Social Psychology of Emotion

Books

Darren Ellis & Ian Tucker

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • SAGE

    SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 750 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, conference highlights, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.

    Los Angeles| London| Washington DC| New Delhi| Singapore

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures and Tables

    Figures
    • 1.1 Plato's divided line 14
    Tables
    • 1.1 Table of virtues and vices 26–7
    • 2.1 Emotional processing stages 34
    • 6.1 Darwin's taxonomy of emotion 113

    About the Authors

    Darren Ellis is Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader in Psychosocial Studies at the University of East London. Darren has been interested in ways in which emotion, affect and feeling are experienced, expressed and constructed. These interests have influenced his writings on psychotherapy, the emotional disclosure paradigm, theorising police stop and search activity, surveillance studies, conspiracy theory studies, and understandings of social media interactivity.

    Ian Tucker is Reader in Social Psychology at the University of East London. He has a long standing interest in the social psychological aspects of emotion and affect, which has theoretically informed empirical work in the areas of mental distress, social media and surveillance. He has conducted research for the Mental Health Foundation and EPSRC Communities and Culture Network+, and is currently working on a project exploring the impact of social media on psychological support in mental health communities. Ian has published numerous articles in the areas of mental health, space and place, embodiment, surveillance and social media.

    Acknowledgments

    We would first like to thank SAGE for all their support throughout the making of this book (Gemma Shields and Katherine Haw in particular). Special mention must be made of Dave Harper, who has supported us through all aspects of this book, and provided much valued and welcomed company on our ‘writing weekends’ in Glastonbury!

    Dr Ian Tucker

    I would like to thank my co-author Darren for his unremitting commitment to this book, and huge effort to bring it to press! Thanks also to all my colleagues in the Psychology and Social Change Research Group at UEL, who have provided much needed intellectual support and nourishment. I would also like to thank all the students that have provided very useful questions regarding, and contributions towards, my thinking. Finally I would like to express a huge gratitude to my wonderful family, Katherine, Noah and Isaac, who have been with me all the way, and who I would be completely lost without.

    Dr Darren Ellis

    Many thanks to Ian who is a great pleasure to work with; he has been both a great friend and a rich source of inspiration. I'd also like to thank my colleagues in the area of Psychosocial Studies at UEL who encouraged me to develop this project (particularly David Jones, Candida Yates, Angie Voela, Heather Price, Corinne Squire, Nicola Diamond, Cigdem Esin and Lurraine Jones). Also thanks to the students who helped me shape some of this book through the emotion lecture series. I am very lucky also to have such a supportive and loving family, so a special thanks to Nicola, Lily, Otto and Arthur.

  • Conclusion

    It seems that the scientisation of psychology as a discipline has to some extent repressed its emotional history. This is not a unique contemporary phenomenon but history tells the story of the ways in which ideas are suppressed and superseded. For example emotion theories throughout the medieval period drew on the philosophy of Plato, but tended to reframe it through a Christian doctrine; later the enlightenment period attempted to reframe Christian doctrine through for example natural law theory; and contemporary psychology attempts to reframe former theorisations through inductive (scientific) methodologies. As Freud would have it, however, there is always a return of the repressed and thus we see similar discourses and questions emerge but in different guises through the various epochs and disciplines. However, we can (and perhaps should) learn something from the early theories of emotion. For example, distinctions between passions and affect were quite important to many pre-scientific conceptualisations. In many accounts the passions were less voluntary than the affects; but we no longer have such a distinction, perhaps because psychology has attempted to move away from these theologically loaded conceptualisations, such as affectus being part of the higher (intellectual) soul. In this way it dismisses some very rich theorisations that could be reinvigorated for contemporary purposes. Indeed it is argued by some scholars that today many of these early concepts that were bound up with theology have found their way through to psychology in disguised form (either consciously, or perhaps more likely, unconsciously or rather non-deliberately) (see Dixon (2003) for a review). For example, we still see distinctions between cognition and emotion, one often understood as more rational than the other, more intelligent and more suitable to human behaviour. Even the post-structuralist theories of affect resort to dichotomising the virtual with the actual in a way that is reminiscent of Plato's distinction between doxa and episteme or Kant's phenomena and noumena. This is not to say that there is no value in the development of thought, just as the ego must supersede the id, there is a requirement for psychology to become a rational discipline. Indeed it required disciplining! Yet, and if we are to continue with the metaphor of psychoanalysis, there is the danger of over-socialising the discipline through which the superego can become too overbearing.

    Just as individuals have been in need of taming the primitive and animalistic aspects of the self, one could argue that the discipline of psychology attempts to disentangle itself from the more emotional, subjective, messy and undesirable parts of itself. For instance, in the UK social cognition is the primary approach for social psychology, and is a core part of the British Psychological Society undergraduate curriculum, whereas emotion is not. Whilst we are not in any way denying the importance of cognitive processes in human activity (as we have not denied biological approaches), we feel that emotion as a topic features far too rarely in approaches that seek to toe the rationalist line. One could argue that this is because, whether consciously or not, mainstream social psychology's desire to operate a primarily cognitive approach has been, in part at least, to avoid engaging in aspects of the psychological self that emerge in and through emotional activity. Emotion's existence as messy, contradictory, complex, difficult to pin down and understand seemingly makes it problematic for mainstream rationalist approaches. We argue though that such messy activity is of prime concern for psychology, and although it may trouble its scientific credentials, should not be played down or taken out of the social psychological gaze.

