. W., Rivas, R. F., & Chapman, D. (1984, July/August). ‘An evaluation of decision-making methods in task groups’. Social Work, 29(4), 339–346.
    Watkins, J. M., & Mohr, B. J. (2001). Appreciative inquiry: Change at the speed of imagination.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Carl Binder PhD, Certified Performance Technologist, developed a model for diagnosing performance problems, prioritizing them, and selecting interventions. Go to http://www.sixboxes.com to find more about his work.

    Binder, C. (2010). Six boxes: Performance thinking [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.sixboxes.com

    The website, http://www.p21.org, published by Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) contains information and tools to support 21st-century skills. Explore the 4 Cs: Creativity, Communication, Collaboration, and Critical Thinking; and the 21st Century Skills Framework. P21 has developed a free assessment, the MILE Guide, to systematically analyze the gap between current and best practices for 21st-century transformation.

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2011). [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org

    Deb Wagner developed a human performance technology toolkit, which you can get at http://debwagner.info/hpttoolkit/instr_hpt.htm.

    Wagner, D. (n.d.). HPT toolkit: A resource for human performance technologists [Website]. Retrieved from http://debwagner.info/hpttoolkit/instr_hpt.htm

    This book introduces human performance technology. It is an excellent source of information and tools especially designed to improve performance in the workplace. The third edition of this book, released in May 2012, is titled Fundamentals of Performance Improvement: A Guide to Improving People, Process, and Performance.

    Van Tiem, D. M., Moseley, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2004). Fundamentals of performance technology: A guide to improving people, process, and performance (
    2nd ed.
    ). Silver Springs, MD: International Society for Performance Improvement.

    The American Management Association offers courses in project management. Go to http://www.amanet.org/ for more information.

    American Management Association. (2012). [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.amanet.org/

    Commitment-based project management (CBPM) has evolved from a performance-based perspective on project management. Information and resources relevant to this approach are available at http://www.ensemblemc.com. Their emphasis is on ensuring that each team member understands how his or her part supports the whole project. Team members participate in defining who needs to deliver what to whom by when in order to achieve the project goals. Instead of working against task estimates, team members turn their deliverables into short-interval, personal commitments that they monitor (as done or not done) on a weekly basis. As the project evolves, team members take responsibility to proactively renegotiate commitments to each other in order to stay on track to goals. The school improvement specialist facilitates these practices and ensures that trade-off decisions are transparent and addressed at the appropriate level of authority. The method has been proven to improve schedule reliability and quality of outputs on both large and small projects.

    Ensemble Management Consulting. (2012). [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.ensemblemc.com

    This website, http://www.pmi.org, published by the Project Management Institute, is an excellent source for learning the craft of project management and for obtaining information on earning a project manager credential.

    Project Management Institute. (2012). [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.pmi.org

    An Internet search provides numerous tools and resources to support project planning. For example, you can find a sample electronic project plan template in Microsoft Office Word format at http://www.Office.com using the Templates link.

    Microsoft Project is a useful software application for managing large and complex initiatives. It allows you to display the major headings, such as initiatives and individual tasks. In addition, it allows you to specify the resources required for each task and to describe how and if one step depends on another step before that step can be started. The application comes with tutorials to guide you through every step of the planning process.

    Microsoft Excel can be used effectively for project planning and budgeting.

    Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
    Portny, S. E. (2010). Project management for dummies (
    3rd ed.
    ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.
    Bellanca, J., & Brandt, R. (Eds.). (2010). 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
    National School Boards Association. (2009). The Center for Public Education [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org
    Poister, T. H. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (2008). Revisiting professional learning communities at work: New insights for improving schools.Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
    Foshay, W. R., Silber, K. H., & Stelnicki, M. B. (2003). Writing training materials that work: How to train anyone to do anything. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
    Gery, G. J. (1999). Electronic performance support system (EPSS). In D. J.Langdon, K. S.Whiteside, & M. M.McKenna (Eds.), Intervention resource guide: 50 performance improvement tools (pp. 142–148). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass/Pfeiffer.
    Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (
    3rd ed.
    ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Rossett, A. (1996). Job aids and electronic performance support systems. In R. L.Craig (Ed.), The ASTD training & development handbook: A guide to human resource development (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 557–578). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Stevens, E. F., & Stevens, G. H. (1995). Designing electronic performance support tools: Improving workplace performance with hypertext, hypermedia and multimedia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
    Villachica, S. W., & Stone, D. L. (1999). Performance support systems. In H. D.Stolovitch & E. J.Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology: Improving organizational performance worldwide (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 441–463). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass/Pfeiffer/ISPI.
    Winer, L. R., Rushby, N., & Vazquez-Abad, J. (1999). Emerging trends in instructional interventions. In H. D.Stolovitch & E. J.Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of human performance technology: Improving individual and organizational performance worldwide (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 867–894). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass/Pfeiffer/ISPI.

