Nontraditional Security

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    • 00:11

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY: I would define nontraditional securityas challenges and threats to the well-being and securityof both states and societies.And usually, these are non-military in nature.The impact of these threats and challenges, most of the timethey're transnational and therefore

    • 00:31

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: require transnational responses involving not just stateactors, but a multiplicity of actors,and using at the same time various tools.That is, not just confined to statescraft.

    • 00:56

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: Well, they're increasingly central,because I think especially as the world becomesmore interconnected, we are now seeingreal challenges that are really affecting the lives of people.As the world becomes more connected,we actually have real challenges like thingslike infectious diseases, for example,

    • 01:17

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: brought about by the increasing movements of people,that lend to not just singular responses.And when you talk about having to combat and to preventthe transmission of infectious diseases,you don't just look at diseases as a problem,but you look at the other causes to this,

    • 01:37

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: like a huge migration of people, for example,and the other unintended consequencesof infectious diseases, such as thisbeing used for illicit means or dual purposes.And it makes for a compelling argument

    • 01:58

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that these are very real challenges thatis not brought on by competition among states, broughton by balance of power, but brought on by perhapshow we as guardians of the planethave perhaps not done well in our stewardship.

    • 02:19

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And as a result of this, the way we sort of usenatural resources have led to different kindsof effects that at the end of the dayare now actually confronting us.And it requires us to face them head on,and no longer sort of sweep them under the carpetand consider them as issues the don't really matter.

    • 02:47

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: It really depends on where you're coming from.If you are from the poorer parts of the developing AsianPacific, I mean, there are real issues, for examplethe issues of movements of people.People migrate.And as a result of that, they are susceptibleor they are exposed to challengesof human trafficking, for example, challengesof human smuggling, not to mention the risks

    • 03:11

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that they face when it comes to protection of people moving.Then you also have Asia being seen as the breedingground for epidemic or influenza,so you have the real problems of pandemics or different strainsof diseases that are increasingly again

    • 03:32

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: as a result of abuses of antibioticsthey have led to they have become drug-resistant.And for developing countries thathave very poor health facilities,the problems become compounded.And then you look at the problem of the impact of climatechange, that as a result of which

    • 03:53

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: has led to severe weather patterns,and as a consequence has led to numerous typesnatural disasters that had also led to displacementof millions of people.And with displacement of people comes all other problems.You also have again the perennial problemof under-development, economic marginalization, that

    • 04:14

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: leads to people becoming marginalizedand has led to instability within states.So as I said, it depends on where you're coming from.But they are shared vulnerabilitiesthat the region faces.And some of this include, for example,the issue of food security as a result of climate change,

    • 04:37

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: the issue of natural disaster, the issue of water security.Some of them would say that these are old problems.But they're not old in the sense of the factthat natural resources have become more scarce,and as a result of that, there's less access for people.And in a world that is increasing

    • 04:57

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: in terms of population and depleting natural resources,it leads to multiple problems.This in turn, requires really, or makesfor a compelling argument to rethink what are the securitypriorities of states and societiesand to rethink the strategy of how to deal with these issues.Because most of these have trans-national impact,

    • 05:19

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: then this is where multilateral security cooperationis the way to go, because some states lack capacity.And if the states do not have the capacityto deal with these issues, for example infectious diseases,that becomes a major issue for the other state.So if you want to simplify it, an insecurity in one state

    • 05:40

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: can become an insecurity for a wider set of countries,set of states, or the wider region.Hence, you need to be able to convincestates and different actors to work together,hence the emphasis on multilateral securitycooperation.I must say, though, that cooperation is not just limited

    • 06:00

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: among state actors.You really need to have different sets of actors,because at the end of the day, statesare no longer the guarantor of security of communities.I mean, you need to be able to engage whether it'scivil society actors, whether it's private sector,or whether international organizations,international foundations, because everyone,

    • 06:21

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: it appears to be, has a stake in tryingto address many of these complex transnational challenges.Theory helps us to organize our thinking on security.And if you look at the way the language of security

    • 06:42

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: has evolved and the kind of approaches and theoriesthat have developed since perhaps if you talkabout a period where there was reallya serious re-think in the academic community about whatsecurity means, you go back to perhaps the inspirationprovided by critical security theories that sort of challenge

    • 07:02

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: the state-centricity of security,that security is not just about the protection of state,its sovereignty, against external powersor against military attacks or confrontation,but security is also about how peoplefeel, the absence of threat.

