Governance in South Asia: State of the Civil Services
The book for the first time offers a comprehensive and contemporary account of the state of civil services in South Asia countries. It brings together experiences of former senior bureaucrats and critics from India and other SAARC nations to affirm the state of civil service and the need for reforms.
While there have been studies describing the character, structure and the progress of the administrative systems in South Asia, there is no comprehensive account on the region's present bureaucracy. This book attempts to bridge that gap through 15 insightful chapters by experts and experienced bureaucrats. There is a general introduction too by the editor. The chapters have been divided thematically into four parts. The first two parts discuss the present state of civil service in India ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Governance and Public Service
- Chapter 2: Constitutional Status of Civil Service in India
- Chapter 3: Civil Service Values and Neutrality
- Chapter 4: Importance of Social Security in Good Governance
- Chapter 5: Accountability in Public Service
- Chapter 6: Corruption in All India Services
- Chapter 7: Institutional Reforms in Indian Civil Service
- Chapter 8: Reinventing the Civil Servant
- Chapter 9: Comparative Study of Service Commissions in SAARC Nations: Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Maldives
- Chapter 10: The Right to Good Governance: Present Scenario and Future Lessons
- Chapter 11: Indian Revenue Service: Reflections of a Woman Bureaucrat
- Chapter 12: Indian Postal Service: A Rewarding ‘Social Service’
- Chapter 13: Functioning of Union Public Service Commission of India
- Chapter 14: Pakistan: Federal Public Service Commission and Its Functions
- Chapter 15: Functioning of Royal Bhutan Service Commission
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Governance in South Asia : state of the civil services / edited by K.S. Chalam.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Civil service—South Asia. I. Chalam, K.S. (Kurmana Simha), 1948–
JQ98.A67G68 352.6’30954—dc23 2014 2014004949
ISBN: 978-81-321-1365-2 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Shambhu Sahu, Shreya Chakraborti, Rajib Chatterjee and Rajinder Kaur
List of Illustrations[Page ix]
List of Abbreviations[Page xi]
ACC Anti-Corruption Commission ACC Appointments Committee of the Cabinet ACES Automation in Central Excise and Service Tax ACR Annual Confidential Report AEP Afghan Expatriate Programme AIS All India Services ANDS Afghanistan National Development Strategy ARC Administrative Reforms Commission ARMC Administrative Reform Monitoring Commission ASER Annual Status of Education Report ASI Assistant Sub-inspector BC Backward Classes BCS Bangladesh Civil Service BCSR Bhutan Civil Service Rules and Regulations BJP Bhartiya Janata Party BoP Balance of Payment BPL Below Poverty Line BPS Basic Pay Scale BSC Bangladesh Public Service Commission CAG Comptroller and Auditor General CAP Capacity for Afghan Public service CAS Ceylon Administrative Service CAT Central Administrative Tribunal CAT Common Admission Tests CBDT Central Board of Direct Taxes CBEC Central Board of Excise and Customs CBI Central Bureau of Investigation CBN Central Bureau of Narcotics [Page xii] CD Capacity Development CDS Capacity Development Secretariat CGST Central GST CIA Central Investigating Agency CIAA Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority CM Chief Minister CPMG Chief Post Master General CrPC Code of Criminal Procedure CSAT Civil Service Aptitude Test CSB Central Silk Board CSC Civil Service Commission CSP Civil Service of Pakistan CSS Central Secretariat Service CVC Central Vigilance Commission DA Disproportionate Assets DAC Development Assistance Committee DANICS Delhi, Andaman Nicobar Island Civil Services DDG Decentralised Distributed Generation DG Director General DGP Director General of Police DGRI Directorate General of Intelligence DGTD Directorate of Technical Development DM District Magistrate DoPT Department of Personnel and Training DPC Departmental Promotion Committee DPMD Development Policy Management Division DRI Directorate of Revenue Intelligence DSPE Act Delhi Special Police Establishment Act ECB Election commission of Bhutan ED Enforcement Directorate EDI Electronic Data Interface EG Entrepreneurial Government ESP Educational Service Index FARC First Administrative Reforms Commission FDI Foreign Direct Investment FERA Foreign Exchange Regulation Act FPSC Federal Public Service Commission [Page xiii] GAR General Administrative Reserve GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP Gross Domestic Product GDS Gram Dak Sevak GNH Gross National Happiness GRP Gross Rating Point GST Goods and Services Tax HAG Higher Administrative Grade HDI Human Development Index HIS Health Service Index HR Human Resource HRA House Rent Allowance HRD Human Resource Development HRM Human Resource Management HSN Harmonised Systems of Nomenclature IARCSC Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission IAS Indian Administrative Service IB Intelligence Bureau ICS Indian Civil Service ICS Imperial Custom Service ICT Information and Communication Technologies IDLG Independent Directorate of Local Governance IFoS Indian Forest Service IFS Indian Foreign Service IGP Inspector General of Police IIM Indian Institute of Management IIPA International Intellectual Property Alliance ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IMR Infant Mortality Rate IPoS Indian Postal Service IPS Indian Police Service IPSC Indian Public Service Commission IRS Indian Revenue Service IRTS Indian Railway Traffic Service IT Income Tax [Page xiv] J&K Jammu and Kashmir JRY Jawahar Rozgar Yojana LBSNAA Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration LEP Lateral Entry Programme LIC Life Insurance Corporation MBPA Market Based Public