Governance in South Asia: State of the Civil Services


Edited by: K. S. Chalam

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Illustrations

    • 6.1 Pendency of Cases with CBI 99
    • 10.1 Governance Issues in States in Health Sector 201
    • 10.2 Performance of States in Health Sector 202
    • 10.3 Governance Issues in States in Primary Education Sector 204
    • 10.4 Performance of States in Education Sector 205
    • 15.1 Organisation Structure of the RCSC 264
    • 15.2 Civil Service Structure 265
    • 15.3 Civil Service Staffing Trend 266
    • 15.4 Civil Servants by Gender 266
    • 15.5 Civil Servants by Position Category 267

    List of Abbreviations

    ACCAnti-Corruption Commission
    ACCAppointments Committee of the Cabinet
    ACESAutomation in Central Excise and Service Tax
    ACRAnnual Confidential Report
    AEPAfghan Expatriate Programme
    AISAll India Services
    ANDSAfghanistan National Development Strategy
    ARCAdministrative Reforms Commission
    ARMCAdministrative Reform Monitoring Commission
    ASERAnnual Status of Education Report
    ASIAssistant Sub-inspector
    BCBackward Classes
    BCSBangladesh Civil Service
    BCSRBhutan Civil Service Rules and Regulations
    BJPBhartiya Janata Party
    BoPBalance of Payment
    BPLBelow Poverty Line
    BPSBasic Pay Scale
    BSCBangladesh Public Service Commission
    CAGComptroller and Auditor General
    CAPCapacity for Afghan Public service
    CASCeylon Administrative Service
    CATCentral Administrative Tribunal
    CATCommon Admission Tests
    CBDTCentral Board of Direct Taxes
    CBECCentral Board of Excise and Customs
    CBICentral Bureau of Investigation
    CBNCentral Bureau of Narcotics
    CDCapacity Development
    CDSCapacity Development Secretariat
    CGSTCentral GST
    CIACentral Investigating Agency
    CIAACommission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority
    CMChief Minister
    CPMGChief Post Master General
    CrPCCode of Criminal Procedure
    CSATCivil Service Aptitude Test
    CSBCentral Silk Board
    CSCCivil Service Commission
    CSPCivil Service of Pakistan
    CSSCentral Secretariat Service
    CVCCentral Vigilance Commission
    DADisproportionate Assets
    DACDevelopment Assistance Committee
    DANICSDelhi, Andaman Nicobar Island Civil Services
    DDGDecentralised Distributed Generation
    DGDirector General
    DGPDirector General of Police
    DGRIDirectorate General of Intelligence
    DGTDDirectorate of Technical Development
    DMDistrict Magistrate
    DoPTDepartment of Personnel and Training
    DPCDepartmental Promotion Committee
    DPMDDevelopment Policy Management Division
    DRIDirectorate of Revenue Intelligence
    DSPEAct Delhi Special Police Establishment Act
    ECBElection commission of Bhutan
    EDEnforcement Directorate
    EDIElectronic Data Interface
    EGEntrepreneurial Government
    ESPEducational Service Index
    FARCFirst Administrative Reforms Commission
    FDIForeign Direct Investment
    FERAForeign Exchange Regulation Act
    FPSCFederal Public Service Commission
    GARGeneral Administrative Reserve
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GDSGram Dak Sevak
    GNHGross National Happiness
    GRPGross Rating Point
    GSTGoods and Services Tax
    HAGHigher Administrative Grade
    HDIHuman Development Index
    HISHealth Service Index
    HRHuman Resource
    HRAHouse Rent Allowance
    HRDHuman Resource Development
    HRMHuman Resource Management
    HSNHarmonised Systems of Nomenclature
    IARCSCIndependent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission
    IASIndian Administrative Service
    IBIntelligence Bureau
    ICSIndian Civil Service
    ICSImperial Custom Service
    ICTInformation and Communication Technologies
    IDLGIndependent Directorate of Local Governance
    IFoSIndian Forest Service
    IFSIndian Foreign Service
    IGPInspector General of Police
    IIMIndian Institute of Management
    IIPAInternational Intellectual Property Alliance
    ILOInternational Labour Organization
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    IMRInfant Mortality Rate
    IPoSIndian Postal Service
    IPSIndian Police Service
    IPSCIndian Public Service Commission
    IRSIndian Revenue Service
    IRTSIndian Railway Traffic Service
    ITIncome Tax
    J&KJammu and Kashmir
    JRYJawahar Rozgar Yojana
    LBSNAALal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration
    LEPLateral Entry Programme
    LICLife Insurance Corporation
    MBPAMarket Based Public Administration
    MCAMinistry of Company Affairs
    MCPManagement Capacity Program
    MCQMultiple Choice Questions
    MGEPMainstreaming Gender Equity Programme
    MLAMember of Legislative Assembly
    MNCMultinational Company
    MGNREGSMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
    MoEMinistry of Establishment
    MoGAMinistry of General Administration
    MoUMemorandum of Understanding
    MoWCSWMinistry of Women, Children and Social Welfare
    MSYMahila Samrudhi Yojana
    NABARDNational Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
    NACENNational Academy of Customs, Central Excise and Narcotics
    NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
    NCERTNational Council of Educational Research and Training
    NCP–MNepal Communist Party–Maoist
    NGONon-government Organization
    NPANew Public Administration
    NPMNew Public Management
    NREPNational Rural Employment Programme
    OBCsOther Backward Classes
    ODAOfficial Development Assistance
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    PARPublic Administration Reform
    PASPakistan Administrative Service
    PC ActPrevention of Corruption Act
    PDSPublic Distribution System
    PFSPakistan Foreign Service
    PILPublic Interest Litigation
    PLAPersonal Ledger Account
    PMPrime Minister
    PPSPakistan Police Service
    PPSCPakistan Public Service Commission
    PSCPublic Service Commission
    PSDPublic Service Division
    PSEsPublic Sector Enterprises
    PTPersonality Test
    RAARoyal audit authority
    RAWResearch and Analysis Wing
    RCSCRoyal Civil Service Commission
    RGoBRoyal Government of Bhutan
    RTIRight to Information Act
    SAARCSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
    SAFEMFOPASmugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators Forfeiture of Property Act
    SAGSenior Administrative Grade
    SAPStructural Adjustment Program
    SARCSecond Administrative Reforms Commission
    SCScheduled Caste
    SEBISecurities and Exchange Board of India
    SGSTState GST
    SLASSri Lanka Administrative Service
    SPSuperintendent of Police
    SVPNPASardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy
    SRBSpecial Recruitment Board
    SROSelf-Regulatory Organisation
    SRPSelf-Removal Procedure
    STScheduled Tribe
    TFCThirteenth Finance Commission
    UGCUniversity Grants Commission
    UNCTADUnited Nations Conference on Trade and Development
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund
    UPSCUnion Public Service Commission
    VATValue Added Tax
    VPPValue Payable Post
    WTOWorld Trade Organization