    • 07:23

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: If you look at the writings of people like Ken Booth,for example, who talks about security is emancipation,freeing people from constraints thatwould otherwise stop them from doingwhat they would want to do.And when he talks about what are these constraints,he talks about war at the same time he talks about poverty.And it just so happened that this was

    • 07:45

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: in the early '90s, 1991, 1992.And with the other writings on human securitythat actually evolve in 1994, it basicallyfocuses again on the security concerns or the thingsthat actually affect the well-being

    • 08:05

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and security of communities.So if you look at it from the human security perspective,it talks about the freedom from fear and freedom from want.And it talks about also protection and empowerment.And if you put them all together,these are in a way pathways that led to the whole conceptof nontraditional security.Now, human security is a very-- if you like,

    • 08:28

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: we would like to say that human security providedthe main inspiration.It informed the analysis of nontraditional security.The only difference, if there is actually,is very superficial, is that if human security, if mostwriters of human security had focusedtoo much on the security referent being the individual.Nontraditional security is an attempt to actually bring

    • 08:50

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: the security issues of both individuals, communities,and that of the state, because you cannot delineate the two.I mean, these two are not mutually exclusive.And if you talk about who provides security,you cannot neglect the role of the state.But at the same time, without beingable to understand how the state is important, or could

    • 09:11

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: be a provider or could become a problem to security,you need to have a more comprehensive way.So it's not the other.Although it's called nontraditional security,it's not trying to counter, but trying to in a way complement,to provide a different or a more extended interpretation of whatsecurity really is.

    • 09:32

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And the other thing that we wouldlike to underline in the study of nontraditional securityapproach is really the fact that these are transnational issues.These are shared vulnerabilities.So if you talk about security as the absence of threatsto acquired values, it's also about highlightingthe absence of the threats to acquired values also talks

    • 09:55

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: about shared vulnerabilities among states and among people.So that in a way is where we talk of-- we sort of tweakthe nontraditional security approach to what wesee as security issues.So going back to the inspiration, as I said,critical security studies is I think

    • 10:15

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: an important contribution.Human security is also an important contribution.But don't forget there are also writingsfrom the third world or developing countries thattalked about the subaltern views of what security is.And if you talk about the writingsfrom say Asian scholars on what security is,

    • 10:36

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: it's comprehensive security, security issuesother than the military, that talks about economic,that talks about political.The only difference perhaps in the comprehensive security viewwritings of Asian scholars was that it was alsovery state-centric.So nontraditional security, as I said early on,is really an attempt to combine the two

    • 10:58

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and to drive home the point that whenyou talk about, say infectious diseases,they are not just security issues to individualsor to communities, but these are also a major securitythreat to the state itself, the existence of the state.It becomes an existential threat,

    • 11:20

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: if you look at the securitization theory,to both states and societies.I think it's just wanting to be able to capturewhat is it that concerns us most as individuals and as scholars.

    • 11:45

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: On the one hand I am passionate about certain issues.I like to advocate certain issues.When you talk about say security, as I said,if you look at human security as an inspiration,it's all about protection and it's all about empowerment.So if you talk about protection, you care a lot about thingslike protecting individuals-- ensuring that their rights are

    • 12:08

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: protected.And I come from a region where protection cannot be takenfor granted.If you talk Southeast Asia as an example,we have a region that is characterized--that's comprised of states that at one point

    • 12:30

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: had different political orientation,and people having very painful experiencesof having their rights deprived, of having been told about whatreally matters, that if you want to be able to progress,you need to be able to sacrifice one say right

    • 12:56

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and privilege the others.So we talk about sequential ordering of rights.And at a certain point in the developmentand the history of the region, yourealize that the assumptions of the way states and societiesare organized were being challenged, and challengedbecause of developments from within,

    • 13:19

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that people suddenly realized that this kind of system,this kind of ordering of societies, do not work anymore.And also as I said, there are also external developments.People have become more informed, more consciousabout what their rights are and that theyshould fight for their rights.So the 1997 financial crisis is a very important period

    • 13:45

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: in the history of Southeast Asia, where the whole conceptof security was challenged.I talked earlier about comprehensive security,that state authorities, and even analysts, policy practitionerswere saying, when you talk about human security as oneof the pathways of nontraditional security, which

    • 14:07

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: talks amongst others economic security, political security,economic security, these are issuesthat we've already talked about in the past.But it was only in the sense that theseare the things that matter to the state,that somehow state security was more important than people'ssecurity.But things have changed, as I said.People became more educated.