    Thus in this book we have attempted to engage with the messy from Ancient Greek understandings right through to contemporary philosophies of digital media and technologies. Our aim has been to cover those theories and empirical accounts of emotion that we argue are important for a social psychological understanding of emotion, past and present, not because they fit into some form of social psychological paradigm. Some of the theories we've covered have featured in existing psychological histories of emotion, for instance, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hume, Darwin and James. However, we have drawn out aspects of their work that is valuable when following a ‘social’ psychological account. We have also discussed theories that have not traditionally featured in histories of emotion, for instance, the social psychology of Kurt Lewin and the philosophy of technology of Gilbert Simondon. This is because we have wanted throughout to revisit well known theories of emotion, and point to what a modern social psychology of emotion can learn from them, as well as supplement them as and when appropriate. In doing so we hope to have avoided producing yet another potted history of emotion, and instead present a social psychological understanding of emotion, which has often been absent from previous accounts.

    Contemporary psychologies of emotion tend to be dominated by biological and cognitive accounts, which attempt to model the underlying biological and/or cognitive processes of emotion. We have not focused extensively on existing models of this kind, as our concern has been to address what is important for social psychological understandings. Our reason for wanting to write about specifically social psychological understandings of emotion, and what is important for them, is due to a desire to broaden psychological focus on the emotions, away from some of the potentially reductive beliefs that can form when focusing only on single disciplinary thinking. This can be exacerbated when one's approach aims to identify processes as causally underpinning emotional activity (e.g. biological models). Taking a social approach usefully facilitates an alternative starting point for analysis, in terms of thinking about the multiple relationships between objects and spaces that constitute the inner and outer realms of our social worlds. Doing so obliges one to think interdisciplinarily from the start. We know this from the success of social psychology as a field. We seek to add to this through an explicit focus on emotion, which we feel has, rather surprisingly, remained a minor part of existing social psychology.

    To date social psychology has been dominated by focus on concepts that are seen to be central to social behaviour. A glance through most social psychology textbooks will find chapters on attitude, prejudice, inter-group processes, social identity etc. These have, in the main, been studied experimentally and in accordance with the dominant theoretical paradigm of the time, e.g. social cognition. Since the 1980s an alternative stream of social psychological research has emerged, often called ‘critical social psychology’, which focuses on unpacking some of what it thought of as overly individualistic and reductive thinking in mainstream social psychology, and instead points to the social and historical contingency of social psychology categories, rather than simply accepting that they relate to specific and inherent psychological realities. This alternative stream has been for a lot of its time concerned with various forms of textual analysis, focusing empirically on the ways people orient to and/or construct their own understandings of identity and subjectivity. To a degree, ‘critical social psychology’ has been a less rational and more nuanced and complex sub-discipline, not without its own contradictions and internal debates. In writing this book we are addressing what we see as a gap in both mainstream and ‘critical’ social psychology, namely providing a sustained and substantive historical and contemporary account of emotion. In doing so, we are claiming that ‘emotion activity’ remains in need of continued theoretical and empirical social psychological focus. Moreover, battle lines do not need to be drawn between mainstream and critical approaches, but a course can be navigated that draws out the important antecedents and influences from across psychology as a whole, and beyond.

    So, in writing this book we have not set out to offer a new ‘social psychology of emotion’, theoretically and/or empirically. Instead we have presented a range of theories that we argue are important for social psychological understandings of emotion. As we stated in the Introduction, such a history has not been completed before in this context, and therefore the book is hopefully a timely offering. Moreover, a strength of this approach, namely not offering a specific social psychological approach itself, is that it allows us to present a set of concerns that we think should shape social psychology, and its multiple engagements with emotion. The discipline needs to be free to draw on theories from a range of disciplines where appropriate, and should not feel restricted through fear of entering existing debates that require one to take a specific position in relation to, for example, biology, discourse etc. Throughout the book we have sought to point out the importance of emotion for social psychology, yet we see drawing territorial lines around for instance, specific topics, paradigms, and approaches as unhelpful. This is why we argue that whilst it is useful for social psychology to have a distinct disciplinary identity, and therefore justify its existence in the world, in its practice it needs to be able to draw on theories from multiple disciplines.