Administration MCA Ministry of Company Affairs MCP Management Capacity Program MCQ Multiple Choice Questions MGEP Mainstreaming Gender Equity Programme MLA Member of Legislative Assembly MNC Multinational Company MGNREGS Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme MoE Ministry of Establishment MoGA Ministry of General Administration MoU Memorandum of Understanding MoWCSW Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare MSY Mahila Samrudhi Yojana NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NACEN National Academy of Customs, Central Excise and Narcotics NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NCERT National Council of Educational Research and Training NCP–M Nepal Communist Party–Maoist NGO Non-government Organization NPA New Public Administration NPM New Public Management NREP National Rural Employment Programme OBCs Other Backward Classes ODA Official Development Assistance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PAR Public Administration Reform [Page xv] PAS Pakistan Administrative Service PC Act Prevention of Corruption Act PDS Public Distribution System PFS Pakistan Foreign Service PIL Public Interest Litigation PLA Personal Ledger Account PM Prime Minister PPS Pakistan Police Service PPSC Pakistan Public Service Commission PSC Public Service Commission PSD Public Service Division PSEs Public Sector Enterprises PT Personality Test RAA Royal audit authority RAW Research and Analysis Wing RCSC Royal Civil Service Commission RGoB Royal Government of Bhutan RTI Right to Information Act SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAFEMFOPA Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators Forfeiture of Property Act SAG Senior Administrative Grade SAP Structural Adjustment Program SARC Second Administrative Reforms Commission SC Scheduled Caste SEBI Securities and Exchange Board of India SGST State GST SLAS Sri Lanka Administrative Service SP Superintendent of Police SVPNPA Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy SRB Special Recruitment Board SRO Self-Regulatory Organisation SRP Self-Removal Procedure ST Scheduled Tribe TFC Thirteenth Finance Commission UGC University Grants Commission [Page xvi] UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UPSC Union Public Service Commission VAT Value Added Tax VPP Value Payable Post WTO World Trade Organization
Bureaucracy in India has slowly attained the status of a Civil Service System like any other structure in an organised state. It has acquired and developed several institutions to replace the old structure of bureaucracy with modern institutions to make it more functional in a changing economy and society. There were many studies describing the character, structure and the progress of the system in India. There are also some autobiographical accounts about the system by retired bureaucrats. But, there seems to be limited literature on the system in the present context of numerous reforms both in administration and in economy connecting with the present status and exigencies of the civil service in India to meet the objectives of accountability, neutrality etc.
The Indian subcontinent was once under the umbrella of British administration. There are now about half a dozen independent sovereign states in the region after 1947. Each one of the countries has adapted the system to its changing ethos and vision. We do not have a comprehensive study on the region's present civil service systems. Therefore, a need was felt when the delegates of the national service commissions of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region met for the first time at the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), New Delhi, in 2010. I had the opportunity to officially represent India in the conference and interact with my colleagues. I have mooted the idea of bringing out an edited volume incorporating the present status of Indian Civil Service (ICS) along with the status of service commissions in the region. I have received a very good response to my proposal.
I have entered the UPSC, New Delhi, as Member, from an academic background after serving as a professor of Economics and vice chancellor. I was studying the system as an academic ever since I joined the Commission and collected material from the Commission's library, including the articles published in reports and souvenirs of the [Page xviii]Commission. I sent a letter in my personal capacity to all our former and serving colleagues, including the chairman, UPSC, and some identified senior civil servants and academics to contribute to the volume. I received very encouraging support from every one of them. Similarly, most of the chairmen of the national service commissions of SAARC responded to my request and contributed papers. I thank Dr Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Vice President of India, who has permitted me to make use of his UPSC lecture to be part of this volume (on the dais that I shared with him on the occasion). I take this opportunity to thank Justice Rana Bhagwandas of Pakistan, Dr Pirthiman Pradhan, Commissioner of Royal Bhutan Civil Service Commission, for specially contributing to the volume. Dr B.K. Chaturvedi, Dr Bhure Lal, Dr N. Vittal, Ms Parveen Talha, Ms Humera Ahmed, Professor P.K. Saxena, Professor T.S.N.N. Sastry and Dr D. Francis were requested to make special contributions to the volume; Dr Madhav Godbole has permitted me to make use of his published paper. I express my sincere thanks to all of them for obliging to my request. I am grateful to Professor D.P. Aggarwal, Chairman, UPSC, and all the members of the Commission during 2005–11 for providing me with excellent cooperation, inputs and encouragement in the completion of this volume. I have tried to avoid as far as possible the recurrence of ideas in the contributions as they are written by senior officers at different points of time.