    • 14:28

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: The world became more problematic, if you like.And the financial crisis that basically shatteredthe assumptions then led to a re-thinking, seriousre-thinking, about how we should actually organize ourselves.What are the policies or programsthat should actually be crafted to be more in tune

    • 14:49

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: with the realities of the present times?And this is where if you talk about the history of securitypractice or security lexicon in the region,there was, if you like, a serious effortto actually articulate a different kind of security

    • 15:09

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: language.Hence, human security found tractionand was being used as a language.But unfortunately, because of the way human securitysort of evolved in terms of foreign policy among states--I'm not sure if some people would recall that at one pointhuman security was seen as a Western agenda.

    • 15:30

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And hence, those who were advocating for human securityhad to find a way to make the language more acceptable.It basically challenged the assumptionsof what security was and how state order wasgoing to be organized.Hence, there was a serious attempt

    • 15:51

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to actually challenge the language of security.Hence, human security came about.But unfortunately, since human security at one pointbecame a divisive concept becauseof the way some governments reacted to the wayhuman security was promoted by certain governmentsin the region, at one point, in fact some governments looked

    • 16:13

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: at human security as an agenda of the West,an attempt of the West again dominate the security languageof the region.Hence, there were those advocates and scholarsthat then tried to find a way to actually advancethe goals of human security by adopting a different language,hence human security in a way led to the adoption

    • 16:39

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: or the introduction of the languageof nontraditional security.That tension that sort of arose as a result of the introductionof human security and the experiences that preceded itin a way inspired somebody like me to say,this is the right time to actually startwriting about security, if only apart from of course

    • 17:01

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: the academic interest of trying to write something different,but also I think to capture that thesewere the developments that were taking place in the region.And if you were to actually accurately capturethat development, you must be able to also link itto the body of knowledge that existed out there.

    • 17:24

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: Hence, the nontraditional security exerciseis not just a project that we're doing.It's not just a one-off project.But we think, some of us who workon nontraditional security, thinkthis is an ongoing thing that needs to be further developed.And this is where, I think, the challenge comes inif you're a scholar, because you needto be able to put in the rigor of a systematic way

    • 17:45

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: of understanding and writing about it,that this must be grounded not just in practice,but this must also be connected to theory.You must be able to comfortably straddlethe conceptual discussion about how nontraditional securityfits into the language of security, at the same time

    • 18:06

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: be able to relate it to policies, to practice,so that whatever it is that you're doingis not divorced from the reality that's out there.And I think it is important, particularly for scholarsin the developing world, that if they reallywant to make a contribution to the body of knowledgeand to be recognized for contributing based

    • 18:35

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: on the context that they're operating from,that they must be able to engage both the academic discourse outthere, at the same time ensure that when they wantto talk to their own communities,that people in the streets will understand whydoes human security matter to me,

    • 18:56

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and that a policy maker in any countrywould then say, why should I pay attentionto issues of human security?Because as it evolved, I mean, the inability or the refusalor the lack of understanding of governments about these issuesactually leads to their delegitimation.

    • 19:20

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And it happened in the case of, say,when you look at the issues of health.At one point when the region was confrontedby the fear of the SARS problem, Severe Acute RespiratorySyndrome, this is the other kind of influenza,

    • 19:41

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and they didn't know how to deal with it,and the government tried-- I'm talking about a casestudy like in the case of China for example,that for a state that was so used to being able to organizeand being able to respond to this particular issue,they were basically lost.And at one point, there was some denial

    • 20:03

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: of the extent of the problem.And since it affected the rest of the community in Asia,the government was compelled to do something about it,because if they didn't, they wouldhave lost their legitimacy to be able to rule and to beable to manage this issue with their vis-a-vis owncommunities, but at the same time

    • 20:24

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: also to be able to gain credibilityand the respect of the other countries in the regionthat they're in fact competent to addressthis particular challenge.That you should be able at the same timeto talk to your academic peers of why these things matterand at the same time convince the different actorsin your community, where the man in the streetshould understand what human security is and why it matters

    • 20:46

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and why policymakers in the regionshould also appreciate why these issues are important.Because if they don't, they actually riskbeing delegitimized by their own people,not just because of their inabilityto address these issues, but alsobecause they would also lose the credibility from the outside,

    • 21:06

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: because it shows that they are notable to manage the kind of security issuesthat confront their own communities.The debates that often arise whenyou talk about nontraditional security,at least when you talk to academic peers,

    • 21:27

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: is really the term nontraditional security.I think it will take some time for various scholarsout there to actually sort of convince time and time againthat nontraditional security is a concept that matters.It is not just a label that you put on an issue that

    • 21:49

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: is not military.It's not just, if not this, then this is the other.As I said, there are pathways thatled to the development of nontraditional security.And it's a reflection of the security issues of the times.And it is something that is not just

    • 22:10

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: unique to the Asian region, although I think whenthis concept actually started, just like human security,there is perhaps an Asian flavor to it,that it actually sort of originated.But the fact of the matter is this language of securityis now finding traction in the other communities beyond Asia.