    Reference List

    Allman, J. and Brothers, L. (1994). ‘Faces, fear and the amygdala’, Nature, 372 (6507): 613–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/372613a0
    Aquinas (1964–80). Summa Theologiae. (ST) Ed. and trans, the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, 30 vols. London.
    Aristotle (1961). De Anima. W.Ross (ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Aristotle (1984). Rhetoric, The Complete Works of Aristotle. J.Barnes. (ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Aristotle (1988). Ethica Nocomachea. I.Baywater (ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Augustine (1972). City of God. D.Knowles (ed.). Harmondsworth Press.
    Averill, J. (1974). ‘An analysis of psychophysiological symbolism and its influence on theories of emotion’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour.
    Badcock, C. R. (2000). Evolutionary Psychology: A critical introduction. Cambridge: Polity.
    Barrett, L. (2011). ‘Was Darwin wrong about emotional expressions?’, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20 (6): 400–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429125
    Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Bechara, A., Damasio, H., and Damasio, A. R. (2000). ‘Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex’, Cerebral Cortex, 10 (3): 295–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/10.3.295
    Beebe, B. and Lachman, F. (1988). ‘The contribution of mother-infant mutual influence to the origins of self-and-object representations’, Psychoanalytic Psychology5 (4): 305–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-9735.5.4.305
    Bell, P. (2002). ‘Neo-psychology or neo-humans? A critique of Massumi's Parables for the virtual’, Continuum, 17 (4): 445–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1030431032000152023
    Bennett, M. and Hacker, P. (2003). Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    Bergson, H. (1896). Matter and Memory. Trans. N.M.Paul and W.S.Palmer [1991]. New York: Zone Books.
    Berlin, B. and Kay, P. (1991). Basic Color Terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Berlucchi, G. (2006). ‘Revisiting the 1981 Nobel Prize to Roger Sperry, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel on the occasion of the centennial of the prize to Golji and Cajal’, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences: Basic and Clinical Perspectives, 15 (4): 369–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09647040600639013
    Bertrand, I. and Hughes, P. (2004) Media Research Methods: Audiences, Institution: New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
    Bettelheim, B. (1982). ‘Freud and the soul’, The New Yorker, 6: 52–75.
    Bion, W. (1961). Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. New York: Tavistock Publications Limited. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359075
    Bogen, J. E. and Vogel, P. J. (1962). ‘Cerebral commissurotomy in man’, Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society, 27 (4): 169–72.
    Bower, G., Gilligan, S. and Monteiro, K. (1981). ‘Selectivity of learning caused by affective states’, Journal of Experimental Psychology, General, 110(4): 451–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.110.4.451
    Brennan, T. (2004). The Transmission of Affect. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Brown, S. and Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology Without Foundations. London: Sage.
    Bucci, W. (1985) ‘Dual coding: A cognitive model for psychoanalytic research’, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 33: 571–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000306518503300305
    Bucci, W. (1995). ‘The power of the narrative: A multiple code account’, in J. W.Pennebaker (ed.), Emotion, Disclosure and Health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 71–92.
    Bucci, W. (1997). Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Science: A multiple code theory. New York: The Guilford Press.
    Buck, R. W. (2000). ‘The epistemology of reason and affect’, in J.Borod (ed.) The Neuropsychology of Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 31–55.
    Cacioppo, J. and Gardner, W. (1999). ‘Emotion’, Annual Review of Psychology, 50 (19): 191–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.50.1.191
    Carroll, J. B., Whorf, B. L. and Press, M. (1964). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected writings. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Chalmers, T. (1853). On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man. London: Bohn.
    Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
    Chomsky, N. (1959). ‘Review of verbal behavior by BF Skinner’, Language, 35: 26–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/411334
    Christman, S. (1995). ‘Independence versus integration of rights and left hemisphere processing: effects of handedness’, in F.Kitterle (ed.) Hemispheric Communication: Mechanisms and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 231–53.
    Combes, M. (2013). Gilbert Simondon and the Philosophy of the Transindividual. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Cooper, J. (1999). ‘An Aristotelian theory of the emotions’, in A.Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Rhetoric. University of California Press. pp. 238–58.
    Copleston, F. (1985). A History of Philosophy: Vol. 4. Descartes to Leibniz. New York: Image Books.
    Craib, I. (2000). ‘Narratives as bad faith’, in M.Andrews (ed.) Lines of Narrative: Psychosocial perspectives, London and New York: Routledge. pp. 64–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203471005_chapter_4
    Crawford, M. and Popp, D. (2003). ‘Sexual double standards: A review and methodological critique of two decades of research’, Journal of Sex Research, 40 (1): 13–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552163
    Dalal, F. (1998). Taking the Group Seriously. Towards a post-Foulkesian group analytic theory. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Dalgleish, T. (2004). ‘The emotional brain’, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5 (7): 583–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn1432
    Dalgleish, T., Matthews, A. and Wood, J. (1999). ‘Inhibition processes in cognition and emotion: A special case?’, in T.Dalgleish and M.Power (eds) Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester: John Wiley. pp. 243–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470013494
    Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Rationality and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
    Damasio, A. R. (2000). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. London: Vintage.
    Danziger, K. (1997). Naming the Mind: How psychology found its language. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221815
    Darwin, C. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Oxford University Press. [3rd edition 2002]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10001-000
