Policy and History: Defining Homeland Security

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    • 00:00

      [Homeland Security options and history:How have responses to similar acts changed over time?]

    • 00:09

      GUS MARTIN: The question comes upabout how we responded to homeland security challengesthroughout our history. [Gus Martin, California StateUniversity] Homeland Security is a new concept, a new phrase.But there have been situations, domestically,when we have had to respond at the federal level,nationally, to certain emergencies, perceivedemergencies.

    • 00:29

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: And just going back to the three "Red Scares,"they're an excellent case study of how the nation has respondedto perceived threats and how sometimes those responses havegone beyond what we might consider constitutional means.For example, the first "Red Scare"was a response to a true threat.There were bombs going off and also

    • 00:49

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: extremists advocating insurgencies.These were communists and anarchists at the time.The other "Red Scares" were more of a perceptionthan actual threats, but we still had a national response.And we began monitoring people, began following people,and blacklisting people.For example, Senator Jo McCarthy ruined a number of careers.

    • 01:10

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: But again, at the time, this was considered to be necessary.If you move more toward the present time,during the protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s,we had some political diversions, some polarization.And what happened was local and federalauthorities would occasionally monitor people, follow them,

    • 01:33

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: and there were actually agent provocateursin some of these meetings with the radical groups.As we know later, some of those measureswere actually unconstitutional, illegal,and they actually lost lawsuits that came out of that.But again, at the time, it was consideredto be absolutely necessary.In the modern era, in the era of the new terrorism,

    • 01:55

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: fear drove much of what we did after 9/11.We did actually redefine what a prisoneris-- prisoner of war is.We detained roughly 900 people domestically, based on,essentially, an ethnic profile of beingMiddle Eastern male between certain ages, without charge.

    • 02:16

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: But again, considered to be absolutely necessary.And the warning here is that, yes,there's a pattern here throughout history.Even Western democracies can respond a certain way.And at the time it's necessary, but in hindsight, the questionis whether it is something that we want to do in the future,because of the possible problems with civil liberties, problems

    • 02:37

      GUS MARTIN [continued]: with constitutional issues.And again, people sue later, and sometimes they win.So that is just a warning that, yes, we do this cyclically,but we have to be very vigilant about how we do itand what we do.

Policy and History: Defining Homeland Security

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Abstract

Professor Clarence Martin discusses homeland security challenges and threat perception. Martin discusses the history of homeland security, the response after September 11, and the challenges to civil liberties that are sometimes present in the response.

Policy and History: Defining Homeland Security

Professor Clarence Martin discusses homeland security challenges and threat perception. Martin discusses the history of homeland security, the response after September 11, and the challenges to civil liberties that are sometimes present in the response.

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