Nelson Mandela: One Man

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    • 00:00


    • 01:16

      NARRATOR: It was a long dark night and a long lonely walk,but Nelson Mandela was a brave man, patient too.He knew that the darkness must eventually passand then would come a new dawn.

    • 01:46

      NARRATOR [continued]: For decades, South Africa was a stricken country,ravaged by racism and fractured by apartheid.Resentment festered amongst her people,and the nation went into isolation.The healing of South Africa was never going to be easy.It continues today in a delicate and difficult processbegun by Nelson Mandela.

    • 02:07

      NARRATOR [continued]: It was this man who injected his countrywith the spirit of freedom, tolerance, and justice.And it was this one man who gave hope to the nationand to the world.

    • 02:41

      NARRATOR [continued]: South Africa's story is largely one of clashing cultures.Early inhabitants were tribal peoplewho farmed crops and herded livestock.They established villages, appointed leaders or kings,and led generally peaceful lives.All that changed in the mid 1600swhen Africa's southern tip became a vital part

    • 03:01

      NARRATOR [continued]: of the trade routes.The area was soon settled by white people, mainly Dutchas well as German.They called themselves Afrikanersand developed their own hybrid language.Some also brought their own colored slaveswhose mixed race descendants were to become the nation'scoloreds.In the early 1800s, the British seized control,

    • 03:24

      NARRATOR [continued]: and settlement grew rapidly.There were now two very different white cultureswithin South Africa, the Afrikaners whowere predominantly farmers, or boers in their language,and the British settlers who dominated them.The fiercely independent Afrikaners resented the Britishand grew increasingly nationalistic and conservative.

    • 03:49

      NARRATOR [continued]: They were also contemptuous of the blacks, seizing their landand enslaving the people.It was their deeply entrenched viewthat the blacks were an inferior race, a view thatheld sway for many years in South Africaand drove the nation's politics through muchof the 20th century.[NON-ENGLISH SPEECH]

    • 04:20

      NARRATOR [continued]: On July 18, 1918, the Germans limped towards defeatin the First World War, South Africacontinued its relentless marched down the road to apartheid,and a new baby slipped quietly into the world.It was a humble beginning, born in a hutin the picturesque but poor rural village of Mvezo.

    • 04:44

      NARRATOR [continued]: The baby's family name was Mandela, his given nameRolihlahla, meaning pulling the branch of a treeor troublemaker.The aptly named child had an interesting lineage.His great grandfather had ruled as king of the Thembu dynasty.And his father, a lesser royal, was tribal chief.

    • 05:05

      NARRATOR [continued]: The colonial authorities finding the chief in subordinate,stripped him of his position and much of his property.And the family was forced to movewhen the Mandela baby was 1.Perhaps the father recognized something specialin his young son, sending him to the local Methodistmissionary school, the first in the family to attend school.

    • 05:27

      NARRATOR [continued]: It was a very British school.And its principal was blind to any existenceof African culture.On Mandela's first day, his teachergave him the distinctly English namethat would stick for life--he became Nelson Mandela.When Mandela was 9, his father died,and he went to live with his uncle, the acting

    • 05:48

      NARRATOR [continued]: king, who took a consensual approach to rule.The elders told him tales of a brave and noble people.And the young boy was deeply inspired.Completing secondary school and the customary tribalinitiation, Mandela began an arts degreeat the University College of Fort Hare.Here, he met his lifelong friend Oliver Tambo,

    • 06:10

      NARRATOR [continued]: with whom he became active in student politics.Both were expelled for joining in a protest boycott.Back home, his stay was brief.His uncle had arranged a marriage for his own sonand for Mandela, and neither young man liked the idea.They took off, heading to Johannesburgwhere Mandela got work as a policeman in the mines.

    • 06:33

      NARRATOR [continued]: The experience was a shocking wakeup call for Mandela, who had been relatively shelteredfrom the cruelty of racism.Now, he saw the terrible misery and despairof South Africa's black people.For them, life was a daily grind with not the faintestglimmer of hope.Paid a pittance doing only the worst jobs,they lived and worked in squalor, a cheap labor

    • 06:56

      NARRATOR [continued]: source for white employers who ruthlessly exploited them.Appalled, Mandela determined to do whathe could to bring about change.He completed his arts degree by correspondenceand became an article clerk at a legal firm.He began studying law at the University of Witwatersrand,

    • 07:16

      NARRATOR [continued]: where he was exposed to radical thinkingand a range of black politics.It was here also that he met members of the African NationalCongress, or ANC, a pro-black rights democracy movement.In 1944, he joined the ANC and entered politics in earnest.The timing was spot on.