    Davidson, R. J. (1992). ‘Emotion and affective style: Hemispheric substrates’, Psychological Science, 3: 39–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.59.4.791
    De Boever, A., Murray, A., Roffe, J. and Woodward, A. (2012). (eds) Gilbert Simondon: Being and technology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Deigh, J. (1994). ‘Cognitivism in the theory of emotions’, Ethics, 104(4): 824–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/293657
    Deleuze, G. (1998). ‘The shame and the glory: T.E. Lawrence’ in G.Deleuze: Essays Critical and Clinical (trans. D. W.Smith and M.Greco). London: Verso. pp. 115–25.
    Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1994). What is Philosophy?, trans. HughTomlinson and GrahamBurchell. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1988). Limited Inc. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Dixon, T. (2003). From Passions to Emotions: The creation of a secular psychological category. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490514
    Dovidio, J. F., Ellyson, S. L., Keating, C. F., Heltman, K. and Brown, C. E. (1988). ‘The relationship of social power to visual displays of dominance between men and women’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (2): 233–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.2.233
    Edelman, G. M. (1993). ‘Neural Darwinism: selection and reentrant signaling in higher brain function’, Neuron, 10 (2), 115–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0896-6273%2893%2990304-A
    Edwards, D. (1997). Discourse and Cognition. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221785
    Edwards, D. and Potter, J. (1992). Discursive Psychology. London: Sage.
    Edwards, P. (1967). (ed.) Stoicism, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 8. New York: MacMillan. pp. 19–22.
    Ekman, P. (1980). The Face of Man: Expressions of universal emotions in a New Guinea village. New York: Garland STPM Press.
    Ekman, P. (2004). Emotions Revealed: Understanding faces and feelings. London: Phoenix.
    Ellis, D. (2010). ‘Stop and search: Disproportionality, discretion and generalisations’, The Police Journal, 83 (3): 199–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.1.42
    Ellis, D. and Cromby, J. (2004). ‘It's not always good to talk’. The Psychologist, 17 (11): 630–1.
    Ellis, D. and Cromby, J. (2009). ‘Inhibition and reappraisal within emotional disclosure: the embodying of narration’, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22 (3): 319–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070903312975
    Ellis, D. and Cromby, J. (2012). ‘Emotional inhibition: A discourse analysis of disclosure’, Psychology and Health, 27 (5): 515–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.584623
    Ellis, D. and Tucker, I. (2011). ‘Virtuality and Ernst Bloch: Hope and subjectivity’, Journal of Subjectivity, 4: 434–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/sub.2011.15
    Ellis, D., Tucker, I. and Harper, D. (2013a). ‘The affective atmospheres of surveillance’, Theory and Psychology, 23 (6): 716–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354313496604
    Ellis, D., Harper, D. and Tucker, I. (2013b). ‘The dynamics of impersonal trust and distrust in surveillance systems’, Sociological Research Online, 18 (3): 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.5153/sro.3091
    Erdelyi, M.H. (2006). ‘The unified theory of repression’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29: 499–551.
    Etcoff, N. (1989). ‘Asymmetries in recognition of emotion’, in F.Boller and J.Grafman (eds) Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 363–82.
    Fabes, R. A. and Martin, C. L. (1991). ‘Gender and age stereotypes of emotionality’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17 (5): 532–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167291175008
    Fineman, S. (2008). The Emotional Organization: Passions and power. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Fischer, A. H. (1993). ‘Sex differences in emotionality: Fact or stereotype?’, Feminism & Psychology, 3(3): 303–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959353593033002
    Fiske, S. T. (1993). ‘Controlling other people’, American Psychologist, 48(6): 621–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.6.621
    Foulkes, S. (1948). Introduction to Group Analytic Psychotherapy. München: Heinemann.
    Foulkes, S. H. (1971). ‘Access to unconscious processes in the group analytic group’, in Selected Papers. London: Karnac, 1990. pp. 209–22.
    Foulkes, S. H. (1971). The group as matrix of the individual's mental life. In: Selected Papers (pp. 223–34). London: Karnac, 1990.
    Frazer, M. (2010). The Enlightenment of Sympathy: Justice and the moral sentiments in the eighteenth century and today. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390667.001.0001
    Freud, S. (1895). ‘Project for a scientific psychology’. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 1966. London: Hogarth Press. pp. 335–46.
    Freud, S. (1900). ‘The interpretation of dreams’. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume IV 1966. London: Hogarth Press. pp. ix–627.
    Freud, S. (1915). ‘The unconscious’. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIV 1966. London: Hogarth Press. pp. 159–215.
    Freud, S. (1919). ‘Group psychology and the analysis of the ego’. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XVIII. 1966. London: Hogarth Press. pp. 67–143.
    Freud, S. (1923). ‘The ego and the id’, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 1966. London: Hogarth Press. pp. 1–66.
    Freud, S. (1942). Psychopathische Personen auf der Bühne. GW, Nachtragsband, 655–61.
    Frisina, P.G., Borod, J.C. and Lepore, S. J. (2004). ‘A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations’, Journal of Mental Disorders, 192(9): 629–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000138317.30764.63
    Frosh, S. and Baraitser, L. (2008). ‘Psychoanalysis and psychosocial studies’, Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 13 (4): 346–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2008.8
    Gainotti, G. (2002). ‘Neuropsychological theories of emotion’, in J.Borod (ed.) The Neuropsychology of Emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 214–36.
    Gergen, K. J. and Gergen, M. M. (1988). ‘Narrative and the self as relationship’, in L.Berkowitz (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, V. 21, New York: Academic Press. pp. 17–56.
    Gibbs, A. (2010). ‘After affect: sympathy, synchrony, and mimetic communication’, in M.Gregg and G. J.Seigworth (eds) The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 186–205.
    Gibson, J. J. (1986). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Gill, C. (2010). ‘Stoicism and epicureanism’, in P.Goldie (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gloor, P. (1986). ‘Role of the human limbic system in perception, memory, and affect: Lessons from temporal lobe epilepsy’, in B.Doane and K.Livingston (eds) The Limbic System: Functional organization and clinical disorders. New York: Raven. pp. 159–69.
    Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Penguin: Harmondsworth.
    Goffman, E. (1961). Encounters: Two studies in the sociology of interaction.
    Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behaviour. New York: Doubleday.
    Goldberg, E. (2001). The Executive Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Goodings, L. and Tucker, I. M. ‘Social media and the co-production of bodies online: Bergson, Serres and Facebook timeline’, Media, Culture & Society, 36 (1): 37–51.
    Gould, S. (1981). The Mismeasure of Man: New York: Norton.
    Greco, M. and Stenner, P. (2008). Emotions: A social science reader. London: Routledge.
    Greenberg, J. R. and Mitchell, S. A. (1983). Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gregg, M. and Seigworth, G. J. (2010). The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Griffiths, P. (1997). What Emotions Really Are. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226308760.001.0001
    Gross, D. (2006). The Secret History of Emotion: From Aristotle's rhetoric to modern brain science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226309934.001.0001
    Haaken, J. and Reavey, P. (2009). (eds) Memory Matters: Understanding Recollections of Sexual Abuse. London: Psychology Press.
    Habib, M. (2005). A History of Literary Criticism: From Plato to present. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470752142
    Hall, J. A., Carter, J. D. and Horgan, T. G. (2000). ‘Gender differences in nonverbal communication of emotion’, in A.Fischer (ed.) Gender and Emotion: Social psychological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 97–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628191.006
    Hansen, M. B. N. (2004). New Philosophy for New Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Harper, D., TuckerI. M. and Ellis, D. (2013). ‘Surveillance and subjectivity: Everyday experiences of surveillance practices’, in K.Ball and L.Snider (eds) The Surveillance-Industrial Complex: A political economy of surveillance. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 175–90.
    Harré, R., and Parrott, W. (1996). The Emotions: Social, cultural and biological dimensions. London: Sage.
    Harrison, N. A., Singer, T., Rotshtein, P., Dolan, R. J. and Critchley, H. D. (2006). ‘Pupillary contagion: central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing’, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1 (1): 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsl006
    Hartmann, G. (1935). Gestalt Psychology: A survey of facts and principles. New York: Ronald Press Company. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11497-000
    Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. and Rapson, R. (1994). Emotional Contagion: Studies in emotional interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hatfield, E., Rapson, R. and Le, Y. (2009). ‘Emotional contagion and empathy’, in J.Decety and W.Ickes (eds) The Social Neuroscience of Empathy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. pp. 19–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0003
    Hatfield, E., Sprecher, S., Pillemer, J. T., Greenberger, D. and Wexler, P. (1989). ‘Gender differences in what is desired in the sexual relationship’, Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 1 (2): 39–52.
    Held, V. (1993). Feminist Morality: Transforming culture, society, and politics: Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hellige, J. (1993). Hemispheric Asymmetry: What's right and what's left. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hemmings, C. (2005). ‘Invoking affect: cultural theory and the ontological turn’, Cultural Studies, 19 (5): 548–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502380500365473
    Henley, N. M. (1973). ‘Status and sex: Some touching observations’, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society2 (2): 91–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03327726
    Hess, U. and Philippot, P. (2010). Group Dynamics and Emotional Expression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hillman, J. (1992). Emotion: A comprehensive phenomenology of theories and their meaning for therapy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Hinshelwood, R. D. and Klein, M. (1991). A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought. London: Free Association Books.
    Hochschild, A. R. (1979). ‘Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure’, American Journal of Sociology, 85 (3): 551–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227049
    Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hochschild, A. R. (1990). ‘Ideology and emotion management: A perspective and path for future research’, in T.Kemper (ed.) Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 117–42.
    Hogan, P. (2000). Philosophical Approaches to the Study of Literature. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
    Howard, C., Tuffin, K. and Stephens, C. (2000). ‘Unspeakable emotion: A discursive analysis of police talk about reactions to trauma’, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 19 (3): 295–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X00019003002
    Hume, D. (1740/1978). A Treatise of Human Nature (T). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hume, D. (1748/1975). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (EHU). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hume, D. (1751/1975). An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (EPM). Oxford University Press.
    Izard, C. E. (1971). The Face of Emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    James, S. (2003). Passion and Action: The emotions in seventeenth-century philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    James, W. (1884). ‘What is an emotion?’, Mind, 9 (34): 188–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/os-IX.34.188
    James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover [reprint 1950]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11059-000
    Jarrett, C. (2007). Spinoza: A guide for the perplexed. London: Continuum.
    Johnson, J. T. and Shulman, G. A. (1988) ‘More alike than meets the eye: Perceived gender differences in subjective experience and its display’, Sex Roles, 19 (1), 67–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00292465
    Kant, I. (1785). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 1785 (G) trans. H.Paton 1985. London: Hutchinson University Library.
    Kant, I. (1974). Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, 1798 (APV). KGS 7:119–333. Translated by MaryGregor. The HagueMartinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2018-3
    Kant, I. (1783). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics that Will be Able to Come Forward as Science (PFM). KGS 4: Trans. P.Carus, revised by J.Ellington [1977]. Indianapolis. Hackett. pp. 255–386.
    Kant, I. (1996). Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, 1793 (RBR). KGS 6. Trans. G.di Giovanni, in Religion and Rational Theology. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, trans. and ed. A.Wood and G.di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–202.