    Bureaucracy in India has slowly attained the status of a Civil Service System like any other structure in an organised state. It has acquired and developed several institutions to replace the old structure of bureaucracy with modern institutions to make it more functional in a changing economy and society. There were many studies describing the character, structure and the progress of the system in India. There are also some autobiographical accounts about the system by retired bureaucrats. But, there seems to be limited literature on the system in the present context of numerous reforms both in administration and in economy connecting with the present status and exigencies of the civil service in India to meet the objectives of accountability, neutrality etc.

    The Indian subcontinent was once under the umbrella of British administration. There are now about half a dozen independent sovereign states in the region after 1947. Each one of the countries has adapted the system to its changing ethos and vision. We do not have a comprehensive study on the region's present civil service systems. Therefore, a need was felt when the delegates of the national service commissions of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region met for the first time at the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), New Delhi, in 2010. I had the opportunity to officially represent India in the conference and interact with my colleagues. I have mooted the idea of bringing out an edited volume incorporating the present status of Indian Civil Service (ICS) along with the status of service commissions in the region. I have received a very good response to my proposal.

    I have entered the UPSC, New Delhi, as Member, from an academic background after serving as a professor of Economics and vice chancellor. I was studying the system as an academic ever since I joined the Commission and collected material from the Commission's library, including the articles published in reports and souvenirs of the Commission. I sent a letter in my personal capacity to all our former and serving colleagues, including the chairman, UPSC, and some identified senior civil servants and academics to contribute to the volume. I received very encouraging support from every one of them. Similarly, most of the chairmen of the national service commissions of SAARC responded to my request and contributed papers. I thank Dr Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Vice President of India, who has permitted me to make use of his UPSC lecture to be part of this volume (on the dais that I shared with him on the occasion). I take this opportunity to thank Justice Rana Bhagwandas of Pakistan, Dr Pirthiman Pradhan, Commissioner of Royal Bhutan Civil Service Commission, for specially contributing to the volume. Dr B.K. Chaturvedi, Dr Bhure Lal, Dr N. Vittal, Ms Parveen Talha, Ms Humera Ahmed, Professor P.K. Saxena, Professor T.S.N.N. Sastry and Dr D. Francis were requested to make special contributions to the volume; Dr Madhav Godbole has permitted me to make use of his published paper. I express my sincere thanks to all of them for obliging to my request. I am grateful to Professor D.P. Aggarwal, Chairman, UPSC, and all the members of the Commission during 2005–11 for providing me with excellent cooperation, inputs and encouragement in the completion of this volume. I have tried to avoid as far as possible the recurrence of ideas in the contributions as they are written by senior officers at different points of time.