    • 07:38

      NARRATOR [continued]: Treatment of South Africa's blackshad been appalling since whites first landed.But early in the 20th century, there was a fundamental shiftas conservatism grew.Now racism ceased to be an individual attitude,it was enshrined in law.Harsh segregation and land legislationensured it became the status quo.

    • 07:60

      NARRATOR [continued]: For many blacks, life was a series of indignities.White children had more independencethan mature black adults, who needed a pass in orderto move around.Transport was segregated, so were schools, beaches,even park benches and toilets.Blacks had no voting rights and were shunted out

    • 08:20

      NARRATOR [continued]: from the cities to rural outposts away from the whites.This forcible removal enabled the minority whitesto own over 90% of the land.Not all whites, however, approved of segregationand spoke against it but to little effect.There were also other differenceswithin the white population.

    • 08:41

      NARRATOR [continued]: The Afrikaners were proud of their heritageand resented British rule.Many felt a strong allegiance to Germany.And during the Second World War, Nazi sympathizersin South Africa committed acts of sabotageagainst the Allied war effort.Ironically, some of these later became government memberswho used treason laws to prosecute

    • 09:02

      NARRATOR [continued]: peaceful black protesters.The war, if anything, strengthenedconservative thought, pushing it into the mainstream.White people, increasingly desensitized to the crueltyaround them, were slipping into blind acceptanceof an unjust immoral society.

    • 09:24

      NARRATOR [continued]: This was the dangerous murky water into which Nelson Mandelawas about to plunge.To date, the ANC had sought changewith pretty much a cap in hand approach to the governmentbut always met contempt.Now, with an extreme form of Afrikaner nationalismon the rise, there was no hope of any meaningful dialogue.

    • 09:46

      NARRATOR [continued]: Nelson Mandela and other young ANC membersurged stronger tactics and formed a youth leagueto take the freedom campaign to the grassroots, the ordinary people who had all but given up.They planned a program of peaceful resistance,demonstrations, boycotts and strikesto initiate desperately needed change

    • 10:07

      NARRATOR [continued]: as never before had black rights been quite so wrong.The 1948 election result was a significant winfor the conservative cause as it was chieflya vote for apartheid.The new premier, Dr. Mallon, was a hardliner determinedto fix the race problem.With this worrisome situation, the ANC

    • 10:30

      NARRATOR [continued]: turned to its expanding youth leagueand its dynamic president, Mandela,endorsing its program of action as official ANC policy.By now, Mandela had married Evelyn Mase.At this stage, only two of their four children were born.The three room house had no power, only an outside toilet,

    • 10:51

      NARRATOR [continued]: but did have one positive.It was near a gymnasium where Mandelacould pursue his love of boxing, providing some balanceto a hectic lifestyle.Then personal tragedy struck with the deathof their young baby girl, only 9 months old.

    • 11:11

      NARRATOR [continued]: Through it all, he pushed on, completing his law degreeand working with the ANC to tap into a resourceessential to the success of their campaign,South Africa's workers.The workforce was, in truth, a force to be reckoned with.Cities like Johannesburg had grown dramaticallyin a relatively short time.

    • 11:32

      NARRATOR [continued]: New industries drew large numbers of white workers,as well as blacks who filled the poverty line jobs on whichcompany profits relied.Trade unions popped up like mushrooms in these fieldsof shattered dreams.The Communist Party had already harnessedsome of this union power and now beganits own campaign of strikes.

    • 11:53

      NARRATOR [continued]: The government cracked down hard,unleashing the police, who indulged in ferocious attackson the blacks.One stay away saw 18 people killed by police.And Mandela himself was forced to shelter from bullets.Undeterred, the Youth League organized another striketogether with the Indian Congress, a group mentored

    • 12:15

      NARRATOR [continued]: by Mahatma Gandhi.The strike was well supported, and the two bodiesbegan planning and ongoing defianceof unjust laws campaign.While canvassing support, Mandela was arrested and serveda brief imprisonment.The defiance campaign struck a nervewith the exploited workers, and a series of riots broke out.

    • 12:36

      NARRATOR [continued]: Thousands of arrests were made across the country.And 52 people, including Nelson Mandela,were banned from attending public gatherings.Arrested again soon after, he wasone of 20 charged under the sweeping Suppressionof Communism Act.They were all found guilty.But as they had consistently preachednon-violence to their followers, the sentences were suspended.