I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the authors for their contributions. I acknowledge the help received from my friend Professor I. Ramabrhmam in identifying the topics for the volume. Mr Rajkumar, my personal staff, and Anil, my younger son, have typed the manuscript for publication. I convey my sincere thanks to all of them.
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About the Editor and Contributors[Page 280]Editor
K.S. Chalam is a well-known political economist and educationist, and a former member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), New Delhi. He has been the Vice Chancellor of the Dravidian University in Andhra Pradesh and had taught in the Department of Economics, Andhra University, between 1976 and 2005. He is known as the founder of the Academic Staff College Scheme in the country and was its first director.
Dr Chalam was on the Planning Board of the Madhya Pradesh government during 2002–04. He was the recipient of the UGC Young Social Scientist Award in Economics in 1984. Author of Caste-Based Reservations and Human Development in India (2007, SAGE) and Economic Reforms and Social Exclusion (2011, SAGE), he has travelled widely and has participated in and chaired sessions at various international conferences.
Currently, Dr Chalam is associated with National Human Rights Commission, New Delhi, as a Special Rapporteur.Contributors
Humera Ahmed is the Director General (DG) of West Bengal, Department of Posts, Government of India. Ahmed is an Indian Postal Service officer. She has earlier worked as the DG of Gujarat and Mumbai. A creative writer, she has published short stories in reputed weeklies and published papers on postal service in India.
Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the current Vice President of India. He is a former diplomat from the Indian Foreign Service. He was Vice Chancellor [Page 281]of Aligarh Muslim University and has been the Indian ambassador to United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Australia. He is a voracious reader and has published two books on Iran: Traveling through Conflict: Essays on the Politics of West Asia (authored, 2008) and Iran Today: Twenty Five Years after the Islamic Revolution (edited, 2005). He was awarded Padma Shri in 1984.
Sekhar Chandra is a young professional at the Planning Commission, Government of India. Chandra has been working under B.K. Chaturvedi on several research projects.
B.K. Chaturvedi is a Member of the Planning Commission, Government of India. He is a 1966 batch Indian Administrative Service officer and a former cabinet secretary. He has served as secretary in several important departments, such as HRD, Public Enterprises, and has published papers in the area of public service.
Justice Rana Bhagwandas, Chairman, Pakistan Public Service Commission, is former chief justice of Pakistan during the judicial crisis in 2007. After demitting office as chief justice, he was offered the chairman of Federal Pakistan Service Commission and in that capacity had visited India to participate in a SAARC meeting.
D. Francis is associated with the Department of Economics, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, and has been teaching quantitative methods in the department. He received his PhD on Human Development in 1990, and has published papers in reputed journals.
Madhav Godbole is former Secretary Home, Government of India, during the P.V. Narasimha Rao government. Godbole handled the Ayodhya dispute of 1992. He is the author of the book Unfinished Innings: Reflections of a Civil Servant, published in 1996.
Bhure Lal is currently assisting the Supreme Court of India on environmental issues. A doctorate in economics, Lal is a former member of the UPSC. He investigated the Bofors scam as the chief of the Enforcement [Page 282]Directorate. Lal is also known for his path-breaking initiative of introducing the cleaner CNG fuel in Delhi. He is the author of two published books and has delivered lectures at different forums.
Pirthiman Pradhan is a Member of Royal Civil Service Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan. He has participated and represented the Royal Bhutan Service Commission along with the chairman in the meeting of the Heads of Service Commissions held in New Delhi. He has published papers on public service.
T.S.N. Sastry is a Professor and Head of Department of Law at University of Pune, Maharashtra. He specialises in the area of good governance and social security, and has several research projects related to human rights and public service to his credit.
P.K. Saxena is a Professor of Public Administration, Rajasthan University, Jaipur. Saxena is an expert in the area of New Public Management. He is currently undertaking a research project on ‘Power Sector Reforms in India’ and has published widely in this area.
Parveen Talha taught in the Lucknow University from 1965 to 1969, before joining the Indian Revenue Service in 1969—the first ever Muslim woman to enter any Class I civil service through the civil services examination. She was the deputy narcotics commissioner of Uttar Pradesh, and remains till now the only woman officer to have worked in Central Bureau of Narcotics. She won the President's award in 2000 for distinguished record of service. She has also been a member of the UPSC. Talha is also a writer and has published short stories based on which a Hindi serial was televised.
N. Vittal is former Central Vigilance Commissioner of India from the 1960 IAS batch. He served as the chairman of Public Enterprises Selection Board and as secretary of the Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India. He has published books on information technology, red tapism and Indian bureaucracy.