Motivation and dyslexia

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    • 00:02

      [MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 00:10

      DR. GAVIN REID: In this tutorial,I would like to discuss motivationand individual learning strategies.Now, motivation is crucially important for childrenwith dyslexia, because let's face it,they have difficulty reading.They're going to school for five or six or younger than that,and they're faced with print.

    • 00:32

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: Print is very important in school, and evenat a very young age they realize that everyone's reading,but they're not.You quickly become demotivated, because youknow there are children doing that, and I can't do that,so I'll do something else instead.And it's important to try to look at how to motivate them,to try to prevent them from becoming demotivated.

    • 00:55

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: Because if they become demotivated, thenthey get into this cycle called learned helplessness,and that's when they stop trying.And we've got to nip it in the bud.We've got to get in before they reach that failure situation.Essentially, there's two kinds of motivationthat we could look at for young people with dyslexia.

    • 01:16

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: One is extrinsic motivation, by giving them rewards.And clearly, like, let's do this.Just read this line, read this page,and then we'll get to do this, or we'll do this afterwards.So you give them some sort of thingthat makes it rewarding for them.But research shows that extrinsic motivationis short-lived, and soon the rewards wear off,or you run out of rewards.

    • 01:42

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: What you need to do is to make it intrinsic.So we've got to try to help that learnerwant to do it, want to be motivated, want to read.And that's intrinsic motivation.So you may start with extrinsic but move to intrinsic.And for a young person with dyslexia,with difficulty reading, to get him or herto become intrinsically motivated is very challenging.

    • 02:09

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: And the best way to do that is to tryto get them-- form some interest in books.They've got to want to read that book.They've got to see the attractive frontcover of that book.They've got to see that they want to read about sports,or whatever it is in the book.And they've got to have that need to want to do it.

    • 02:32

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: One strategy that you could use is a very simple one calledpaired reading, where you and the child-- a teacher,or the parent and the child-- are reading aloudat the same time.They've got to select the book of their choice.So they may want-- oh, I want to read this book about soccer,about football.But it might be at a level two years above their reading age.

    • 02:52

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: That doesn't matter.They've maybe got the language understandingtwo years above the reading age, so they could understand it,but they just can't access the print.It doesn't matter.You could read it to them, or they could read it together.You could take the lead, and the child could read,then you could read at the same time.So it's important to get them language experience,to get them interested, and get theminto that kind of a book culture.

    • 03:16

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: And I know some schools in some areas of the UKthat are doing that at pre-school.They're getting support teachers to go into children's homeswhen they're three and four to geta kind of a literacy-rich environmentat home and in the community.I know libraries are doing this as well.

    • 03:37

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So it's important to change the image of books,to make books appealing to them, and then they'll want to read.It's important that they understand as well.Children won't be motivated if theydon't understand the topic.So again, it comes down to good teaching,where we've got to see how we couldput that message across to them, and how we could teach themabout a new topic we're doing, so they understand itand they're more likely to learn from it again,from whatever they do when they're reading or writingabout it.

    • 04:07

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: If you could access their learning strengths, and the waythey learn best, then they're going to be motivated to learn.Now, I know so many adults with dyslexiawho are very successful in the film, the media,in art and engineering, even in the medical field.

    • 04:27

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: But they had difficulty at school,because the school wasn't consistent with their learningpreferences.And it's only once they've left schoolthat they were able to do things their own way.So we're going to try to avoid that, and tryto ensure that children get the best out of school,and we help them to fulfill their potential.And that way they will be motivated.

    • 04:49

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So I see motivation as being tied upwith effective learning.And I think effective learning is the keyto unlocking that mysterious door thatprevents a child with dyslexia from achieving their potential.

    • 05:11

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: There are a number of ideological theoriesof motivation.To be honest, a lot of the theories of motivationare tied to the workplace.But if we could just borrow some of those examplesand apply it to education, one of the key thingsis that whatever you're doing musthave what's called valence.It must have value.