    • 22:33

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: So if you talk about nontraditional security,you can no longer say, oh, it's just an Asian concept,because if you look at the syllabus or the syllabisin other schools, in North America, for example,it's not just about human security anymore.It's actually about nontraditional security.But the challenge I think for academics or for scholarsis to put the mark on this concept

    • 22:56

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and to develop it further, so that this subfield, if youlike, of security, would be able to develop a body of knowledge,if you like.So you develop-- you have to be able to pay attentionto the epistemological development of this concept.That's one.Just like what happened when the concept of human securityfirst came about, there were those security scholars

    • 23:19

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that were basically-- that found the problem or the conceptvery problematic.And they basically were saying that it devaluedthe concept of security because you addedso many things in the list.Some even call it-- human security became a laundry list.But I don't think that should actually stop scholars

    • 23:42

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: or if you like advocates or policymakers from usingthat concept, because if you go by,if you accept the notion that security is a contestedconcept and security is what individuals make out of it,

    • 24:04

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: then if you refer to one study by the UNDPwhen you talked about the voices of the poor,where there was a survey of 5,000 voices,and if you ask them, what is security to you,security could be anything from, for example,having a food on the table or being able to provide--

    • 24:27

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to be able to bring my child to a hospitalif he or she needed to be treated,security is about a roof over my head,or it's about being able to get a job, et cetera.And so there are different security issuesthat people face.And why should we as scholars actually stop ourselves

    • 24:49

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: from capturing this and talking about it, just because thereis that mainstream body of knowledgethat talks about or that limits or that confines securityto just the protection of state borders?I mean, it is something that is so narrow

    • 25:14

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: and that is not reflective of the times.But it is something, it is a challenge that we should face,that scholars should face head-on.And if the only way to convince your peers and the widercommunity-- and I think more importantly,being able to make an impact on policy,convince the people who have power, the willpower,

    • 25:38

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that these are the things that they reallymust pay attention to.If they want state stability and if theywant societal stability, then they must really address it.I don't think scholars should shy awayfrom being able to talk about real issuesand develop as a result of this actually--I mean, Robert Cox talks about theoryas a reflection of time and space,

    • 25:59

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: so you should be able to capture this and convince the widercommunity that you really have to pay attention to this.If you look at it in the context of Asia,after years of talking and writing about these issues,governments started to appropriate that language

    • 26:21

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: of nontraditional security.It has now entered the official lexicon of what security is.And I think it's one of the best-- it'sone of the best rewarding experiencesany scholar or any policy advocateswould have if they're able to convince the wideraudience or the wider community that these are in fact issues

    • 26:41

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: that matter.So earlier on we talked about the importanceof multilateral security cooperation.And if you look at the agenda of the security institutions,the institutions in the region that deals with securityissues, I mean, it's there.It wasn't there in the last-- say maybe in the early 1990s.

    • 27:02

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: It wasn't there in 2003 when the regionhad to face the problem of infectious diseases.But in 2005, you had-- just shortlyafter that you had defense militaries in the region thatsuddenly talked about nontraditional securityas an agenda for cooperation.And they started to talk about military medicine.

    • 27:24

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: They started to talk about humanitarian assistanceand disaster relief.And these are all informed not justby what was happening in the region,but this was also informed by the kind of debatesand the kind of discourses that were talking placeat various levels.So this is I think the best indication of whether you have

    • 27:46

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: made an impact, whether this study of yours or this researchhas made an impact not just in the academic community,but has an impact on the policy community.And that, as I said, cuts across all levels.At the UN discussions, for example,the language of nontraditional securityhas entered the lexicon of even those people that

    • 28:09

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: work on issues that looks at peacekeepingor that looks at peace building, for example.I mean, you feel comfort in the factthat these issues are starting to be part of the agendaand that there are efforts by states and by other actorsto deal with this range of nontraditional security issues.