    • 13:00

      NARRATOR [continued]: For the next six months, Mandela was confined to Johannesburgand during this time began a legal practicewith Oliver Tambo, the first black law firm in South Africa.Despite official attempts to shut them down,the pair hung on.Blacks who would otherwise have no representation at lawreceived free or affordable services from the firm--

    • 13:23

      NARRATOR [continued]: a vital lifeline for those on the slippery slopeto unjust imprisonment.The strikes, riots, and trials had pushed the black issueto the front pages in South Africa and increasinglyoverseas.There were many whites who loathedtheir nation's repressive race laws and protested vigorously.But their voices were easily swept away

    • 13:45

      NARRATOR [continued]: by the tsunami of conservatism thathad built up within South Africa's parliament.The ANC, well aware the government would soonmove against it, instructed Mandela to plan awayfor the organization to continue as an underground movement.His M-Plan prepared for a secret network of cellsso that leadership could get word of planned protests

    • 14:07

      NARRATOR [continued]: and stay-aways to ordinary people.Mandela was also instrumental in the formationof the Multiracial Congress of the Peopleand the development of its Freedom Charter,today considered a model document for human rights.It was now the mid 1950s, and Mandelawas heading into rough waters politically and personally.

    • 14:28

      NARRATOR [continued]: As a Jehovah's Witness, Evelyn could notreconcile politics of any kind with her faith,and her husband's ANC commitments alsoconsumed much of his time, leaving little for family.Finally, it was all too hard.And after 10 years of marriage, the couple separated.The government had also clearly had enough of his politics.

    • 14:51

      NARRATOR [continued]: Mandela was one of 156 race leaders arrested and chargedwith high treason.This was the beginning of the epic treason trial,lasting from 1956 to 1961.Midway through the trial, Mandelamarried the woman who was to be his great love and ultimately

    • 15:12

      NARRATOR [continued]: great liability Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela.The wedding was squeezed in between Mandela's courtappearances.The drawn-out trial took up much of Mandela's timeas lawyer and defendant.But he managed to keep things going with Winnie by his side,a smart and motivated woman.

    • 15:33

      NARRATOR [continued]: Winnie was Johannesburg's first black social workerand now turned her considerable abilitiesto supporting her husband in this demanding time.Later that same year, leadership of the countrypassed to a tough and uncompromising conservative.Previously Minister for Native Affairs,he had already shown his fierce determination

    • 15:55

      NARRATOR [continued]: to quell the black rights movement.And he was about to further turn the screws.

    • 16:01

      HENDRICK VERWOERD: What is our future?And I want to make quite sure that I will notbe misunderstood.I am not using this occasion as a platform for putting forward

    • 16:21

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: ideas other than those which I hopewill help to bring unity, prosperity,and happiness to South Africa.

    • 16:35

      NARRATOR: The government's solutionwas to escalate its assault on black dignity.Ruthlessly, it enforced the Pass Laws,tightening the choke collar on the peopleto strangle any thoughts of freedom.The malignant pass system was a legacyof the early 18th century, introducedby white South African slave owners

    • 16:55

      NARRATOR [continued]: to control their male slaves.By the 1950s, the pass--which was really a booklet--included name, tribal affiliation, photograph,permits to travel, work, and be in an area, criminal recordstaxation details, and proof of employmentto be signed each month by the employer.

    • 17:16

      NARRATOR [continued]: The pass had to be carried at all times,whether making the long journey to workor just stepping out the front door.Failure to do so resulted in immediate arrest.If the employment record was not signed,the person was deemed unemployed and shuttled off away from hometo a native reservation.

    • 17:36

      NARRATOR [continued]: But now, Verwoerd's government made its next move,legislating that South Africa's black women must alsocarry passes.Women feared they'd be separated from their childrenand dreaded their treatment at the hands of South Africa'sbrutal police.Quickly, they mobilized to form their own resistance movement.

    • 17:56

      NARRATOR [continued]: Looking back, Verwoerd would appearto have been chief architect of South Africa's extremistand legalized system of racism.Certainly, there was no one better qualifiedto sell it to the people.And so he did with his airy Orwellianovertones of newspeak.

    • 18:13

      HENDRICK VERWOERD: Our policy is onewhich is called by an Afrikaans word apartheid.And I'm afraid that has been misunderstood so often.It could just as easily and perhaps much betterbe described as a policy of good neighborliness.Accepting that there are differences between people

    • 18:35

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: is why these differences exist.And you have to acknowledge them.At the same time, you can live together, aid one another,but that it can best be done when you actas good neighbors always do.[NON-ENGLISH CHANTING]

    • 18:58


    • 19:21

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: On the morning of March 21, 1960,around 5,000 people gathered for an anti-pass protestoutside Sharpeville police station.Organizers had informed police of the non-violent protest.And officers were able to move amongst the crowdwithout trouble.It was very much a gathering of ordinary people--grandparents, young men, middle aged women,

    • 19:44

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: children together as one people, not lookingfor trouble but a better way.There was a happy mood within the crowd.There'd been talk of an announcement to be made,some good news about passes.The atmosphere was relaxed and festive,the people sharing stories and singing hymns.