    Kant, I. (1996). The Metaphysics of Morals, 1797 (MM). KGS 6. Trans. M.Gregor, in Practical Philosophy. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 203–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813306
    Kant, I. (1997). Lectures on Ethics (LE). KGS 27. Trans. by PeterHeath. Edited by PeterHeath and J.Schneewind. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kant, I. (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment, 1790 (CJ). KGS 5. Trans. P.Guyer and E.Matthews. Edited by PaulGuyer. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 167–484.
    Kaplan-Solms, K., and Solms, M. (2001). Clinical Studies in Neuro-psychoanalysis: Introduction to a depth neuropsychology. New York: Other Press, LLC.
    Kellenberger, J. (1980). ‘Faith and emotion’, Sophia, 19 (3): 31–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02789919
    Kehily, M. (1995). ‘Self-narration, autobiography and identity construction’, Gender and Education, 7 (1): 23–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713668459
    Kemal, Salim (2003). The Philosophical Poetics of Alfarabi, Avicenna, and Averroës. London and New York: Routledge.
    Knuuttila, S. (2004). Emotions in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199266387.001.0001
    Konstan, D. (2006). The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and classical literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Krtolica, I. (2009). ‘The question of anxiety in Gilbert Simondon’, Parrhesia, 7: 68–80.
    Laplanche, J. and Pontalis, J. B. (1988). The Language of Psycho-analysis. London: Karnac Books.
    Lasch, C. (1991). The Culture of Narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. New York: Norton Paperback.
    Layton, L. (2004). ‘A fork in the royal road: On “defining” the unconscious and its stakes for social theory’, Psychoanalysis, Culture and Society, 9: 33–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pcs.2100001
    Lazarus, R. S. and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.
    LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    LeDoux, J. (2002). Synaptic Self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.
    Lepore, S. J., Greenberg, M. A., Bruno, M. and Smyth, J. M. (2002). ‘Expressive writing and health: Self-regulation of emotion-related experience, physiology, and behaviour’, in S. J.Lepore and J. M.Smyth (eds) The Writing Cure: How Expressive Writing Promotes Health and Emotional Well-being. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10451-000
    Levant, R. F. (1996). ‘The new psychology of men’, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 3: 259–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.27.3.259
    Leventhal, H., and Tomarkin, A. J. (1986). ‘Emotion: Today's problems’, Annual Review of Psychology, 37: 565–610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.37.020186.003025
    Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of Topological Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10019-000
    Lewin, K. and Gold, M. (eds) (1999). The Complete Social Scientist: A Kurt Lewin Reader. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Ludescher, T. (1996). ‘The Islamic roots of the poetic syllogisim’, College Literature, (23) 1, 93–9.
    Lundqvist, I. (1995). ‘Facial EMG reactions to facial expressions: A case of facial emotional contagion?’Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36: 130–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.1995.tb00974.x
    Lyon, D. (ed.). (2006). Theorising Surveillance: The panopticon and beyond. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
    MacKenzie, A. (2002). Transductions: Bodies and machines at speed. London: Continuum.
    MacLean, P. D. (1990). The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. New York: Plenum Press.
    Manstead, A. S. R. (2012). ‘A history of affect and emotion research in social psychology’, in A. W.Kruglanski and W.Stroebe. (eds) Handbook of the History of Social Psychology. New York: Psychology Press. pp. 177–98.
    Manstead, A. S. R. and Wagner, H. L. (1981). ‘Arousal, cognition and emotion: An appraisal of two-factor theory’, Current Psychological Reviews, 1(1): 35–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02979253
    Massumi, B. (2002). Parables for the Virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822383574
    McDougall, W. (1908). An Introduction to Social Psychology. [33rd Edition 1960]. London: Morrison and Gibb. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12261-000
    McDougall, W. (1920). The Group Mind: A sketch of the principles of collective psychology with some attempt to apply them to the interpretation of national life and character. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11077-000
    Meads, C. and Nouwen, A. (2005). ‘Does emotional disclosure have any effects? A systematic review of the literature with meta-analyses’, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health, 21(2): 153–64.
    Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behaviour Modification: An Integrative Approach. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9739-8
    Middleton, D. J. and Brown, S. D. (2005). The Social Psychology of Experience: Studies in remembering and forgetting. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221808
    Miner, R. (2009). Thomas Aquinas on the Passions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576560
    Nicholls, M., Ellis, B., Clement, J. and Yoshino, M. (2004). ‘Detecting hemifacial asymmetries in emotional expression with three-dimensional computerised image analysis’, Proceedings of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87: 1–15.
    Nightingale, D. and Cromby, J. (1999). Social Constructionist Psychology: A critical analysis of theory and practice. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Norton, D. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hume. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521382734
    Nussbaum, M. (1986). The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Nussbaum, M. (2001). Upheavals of Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840715
    Oatley, K., Keltner, D. and Jenkins, J. M. (2006). Understanding Emotions. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Paez, D., Velasco, C. and Gonzalez, J. L. (1999). ‘Expressive writing and the role of alexithymia as a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure and psychological health’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77: 630–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.3.630
    Paivio, A. (1979). Imagery and Verbal Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Panksepp, J. (2002). ‘Foreword: The MacLean legacy and some modern trends in emotion research’, in G.Gory and R.Gardner (eds) The Evolutionary Neuroethology of Paul MacLean. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. ix–xxvii.