    Handbook of human performance technology: Improving individual and organizational performance worldwide (2nd ed., pp. 867–894). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass/Pfeiffer/ISPI.

    Some of the best books on organizational sensitivity (business etiquette) come from the Emily Post Institute. Additional information can be found at http://www.emilypost.com.

    The Emily Post Institute, Inc. (2012). Emily Post [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.emilypost.com

    To learn more about identifying and analyzing social interactions, check what books universities with courses in communication and organizational psychology are currently using.

    Information mapping divides information to make understanding, use, and recall easier. For more information on the method and software, go to http://www.infomap.com.

    Information Mapping International. (2011). Information mapping [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.infomap.com

    ASSIST, a web-based platform for process management, helps develop the types of measures and metrics needed to develop an accreditation plan and a performance dashboard. For more information, go to http://www.advanc-ed.org/platform-assist.

    AdvanceED. (2012). ASSIST [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.advanc-ed.org/platform-assist

    The IBM Reinventing Education Change Toolkit, based on the work of Dr. Elizabeth Moss-Kanter of the Harvard School of Business, can be found at http://www.reinventingeducation.org.

    IBM, & Goodmeasure, Inc. (2002). Change toolkit [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.reinventingeducation.org

    The following publications include some of the best writings on how to sustain initiatives long enough so they institutionalize the desired behaviors:

    Broad, M. L. (2005). Beyond transfer of training: Engaging systems to improve performance. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
    Gelinas, M. V., & James, R. G. (1998). Collaborative change: Improving organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
    Hale, J. A. (2003). Performance-based management: What every manager should do to get results. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
    Hawken, P. (2010). The ecology of commerce revised edition: A declaration of sustainability. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
    Mourier, P., & Smith, M. R. (2001). Conquering organizational change: How to succeed where most companies fail. Atlanta, GA: CEP Press.
    Schwartz, P. (1996). The art of the long view: Planning for the future in an uncertain world. New York, NY: Doubleday.

    References

    Brinkerhoff, R. (2002). The success case method: Find out quickly what's working and what's not.San Francisco, CA: Berrett Kohler.
    Buckingham, M., & Coffman, C. (1999). First, break all the rules: What the world's greatest managers do differently.New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
    Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap … and others don't.New York, NY: Harper Business.
    Corporate Leadership Council. (2004). Driving performance and retention through employee engagement. Arlington, VA: Corporate Executive Board.
    Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education.New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Flanders, N. A. (1970). Analyzing teaching behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Fournies, F. F. (2000). Coaching for improved work performance: How to get better results from your employees, revised edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Gallup. (2010). What's your engagement ratio?Washington, DC: Gallup, Inc.
    Ge, X., & Land, S. M. (2004). ‘A conceptual framework for scaffolding ill-structured problem-solving processes using question prompts and peer interactions’. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(2), 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504836
    Gilmore, E. (2008). An evaluation of the efficacy of Wile's taxonomy of human performance factors (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (304606414)
    Guerra-Lopez, I. J. (2008). Performance evaluation: Proven approaches for improving program and organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Haines, A. M. (1993, Spring). ‘Absorbent mind update: Research sheds new light on Montessori Theory’. NAMTA Journal, 18(2), 1–25.
    International Society for Performance Improvement. (2012). 10 standards of school improvement. Retrieved on June 17, 2012, from http://www.ispi.org/content.aspx?id=1388
    Kaufman, R. A., Guerra, I., & Platt, W. A. (2006). Practical evaluation for educators: Finding what works and what doesn't.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990189
    Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Moon, J. (1999). Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice.London, England: Kogan Page.
    Norton, D., & Kaplan, R. (1997). The balanced scorecard: Translating strategy into action.Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
    Sizer, T. (1992). Horace's school: Redesigning the American high school. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Wile, D. (1996). ‘Why doers do’. Performance & Instruction, 35(2), 30–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pfi.4170350209

    CORWIN: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


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