    • 20:04

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: No one told them to end their singing,no one told them to go away.When low flying saber jet fighters swooped overhead,the people thought it was a display.When five armored vehicles moved in, they weren't concerned.And when police opened fire, for just a moment,they didn't believe it was real.[GUNSHOTS POPPING]

    • 20:33

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: Then they fled, turning their backs to the policeand running for their lives.In around a minute of bedlam, policeused machine guns, rifles, and revolversto spray 705 rounds of ammunition.69 people never made it home from Sharpeville.10 of them were children, eight were women.

    • 20:55

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: Another 180 people were wounded, 50 of thesewere women and children.All that these people wanted was respect.All they got was the ultimate in disrespect.Most of the dead and wounded were shot in the back.The Sharpeville protest had been organized by the Pan AfricanCongress, or PAC which was a breakaway group from the ANC.

    • 21:18

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: Now it hit back with strike actionthat lasted for two weeks and involved 95% of the workforce.Angry youths besieged towns.And around the country, hordes of people reacted in fury.As expected, the ANC and the PAC, were banned outright.And Mandela was once again arrested.

    • 21:38

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: The government declared a state of emergency,calling in the armed forces, and arrestingmany thousands of people.The situation was finally under somewhat uneasy control.The Sharpeville Massacre, as it became known,was certainly one of the defining momentsin the struggle for freedom.It provoked outrage across the country,with even conservative press pushing for an end

    • 21:60

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: to the pass laws.Internationally, it forced the spotlightonto the extremes of South Africa's regime.Not a single country sided with South Africa.And for the first time, the United Nationsweighed in on the country's internal politics.South Africa felt increasingly beleaguered,even the mother country found her dominion

    • 22:20

      HENDRICK VERWOERD [continued]: to be a wayward selfish child who didn't play fair.Britain's prime minister, Harold MacMillan,had already warned the South African governmentto accept the wind of change, the rising nationalism sweepingthrough the entire African continent.And on the streets of London, the publicmade their opinions known.

    • 22:39

      HUGH GAITSKELL: Friends of this boycottis for the people of Britain to register on the widest possiblescale their passionate protest against an evil and repulsivedoctrine, a evil and repulsive doctrine, which

    • 23:00

      HUGH GAITSKELL [continued]: says that man legal status, a man's political rights, a man'seconomic opportunity, a man's social positionshall depend solely upon the color of his skin.

    • 23:20

      NARRATOR: Stubborn and proud, the criticism onlystrengthened South Africa's resolve.The wind of change took a new turn,and the government set a course for deep unfamiliar waters.Less than 12 months after Sharpeville, South Africabecame a republic and cut herselfadrift from the Commonwealth.

    • 23:42

      NARRATOR [continued]: Finally, after more than four years,the treason trial was wrapping up.Mandela was one of only 30 still remaining on trial.All were acquitted.Technically a free man, Mandela knew that wouldn't last.The treason trial had featured heavily in foreign media,and he had become a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement.And the ANC was now an illegal organization.

    • 24:06

      NARRATOR [continued]: He made two major decisions.The first was to go underground.This meant life on the run, forcedto live away from Winnie and his family, not an easy decision.Second, Sharpeville had convinced himthat peaceful resistance was futile.And now he resolved to take the resistance in a new direction.

    • 24:26

      NELSON MANDELA: The Africans require, want the franchiseon the basis of one man, one vote.They want political independence.

    • 24:38

      INTERVIEWER: Do you see Africans beingable to develop in this country without the European beingpushed out?

    • 24:45

      NELSON MANDELA: We have made it very clear in our policythat South Africa is a country of many races.There is room for all the various races in this country.

    • 24:56

      INTERVIEWER: Now, if Dr. Verwoerd's government does notgive you the kind of concessions that you want sometime soon,is there any likelihood of violence?

    • 25:05

      NELSON MANDELA: There are many peoplewho feel that the reaction of the government to ourstay at home, ordering a general mobilization,arming the white community, arresting 10,000 of Africans,this show of force throughout the country--notwithstanding our clear declaration

    • 25:28

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: that this campaign is being run on peaceful and nonviolentalliance, close the chapter as faras our method of political struggle are concerned.There are many people who feel that it is useless and futilefor us to continue talking peace and nonviolenceagainst a government who's reply is only

    • 25:48

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: savage attacks on an unarmed and defenseless people.And I think the time has come for usto consider, in the light of our experiences in the stay at homewhether the methods which we have applied so farare adequate.