    • 05:31

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So if you say to a child, I want you to do this,it must be of value to that person.They must feel there's a need to them, that I need to do it.So I'm doing something because they feel it's important.So again, that comes down to tryingto make sure the task is appropriate for that learner.And it really comes down to differentiation as well,so it's all really tied up.

    • 05:54

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So it's got to be valuable, but over abovethat, one of the theoretical foundations of motivationis that the task-- whatever you ask them to do--must be achievable.They must know they're going to be able to do it.So if I say, look, I'm going to give youthis if you could do say, run 100 yards in 10 seconds.

    • 06:15

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: You know you're not going to do it,and so you're not even going to train to do that,because you know that you could trainevery day for the next ten years and I'm notgoing to achieve that.And that's what it's sometimes like for a learnerwith dyslexia.They could say, look at this Harry Potter book.It's 500 pages.What's the point?I'm not going to be able to do that.Even [INAUDIBLE] reading, I'm notgoing to be able to do that.

    • 06:36

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So we've got to see how you could say, well, look,let's just look at one chapter first, and break it down.So it's important to make sure the task-- what you'reasking them to do-- can be achieved,even if it's achieved in steps.But if it's not achievable, then they'll be demotivated.And that's one of the key views of motivation,is to make sure the task's achievableand the task is of value to them.

    • 06:60

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: Another kind of theory is what's called attribution theory.And that involves, when you've achieved something,how you attribute the success.OK, I did this-- but then, I've got a good teacher.So you're attributing it to an external source.It's important that children with dyslexia ableto do something, that they attribute it to themselvesby saying, I did that-- but then, that'sbecause I worked hard, or that's because I'm very bright,or I put in a lot of effort.

    • 07:32

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: So in that way, it gives them the confidenceto carry on and do something else.Because it's important to try to raise their self-esteem.And I would say motivation, attribution theory-- howyou attribute whatever you've done--and also self-esteem, and your whole self-concept,they're all intertwined.

    • 07:55

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: And what you do find is that a child fails,their self-esteem will plummet.Their self-esteem plummets, they'll be demotivated.And if they're demotivated, they'llattribute it to external, oh, I did itbecause somebody else helped me.And they won't get that ownershipof the tasks themselves.So it's important to reverse that.

    • 08:17

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: To have a positive self-esteem, and you get thatthrough success, and you get thatthrough achievement and by doing something.And that's why we've got to differentiate the task so theycan achieve, so they've got a positive self-esteem,they achieve, they're motivated, and theycan have that self-attribution by feelinggood about themselves when they do something.

    • 08:41

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: And I think that whole positive thing is so important.In fact, it's so important that at the moment,in the whole field of dyslexia, there'sa big movement on positive dyslexia.And it's an international movement now.I've given many talks on just positive dyslexia,trying to look at not the difficulties of disabilities,but looking at the advantages and the strengths of beingdyslexic.

    • 09:11

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: In this tutorial, the message I'm putting acrossis to acknowledge the broader needsof not just all the learners, but dyslexic learners.Now, dyslexia isn't a closed entity.It's a very broad spectrum.And so to be aware of the wide range in needs of learnerswith dyslexia.To be aware of the fact that we need to give them success,to boost their self-esteem .

    • 09:37

      DR. GAVIN REID [continued]: To be aware of the fact that we needto enhance their motivation, enhance their interest,to give them the experience of language, whichis going to make learning more enjoyable for them.And it all comes down to acknowledging, respecting,honoring, and dealing with individual differences,and recognizing the individual differencesthat some of these children with dyslexia experience.

Motivation and dyslexia

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Abstract

Dr. Gavin Reid discusses motivation theory and explains why it is important for dyslexic students to develop intrinsic motivation. Teachers who access the learner's strengths and develop a learning strategy that motivates learners decrease the likelihood of learned helplessness.

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Motivation and dyslexia

Dr. Gavin Reid discusses motivation theory and explains why it is important for dyslexic students to develop intrinsic motivation. Teachers who access the learner's strengths and develop a learning strategy that motivates learners decrease the likelihood of learned helplessness.

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