    I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the authors for their contributions. I acknowledge the help received from my friend Professor I. Ramabrhmam in identifying the topics for the volume. Mr Rajkumar, my personal staff, and Anil, my younger son, have typed the manuscript for publication. I convey my sincere thanks to all of them.

    K.S.Chalam, New Delhi
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    About the Editor and Contributors


    K.S. Chalam is a well-known political economist and educationist, and a former member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), New Delhi. He has been the Vice Chancellor of the Dravidian University in Andhra Pradesh and had taught in the Department of Economics, Andhra University, between 1976 and 2005. He is known as the founder of the Academic Staff College Scheme in the country and was its first director.

    Dr Chalam was on the Planning Board of the Madhya Pradesh government during 2002–04. He was the recipient of the UGC Young Social Scientist Award in Economics in 1984. Author of Caste-Based Reservations and Human Development in India (2007, SAGE) and Economic Reforms and Social Exclusion (2011, SAGE), he has travelled widely and has participated in and chaired sessions at various international conferences.

    Currently, Dr Chalam is associated with National Human Rights Commission, New Delhi, as a Special Rapporteur.


    Humera Ahmed is the Director General (DG) of West Bengal, Department of Posts, Government of India. Ahmed is an Indian Postal Service officer. She has earlier worked as the DG of Gujarat and Mumbai. A creative writer, she has published short stories in reputed weeklies and published papers on postal service in India.

    Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the current Vice President of India. He is a former diplomat from the Indian Foreign Service. He was Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University and has been the Indian ambassador to United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Australia. He is a voracious reader and has published two books on Iran: Traveling through Conflict: Essays on the Politics of West Asia (authored, 2008) and Iran Today: Twenty Five Years after the Islamic Revolution (edited, 2005). He was awarded Padma Shri in 1984.

    Sekhar Chandra is a young professional at the Planning Commission, Government of India. Chandra has been working under B.K. Chaturvedi on several research projects.

    B.K. Chaturvedi is a Member of the Planning Commission, Government of India. He is a 1966 batch Indian Administrative Service officer and a former cabinet secretary. He has served as secretary in several important departments, such as HRD, Public Enterprises, and has published papers in the area of public service.

    Justice Rana Bhagwandas, Chairman, Pakistan Public Service Commission, is former chief justice of Pakistan during the judicial crisis in 2007. After demitting office as chief justice, he was offered the chairman of Federal Pakistan Service Commission and in that capacity had visited India to participate in a SAARC meeting.

    D. Francis is associated with the Department of Economics, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, and has been teaching quantitative methods in the department. He received his PhD on Human Development in 1990, and has published papers in reputed journals.

    Madhav Godbole is former Secretary Home, Government of India, during the P.V. Narasimha Rao government. Godbole handled the Ayodhya dispute of 1992. He is the author of the book Unfinished Innings: Reflections of a Civil Servant, published in 1996.

    Bhure Lal is currently assisting the Supreme Court of India on environmental issues. A doctorate in economics, Lal is a former member of the UPSC. He investigated the Bofors scam as the chief of the Enforcement Directorate. Lal is also known for his path-breaking initiative of introducing the cleaner CNG fuel in Delhi. He is the author of two published books and has delivered lectures at different forums.

    Pirthiman Pradhan is a Member of Royal Civil Service Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan. He has participated and represented the Royal Bhutan Service Commission along with the chairman in the meeting of the Heads of Service Commissions held in New Delhi. He has published papers on public service.

    T.S.N. Sastry is a Professor and Head of Department of Law at University of Pune, Maharashtra. He specialises in the area of good governance and social security, and has several research projects related to human rights and public service to his credit.

    P.K. Saxena is a Professor of Public Administration, Rajasthan University, Jaipur. Saxena is an expert in the area of New Public Management. He is currently undertaking a research project on ‘Power Sector Reforms in India’ and has published widely in this area.

    Parveen Talha taught in the Lucknow University from 1965 to 1969, before joining the Indian Revenue Service in 1969—the first ever Muslim woman to enter any Class I civil service through the civil services examination. She was the deputy narcotics commissioner of Uttar Pradesh, and remains till now the only woman officer to have worked in Central Bureau of Narcotics. She won the President's award in 2000 for distinguished record of service. She has also been a member of the UPSC. Talha is also a writer and has published short stories based on which a Hindi serial was televised.

    N. Vittal is former Central Vigilance Commissioner of India from the 1960 IAS batch. He served as the chairman of Public Enterprises Selection Board and as secretary of the Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India. He has published books on information technology, red tapism and Indian bureaucracy.

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