    • 26:04

      NARRATOR: For over a year, Mandela successfully eludedauthorities, somehow keeping one step ahead of the government'slegion of informers.The Black Pimpernel, as he was dubbed,used a series of disguises to avoid detection.Calling himself David, he passed as a laborer, chef,and as a garden boy.In his main guise, he was a chauffeur,

    • 26:26

      NARRATOR [continued]: a role enabling him to travel freely around the country,attending meetings and remaining fullyinvolved with ANC activities.He later made a base at Liliesleaf Farm in Rivonia,where on rare occasions, he was able to seeWinnie, along with his eldest son, Thembe.During this time, Mandela planned the next stage,an armed struggle.

    • 26:48

      NARRATOR [continued]: He devised a program of sabotage to take outareas of government infrastructure, particularlythose symbolic of apartheid, such as pass officers.Only property was to be targeted,lives were not to be endangered.The intent was to destabilize the governmentand undermine international confidence in South Africa,prompting the withdrawal of foreign money.

    • 27:10

      NARRATOR [continued]: But the ANC was committed to non-violence.It had to be a separate organization.And so Umkhonto We Sizwe was born, MK for short, meaningspear of the nation.Late in 1961, MK began its coordinated campaignof guerrilla warfare.But despite the high ideals, there inevitably

    • 27:30

      NARRATOR [continued]: was a human toll.Mandela decided to arrange overseas military trainingfor MK's members and was smuggled out of the country.He used the opportunity to gather supportfor the anti-apartheid movement, meetingwith other African and foreign leaders.And in Algeria, he undertook his own military training,the first of many MK freedom fighters to do so.

    • 27:52

      NARRATOR [continued]: Soon after his return, he was arrested,betrayed by a source believed to be the CIA.Charged with inciting a strike and leaving the countrywithout a passport, he was sentencedto five years imprisonment.After six months in Pretoria's jail,he was transferred to Robben Island,the prison for black, colored, and Indian people.

    • 28:14

      NARRATOR [continued]: Robben Ireland's guards excelled at rubbing a prisoner's nosein the stench that was apartheid.On arrival, Mandela and the other prisonerswere ordered to strip naked and issued with khaki prison garb.The one Indian in their midst was given long trousers,the blacks received shorts, a reminder that they were boys.

    • 28:35

      NARRATOR [continued]: Two months later, Mandela was back in Pretoria,along with 10 other ANC members.He was charged under the Sabotage Act of 1962.In a departure from innocent until proven guilty,the onus was on the accused to prove their innocence.And the government requested the death sentence.The eight-month long Rivonia trial

    • 28:56

      NARRATOR [continued]: was only ever going to be a political trialand one the government could not and would not lose.Internationally, the trial gained huge coverage.And the defendants used the opportunityto speak publicly about the ills of apartheid.It was the words of Nelson Mandelathat so memorably captured the spirit of a manand of a people."During my lifetime, I have dedicated myself

    • 29:19

      NARRATOR [continued]: to the struggle of the African people.I have fought against white domination,and I have fought against black domination.I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free societyin which all persons live togetherin harmony and with equal opportunities.It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve.

    • 29:40

      NARRATOR [continued]: But if needs be, it is an ideal for whichI am prepared to die."Mandela and seven others were found guilty.Their sentence was life imprisonment, not death,probably due to the international attention.But the South African government of the daywas an opponent not to be underestimated.

    • 30:00

      NARRATOR [continued]: When Prime Minister Verwoerd was assassinated,a man with similar uncompromising idealsfilled his place.

    • 30:08

      JOHN VORSTER: Let me say in conclusion,that as far as I'm concerned, whenI've said I want to walk the road of Dr. Verwoerd,I also want to walk on that road which impelledhim to promote national unity.

    • 30:29

      JOHN VORSTER [continued]: It will be my aim and object as it was his.I ask, ladies and gentlemen, your support not for my sake,but for the sake of South Africa, our Fatherland.

    • 30:50

      NARRATOR: As a political prisoner and a black person,Mandela was in the lowest class of prisoners,receiving the least food and the fewest privileges.Each half year, he was allowed only one visitor and oneletter, often so heavily censoredthat it was almost illegible.By day, he worked in the limestone quarry,breaking up rocks and carrying them

    • 31:11

      NARRATOR [continued]: from one end of the quarry to the other.In the long hours of relentless heat,the glare of the sun off the white limestonepermanently damaged his eyes.At night, he went back to his cramped cellwhere he confronted the demons of loneliness, doubt,and of sheer time stretching on and on.

    • 31:32

      NARRATOR [continued]: But he refused to become a victim,using his time to study, doing a law degree by correspondencewith London University.In the quarry as the men broke rocks,they also broke the monotony by teachingone another various subjects, history, languages, politics,whatever knowledge they could share.In 1968, Mandela's mother died of a heart attack.