    Panksepp, J. (2004). Affective Neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Parker, I. (1999). Varieties of discourse and analysis. in I. Parker and the Bolton Discourse Network (eds) Critical Textwork: An introduction to varieties of discourse and analysis. Buckingham: Open University Press. pp. 1–12.
    Penelhum, T. (1993). ‘Hume's moral philosophy’, in D FNorton (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Hume. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 117–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521382734.005
    Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). ‘Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process’, Psychological Science, 8 (3): 162–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.63.5.787
    Pennebaker, J. W. and Francis, M. (1996). ‘Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure’, Cognition and Emotion, 10 (6): 601–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026999396380079
    Pennebaker, J. W., Chung, C. K., Ireland, M., Gonzales, A. and Booth, R. J. (2007). The Development and Psychometric Properties of LIWC 2007. Austin, TX: LIWC.net.
    Peplau, L. A. (2003). ‘Human sexuality’, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 (2): 37–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.114.1.29
    Petrides, K., Furnham, A. and Martin, G. N. (2004). ‘Estimates of emotional and psychometric intelligence: Evidence for gender-based stereotypes’, The Journal of Social Psychology, 144 (2): 149–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.144.2.149-162
    Pinker, S. (1997). How the Mind Works. New York: Norton.
    Pizzagalli, D., Shackman, A.J., Davidson, R.J. (2003). ‘The functional neuroimaging of human emotion: Asymmetric contributions of cortical and subcortical circuitry’, in K.Hughdal and R.J.Davidson (eds) The Asymmetrical Brain. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. pp. 511–32.
    Plant, E. A., Hyde, J. S., Keltner, D. and Devine, P. G. (2000). ‘The gender stereotyping of emotions’, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24 (1): 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288198
    Plato (1997). Phaedrus (Phae). Trans. AlexandeNehamas and PaulWoodruff. Edited by John M.Cooper. Plato: Complete Works. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.
    Plato (1997). Philebus (Phil). Trans. DoretheaFrede. Edited by John M.Cooper. Plato: Complete Works. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.
    Plato (1997). Republic (Rep). Trans. G. M. A.Grube, rev. C. D. C. Reeve. Edited by John M.Cooper. Plato: Complete Works. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.
    Plato (1997). Timeus (Tim). Trans. Donald J.Zeyl. Edited by John M.Cooper. Plato: Complete Works. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.
    Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.
    Plutchik, R., Eisenberg, N. and Strayer, J. (1987). ‘Evolutionary bases of empathy’, in N.Eisenberg and J.Strayer, Empathy and its Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–46.
    Potter, J. (1996). Representing Reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction. London: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222119
    Price, A. (2010). ‘Emotions in Plato and Aristotle’, in P.Goldie (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–42.
    Prinz, J. (2004). ‘Embodied emotion’, in R.Solomon (ed.) Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary philosophers on emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Probyn, E. (2010). ‘Writing shame’ in M.Gregg and G.Seigworth (eds) The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 71–93.
    Racle, G. (1980). ‘Civilizations of the left cerebral hemisphere?’, Journal of the Society for Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 5: 267–74.
    Racle, G. (1986). ‘Book review: The Japanese brain, uniqueness and universality, by Tadanobu Tsunoda’, Journal of the Society for Accelerated Learning and Teaching, 11: 57–9.
    Reicher, S. (2001). ‘The psychology of crowd dynamics’, in M.Hogg and S.Tindale (eds) Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Group Processes. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 182–208.
    Reicher, S. and Stott, C. (2011). Mad Mobs and Englishmen. London: Robinson.
    Reisenzein, R. (1983). ‘The Schachter theory of emotion: Two decades later’, Psychological Bulletin, 94 (2): 239–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.2.239
    Richards, B. (2004). ‘The emotional deficit in political communication’, Political Communication, 21(3), 339–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10584600490481451
    Ricoeur, P. and Savage, D. (1970). Freud and Philosophy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., and Fogassi, L. (1996). ‘Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions’, Cognitive Brain Research, 3(2): 131–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0926-6410%2895%2900038-0
    Robinson, G. J. and Sturm, H. (ed.) (1987). Emotional Effects of Media: The work of Hertha Sturm. Montreal: McGill University.
    Robinson, J. (2004). ‘Emotion: Biological fact or social construction’, in R.Solomon (ed.) Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 28–43.
    Robinson, M. D. and Johnson, J. T. (1997). ‘Is it emotion or is it stress? Gender stereotypes and the perception of subjective experience’, Sex Roles, 36(3): 235–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02766270
    Rolls, E. T. (2007). Emotion Explained. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rosch, E. (1975). ‘Cognitive representations of semantic categories’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104 (3): 192–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.104.3.192
    Rose, N. (1979). ‘The psychological complex: mental measurement and social administration’, Ideology and Consciousness, 5: 5–68.
    Rosenberg, M. (1990). ‘Reflexivity and emotions’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 53 (1): pp. 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786865
    Ruckmick, C. (1936). Psychology of Feeling and Emotion. New York: McGraw Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10770-000
    Russell, J. (1994). ‘Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expressions? A review of the cross-cultural studies’, Psychological Bulletin, 115, 1: 102–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.102
    Russell, J. and Fernandez-Dols, J. (1997). The Psychology of Facial Expression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511659911
    Sampson, T. (2012). Virality: Contagion theory in the age of networks. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.5749/minnesota/9780816670048.001.0001
    Sarbin, T. R. (1989). ‘Emotions as narrative emplotments’, in M.Packer and R.Addison (eds) Entering the Circle: Hermeneutic Investigation in Psychology. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 185–201.
    Schachter, S. and Singer, J. (1962) ‘Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state’, Psychological Review, 69 (5): 379–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046234
    Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Sclater, S., Jones, D. and Price, H. (2009). Emotion: New Psychosocial Perspectives: Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230245136
    Scott, D. (2014). Gilbert Simondon's Psychic and Collective Individuation: A critical introduction and guide. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Seigworth, G. J. (2005). ‘From affection to soul’ (ed.) in C.Stivale (ed.) Gilles Deleuze: Key Concepts. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 159–69.
    Sherman, N. (1990). ‘The place of emotions in Kantian morality’, in O.Flanagan and A.Rorty (eds) Identity, Character and Morality: Essays in Moral Psychology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. pp. 149–70.
    Shields, S. A. (2002). Speaking From the Heart: Gender and the social meaning of emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shields, S. A., Garner, D., Di Leone, B. and Hadley, A. (2006). ‘Gender and emotion’ in J.Stets and J.Turner (eds) Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions. New York: Springer. pp. 63–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30715-2_4
    Shilling, C. (1997). ‘The undersocialised conception of the embodied agent in modern sociology’, Sociology, 31 (4): 737–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038597031004006
    Simondon, G. (2009). ‘The position of the problem of ontogenesis’, Parrhesia, 7: 4–16.
    Simondon, G. (2012). Two Lessons on Animal and Man. London: Univocal Publishing.
    Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Kaube, H., Dolan, R. J. and Frith, C. D. (2004). ‘Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain’, Science, 303 (5661): 1157–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1093535
    Smyth, J.M. (1998). ‘Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1): 174–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.174
    Solomon, R. (1976). The Passions: The myth and nature of human emotion. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Sorabji, R. (2002). Emotion and Peace of Mind: From stoic agitation to Christian temptation. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256600.001.0001
    Spencer, H. (1863). ‘The physiology of laughter’, in H.Spencer, Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative, 2nd series. London: Williams and Norgate. pp. 105–19.
    Spinoza, B (1677). Ethics Including the Improvement of the Understanding. Trans. R. H. M.Elwes [1989]. New York: Prometheus Books.
    Squire, C. (2001). ‘The public life of emotions’, International Journal of Critical Psychology, 1: 27–38.
    Starkstein, S. and Robinson, R. (1991). The role of the frontal lobes in affective disorder following stroke, in H.Levin, H.Eisenberg and A.Benton (eds) Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 288–303.
    Stenner, P. (2005). ‘An outline of an autopoietic systems approach to emotion’, Cybernetics and Human Knowing, 12 (4): 8–22.
    Stets, J. E. and Turner, J. H. (2006). Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30715-2
    Stone, V. E., Nisenson, L., Eliassen, J. C. and Gazzaniga, M. S. (1996). ‘Left hemisphere representations of emotional facial expressions’, Neuropsychologia, 34 (1): 23–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932%2895%2900060-7
    Stotland, E. (1969). ‘Exploratory investigations of empathy’, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 4: 271–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601%2808%2960080-5
    Taylor, J. R. and Mbense, T. G. (1998). ‘Red dogs and rotten mealies: How Zulus talk about anger’, in A.Athanasiadou and E.Tabakowska (eds) Speaking of Emotions: Conceptualisation and expression. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. pp. 191–226.
    Timmers, M., Fischer, A. and Manstead, A. (2003). ‘Ability versus vulnerability: Beliefs about men's and women's emotional behaviour’, Cognition & Emotion, 17 (1): 41–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930302277
    Tolman, D. L. (2002). Dilemmas of Desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Tomkins, S. S. (1962). Affect Imagery Consciousness. New York: Springer.
    Toscano, A. (2006). The Theatre of Production: Philosophy and individuation between Kant and Deleuze. Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230514195
    Tucker, D. M. (1981). ‘Lateral brain function, emotion, and conceptualization’, Psychological Bulletin, 89 (1): 19–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.89.1.19
    Tucker, I.M. (2010). ‘The potentiality of bodies’, Theory & Psychology, 20 (4): 511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354309360947
    Tucker, I. M. (2013). ‘Bodies and surveillance: Simondon, information and affect’. Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 14 (1): 31–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1600910X.2013.766225
    Tucker, I. M. and Goodings, L. (2014). ‘Sensing bodies and digitally mediated distress’, Senses & Society, 9 (1): 55–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/174589314X13834112761047
    Turner, R., and Killian, L. (1987). Collective Behaviour (
    3rd edn
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Van Wagenen, W. P and HerrenR. Y. (1940). ‘Surgical division of commissural pathways in the corpus callosum: Relation to spread of an epileptic attack’, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 44 (4): 740–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1940.02280100042004
    Vygotsky, L. (1934). Thought and Language, trans. E.Hanfmann and G.Vakar: Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Walkerdine, V. (2008). ‘Contextualizing debates about psychosocial studies’, Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 13 (4): 341–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2008.31
    Watson, S. (1999). ‘Policing the affective society: Beyond governmentality in the theory of social control’, Social & Legal Studies, 8 (2): 227–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096466399900800204
    Wetherell, M (2012). Affect and Emotion: A new social science understanding. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250945
    Whitehead, A. N. (1927-8/1978). Process and Reality: An essay in cosmology. D.R.Griffen and D.W.Sherburne (eds). New York: Free Press.
    Wierzbicka, A. (1986). ‘Human emotions: Universal or culture-specific?’, American Anthropologist, 88(3): 584–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1986.88.3.02a00030
    Zillmann, D. (2010). ‘Mechanisms of emotional reactivity to media entertainments’ in K.Döveling, C.von Scheve and E.Konijn (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Emotions and Mass Media. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 101–15.
    Zimbardo, P. (1969). ‘The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos’, in W.Arnold and D.Levine (eds) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 17. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 237–307

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website