    • 31:55

      NARRATOR [continued]: Mandela was refused permission to attend the funeral.Some months later, Winnie was arrested and began an 18 monthspell in solitary confinement.Then more bad news, 25-year-old Thembe, Mandela's eldest son,was killed in a car crash.Again, Mandela wasn't allowed to attend the funeral.

    • 32:16

      NARRATOR [continued]: Even in prison, Mandela remained a problemfor the South African government.Later in that same year, a spy for BOSS South Africa's stateagency, infiltrated a plot to rescue him from prison.Mandela's would-be rescuers were unawarethat BOSS intended to let Mandela escape so they couldshoot him during recapture.

    • 32:37

      NARRATOR [continued]: British intelligence foiled the plot.Inside prison, the years slowly roll by.Outside, Winnie was emerging as a leader amongst black women,and the government retaliated with a barrageof bans and charges.And there were several attacks on her home and property.She was routinely arrested, leaving the young Mandela

    • 32:58

      NARRATOR [continued]: girls to fend for themselves.On the streets, the fight continued, with strikes,explosions, and civil unrest.The 1976 massacre of black schoolchildrenled to an escalating series of riots in Soweto, whichspread around the country.The national mood was ugly, and bloodshed and violence

    • 33:20

      NARRATOR [continued]: were the order of the day with whites and blacks killed.South Africa was slipping into desperate times.But the world was watching, and Nelson Mandela

    • 33:42

      NARRATOR [continued]: was not forgotten.It was almost an inverse law that as the days and yearspassed, so public support grew stronger,and the resolve intensified to continuethe fight he had begun.The ANC's London based Oliver Tambo launched a free NelsonMandela campaign, which quickly captured

    • 34:02

      NARRATOR [continued]: the public consciousness and zipped around the globe.The groundswell of anti-apartheid feelingthat began with Sharpeville and the Mandela trialshad now gathered enormous strengthand was a force of its own.International sanctions were biting hard,and South Africa was beginning to bleed.

    • 34:24

      NARRATOR [continued]: In 1982, Mandela and three other senior ANC leaderswere transferred to Cape Town's Pollsmore Prison.It was a significant move, putting himinto closer contact with family and the outside world.In 1985, while hospitalized, he met with Ministerfor Justice, Kobe Coetzee, a small but important beginning.

    • 34:47

      NARRATOR [continued]: Over the years, the government had made various offersof freedom to Mandela.But they were always conditional, and he refused.When President PW Botha made another offer in 1985,his response was, only free men can negotiate,prisoners cannot enter into contracts.

    • 35:07

      NARRATOR [continued]: Given the corruption, treachery, and the years of imprisonmentendured by Nelson Mandela, it is remarkable and admirablethat he did not allow any of thisto corrupt his own morality.The freedom he desired was not a ruthless revengeof black people over white people.He detested racism of any kind.And now, he envisaged a South Africa of equals,

    • 35:30

      NARRATOR [continued]: working together to save a country thatwas spiraling out of control.Years of suffering and frustrationhad created an increasingly angry and militant mindsetamongst the black population.And many districts had become virtually ungovernable.Winnie Mandela was now sparking fear and controversy,surrounding herself with the band of ferocious minders known

    • 35:52

      NARRATOR [continued]: as the Mandela United Football Club,and implicated in a number of murders.She made violent, bloodthirsty speeches,with talk of necklacing-- burning people aliveusing petrol and tires.

    • 36:04

      WINNIE MANDELA: No more talking, weare now talking about action.

    • 36:07


    • 36:12

      WINNIE MANDELA: We are going to dismantle our apartheidphysically in this country.

    • 36:17

      NARRATOR: The government declared an ongoing stateof emergency, imposing curfews, broad censorship,and sweeping laws with extreme punishment, includingexecutions.Foreign banks, already nervous, called in their loans.The Rand slid, and the pressure rose.Even some of the government's ownbegan questioning apartheid.

    • 36:37

      BEYERS NAUDE: There's no justification for keepingMr. Mandela in prison and that the only way in which wecan start resolving the problems of our countryis an unconditional release of Mr. Mandela.

    • 36:50

      NARRATOR: Recovering from tuberculosis,Mandela was moved to an isolated section of prisonwhere conversations began in earnest with the government.When President Botha suffered a strokeand was forced to resign, FW de Klerk took the reins.In a series of preliminary talks,Mandela and de Klerk paved the wayfor the ANC and the government to sit down together

    • 37:10

      NARRATOR [continued]: and negotiate.When Parliament opened the following February,de Klerk announced that all political partieswere to be unbanned and political prisoners released.

    • 37:59

      ANC MEMBER: It is the combinationof internal and external progressive forcesthat have forced the government to release us.

    • 38:11

      MAN: One gains the impression that Mr. Mandela maybe released, the government seems serious.

    • 38:25

      NARRATOR: On the 11th of February 1990,Nelson Mandela walked out of prison after 27 years,free at last.

    • 38:46

      NELSON MANDELA: We call on the international communityto continue the campaign to isolate the apartheid regime.To lift sanctions now would be to runthe risk of aborting the process towards the complete

    • 39:09

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: eradication of apartheid.Our march to freedom is irreversible.We must not allow fear to stand in our way.

    • 39:25

      NARRATOR: Life as a free man was a whirlwind.There was much to be done.And there was a frenzy of attentionfrom the media and the public.Mandela had long been absent from public life.And he worked hard to shore up support from his own peopleand internationally to establish a peaceful and unified SouthAfrica.His chief and most difficult taskwas to engage all the 26 political factions

    • 39:47

      NARRATOR [continued]: in negotiating a new constitution.Competing with the ANC for a say in thiswere, of course, de Klerk's National Party,as well as the rival Inkatha Freedom Party, a Zulu bodyled by Chief Buthelezi.Also at the table were far right conservative white groupsfiercely opposed to any relaxing of apartheid.

    • 40:08

      NARRATOR [continued]: The government itself had so far failedto lead by example, keeping its cast iron grip.There would be no consensus without all sides givingsome ground.

    • 40:18

      NELSON MANDELA: We will honor every word in this agreement.It is our document.And we are therefore going to look very hard and earnestlyinto the whole question of armed strugglein the light of this agreement.

    • 40:38

      FW DE KLERK: The real peaceful South Africa can onlybe attained if all the people of this countryare accommodated in a just and equitable manner.Therefore, those against harmony or thosewho are terribly afraid, I think, will be against us.

    • 40:59

      FW DE KLERK [continued]: But the overwhelming majority of all the people,whether they black, white, colored, or Indian,will welcome this because this isa step towards a peaceful new South Africa.

    • 41:14

      NARRATOR: Politically, it was a rough ride.And Mandela's personal life was also very bumpy.Winnie, who had stood by him all through the years,was a different person from the one he thought he knew.There were terrible allegations against her of fraud,stand-over tactics, but worse, of kidnapping and murder.And she was brought to trial.

    • 41:34

      NARRATOR [continued]: Winnie was pulling him down.But Nelson Mandela remained supportive,defending her reputation.As the trial unfolded, however, his loyalty and faithwas sorely tested.One of Winnie's many henchmen testifiedthat she ordered him to abduct 14-year-old StompieSeipei, accused of being a police informer.

    • 41:54

      NARRATOR [continued]: The boy and three others were takento Winnie's home, where they were held for daysand brutally beaten.Stompie's battered body was found in a field,his throat slipped.Although cleared of the murder, Winniewas convicted for the kidnapping and foundto be an accessory to assault. She received a six-year jailsentence, which on appeal, was reduced to a fine.

    • 42:18

      NELSON MANDELA: The judge found herguilty of not rebutting the assault committed by others.I believe that she did not know about such assaults.

    • 42:39

      NARRATOR: But loyalty has its bounds.There were irregularities in the handlingof the case, the evidence, and in Winnie's testimony.Soon after, Mandela discovered shewas having an affair, a relationship she had begunsince his release from prison.Their 38-year marriage was over.The process of political negotiations

    • 42:59

      NARRATOR [continued]: was off and on as police brutality and governmentsanctioned violence continued.The relationship between Mandela and de Klerkwas tense and uneasy.There was a mutual distrust and two distinctly differentagenda.

    • 43:14

      NELSON MANDELA: The only differenceand a very important, which guides us as an organization,is that he represents the national party whichis responsible for the suffering whichour people have experienced.

    • 43:34

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: There has been no changes yet in the policy of that party.

    • 43:40

      NARRATOR: The march to freedom was, however, proving morelike a wade through mud.The government had not implemented promised changes.And political violence intensified.In the townships, fierce clashes between Inkatha,supported by white police, and the ANCled to further bloodshed.Now blacks were fighting blacks.

    • 44:01

      NELSON MANDELA: My message to those of youinvolved in this battle of brother against brother ratheris this--take your guns, your knives, and your pangas,

    • 44:22

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: and throw them into the sea.

    • 44:25

      NARRATOR: Anger and frustration on the streetshad hardened public attitudes.And the clenched fist was symbolicof more than black rights.Many believed it was the only means of communicationand that talk was useless.With the assassination by right wing extremistsof the hugely popular leader Chris Hani,the nation was set to erupt into a massive outbreak

    • 44:47

      NARRATOR [continued]: of violent reprisals.Mandela had a tough job on his hands.His plea for peace was a test of his authorityand a powerful sign of his statesmanship.These recent events spurred efforts by both Mandela and deKlerk to push through and finally reach agreement.The two men were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

    • 45:10

      NARRATOR [continued]: It was an uneasy partnership of political enemies.And each man fought hard to overcomedistrust and differences for the sake of peace.If these two men could find a path to peace,then surely others could also.In 1994, as head of the ANC, Nelson Mandelastood for election to the National Assembly.

    • 45:32

      NARRATOR [continued]: He also voted for the first time in his life.For the nation's nonwhites, the impossible dreamhad finally come true.

    • 45:40

      NELSON MANDELA: For all South Africans,an unforgettable occasion--it is the realization of our hopes and dreamsthat we have cherished over decades.

    • 46:14

      NARRATOR: And in that same impossible dream,Nelson Mandela had achieved the unachievable.

    • 46:20

      BILL CLINTON: Now all over the world,there are three words, which spoken together,express the triumph of freedom, democracy,and hope for the future.They are President Nelson Mandela.

    • 46:43

      NELSON MANDELA: I, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela,do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of SouthAfrica, so help me God.Never, never, and never again shall it

    • 47:08

      NELSON MANDELA [continued]: be that this beautiful land againexperience the oppression of one by another.

    • 47:17

      NARRATOR: To that end, the Truth and Reconciliation Commissionwas established under the leadershipof Archbishop Desmond Tutu.It sought to establish the reality of what had occurred,the rights and wrongs on all sides,and to help the nation begin the process of healing.Although many questions remain unanswered,it was an important step in helping all South Africans come

    • 47:38

      NARRATOR [continued]: to terms with their past.[GROUP SINGING "HAPPY BIRTHDAY"]On his 80th birthday, Nelson Mandeladid something few 80-year-olds do.

    • 47:51

      THABO MBEKI: I have a very, very short announcementto make today and a very happy one,that President Nelson Mandela and Graca Machal got marriedthis afternoon.My wife and I--

    • 48:23

      NARRATOR: Mandela's time as president and indeed afteris distinguished by his statesmanshipand his quest for peace.He shored up international relations for South Africaand mediated in difficult situations.At home, the spirit of the peoplerose, many for the first time in their lives feelingoptimistic for the future.

    • 48:43

      NARRATOR [continued]: The Nobel Prize was one of many acknowledgmentsMandela received for his contributionsas a great diplomat, rights campaigner, and pacifist.After one term as president, Mandela retired from politics,devoting himself to family life and to supportingvarious causes, including the Nelson Mandela Foundation,

    • 49:05

      NARRATOR [continued]: Make Poverty History, numerous children's charities,and human rights campaigns.He also set up for 4664, the AIDS fundraising campaignnamed after his prison number and a cause particularlyclose to his heart.In 2004, at the age of 85, he scaled back his commitments

    • 49:25

      NARRATOR [continued]: due to health reasons.Though he didn't rule out future involvements,he made it clear he wanted some space.Don't call me, I'll call you.And call he did, continuing to tackle some of the world'stoughest problems, a true champion of freedomand the human spirit.

    • 49:44

      NELSON MANDELA: Ladies and gentlemen, there'sone regret I have had throughout my life,that I never became the heavyweight boxingchampion of the world.

    • 50:09

      BILL CLINTON: We thank you Mr. presidentfor being the person we'd all like to be on our best day.

    • 50:22

      NARRATOR: In 2008, an old, frail-looking manstood on the stage, but it was not just a stage.This man stood on the world stage,and the world looked on and applauded himand genuinely wished him well.It had been a long, tumultuous journeyfor this man all the way from the simple hut in the transkei

    • 50:44

      NARRATOR [continued]: 90 years earlier.And it had been a long and lonely struggleto find a path through the fog of prejudice and suspicion,through the murk of corruption and greed,but he made it through.And in so doing, this one man changedhis own life and the lives of his countrymenand those of millions, even billions of people

    • 51:06

      NARRATOR [continued]: around the world.This one man, Nelson Mandela, bestowed a precious gift.He showed us all that even in our darkest moment,there is still hope, and we must never give up.[MUSIC PLAYING]

Nelson Mandela: One Man

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The life of Nobel Peace laureate Nelson Mandela, from his humble origins to his instrumental role in ending Apartheid in South Africa and unifying a nation, is documented.

Nelson Mandela: One Man

The life of Nobel Peace laureate Nelson Mandela, from his humble origins to his instrumental role in ending Apartheid in South Africa and unifying a nation, is documented.

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