    • 28:36

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: When I was writing about health issues in the regionas a result of what happened in SARS,I realized that in a region whereregional cooperation through this regional frameworkof the ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations,that in the list of areas of cooperation,

    • 28:60

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: health security was not actually there.And I was really surprised.And so we started to write-- I mean,I started to write about it.Some scholars also started to write about it.We started to advocate about the need for the region to actuallyhave a framework for cooperation among states,

    • 29:21

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to actually look at-- to actually think about healthas a security issue.And I think that after 2003, after SARS,when we had the problem of the bird flu, H5N1,in a matter of years, three, four years,health security became an agenda, because I think--

    • 29:45

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: I don't think it is right to take creditfor this, sole credit for this, but itwas like the timing was right.You started to advocate, you startedto write about these issues and convinced governmentsthat there has to be an effort to actually develop a framework

    • 30:08

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to address the issue of infectious diseases.So in 2005, leading up to 2007, at leastin the context of ASEAN and the ASEAN Plus Three-- whenyou say ASEAN Plus Three, we talk about China, South Korea,and Japan-- there is now a frameworkthat actually deals with highly infectious diseases.

    • 30:31

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And you think back that had this not happenedand had there been no advocacy, active advocacy, for countriesto get their act together, this wouldn't have-- they wouldn'thave taken this very seriously.The other one is more closer to homewhen we talk about food security.

    • 30:52

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: At one point, food security has alwaysbeen seen as just a question of demand and supply.But we talk about food security and youadd in the elements of, the issues of,you ask the question of whether the people actuallyhave access to food.It's not enough to just have supply.I mean, what about affordability?

    • 31:12

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: Can people actually afford to buy food?And even if they have the means to do so,do they actually have access to food?And when you talk about being able to utilize foodin terms of-- and this is where the issue of nutritionand the issue of safety comes in.I mean, our governments or different actors that

    • 31:33

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: are relevant actors that look at these issues,are they actually thinking of frameworks to deal with this?What happens if there's an emergency as a resultof natural disaster?All these issues, whether it is supply, access, affordability,and all that, becomes a major issue,not just for the people themselves, but for the state.

    • 31:53

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: In tandem with the attention broughton food security and the many writings,both in the academic and the policy world,about the importance of food security,you now have again as part of the agenda of the ASEAN PlusThree several initiatives in actually dealing

    • 32:13

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: with emergencies.So we have, in the ASEAN Plus Three,we have this rice reserve system.This was formalized in 2011.And the main rationale for this isto make sure that states are actuallyprepared to work together when there is a crisis as a result,

    • 32:37

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: as I said, of say a disruption in supply triggeredby natural disasters, for example.Or if within a country for some odd reasonthey mismanaged the whole policy of food production and fooddistribution, you can rely on some mechanism in the region

    • 32:58

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to actually seek help in times of emergency.And this is where, when you actuallylook at how security has evolved and how this has informedsecurity approaches, this is one of the major contributionsof nontraditional security, because you're actuallyconvincing not just a government,but several governments and several actors,

    • 33:21

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: to anticipate that these issues could at one point come, arise,and that you should be able to predict these issues.And in doing so, you should then be able to finallyto work with other states, because as I said,a loss of production in one statecould also affect the access or the supply of another state,

    • 33:43

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: because not all countries, if youtalk about in the context of Asia, for example,not all countries produce commodities, rice commodities.So if one country is affected or a couple of countriesare affected, even if another country B or countryC may have the money to buy you talk about rice as an example,they will not have access to do it,

    • 34:03

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: because the production is affected.So the rice reserve system in the ASEAN Plus Three regionactually underlined the fact that many of the securityissues that we face today have trans-border implications,and that to address this issue, whether it's foodor whether it is health in terms of infectious diseases,

    • 34:25

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: you must be able to find a way to address this together.And this is the other implicationof that, if you look at it from another perspective,is how do these issues affect state behavior?And this is where scholars of international relationsactually get excited, because this actuallyaffects state norms.

    • 34:48

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And what are the norms that we're talking about?If states are very protective of their sovereignty,to be able to address these issuesyou would inadvertently-- this would inadvertentlyimpact on state sovereignty.Use the example of health, for example.When you have to deal with infectious diseases,

    • 35:09

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: you would have to be able to have a very good diseasesurveillance system.And when you have a disease surveillance system,it requires countries to actually reportdisease outbreaks.And if you report disease outbreaks,some countries may feel that they become exposed,the vulnerability, their lack of capacity is exposed.

    • 35:31

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: But if you frame it in the other way and say,you know, these are issues, security issues that we share,because our vulnerabilities are shared,then we must be able to work are on the issues of sovereigntyand find a way to address this in a more cooperative manner,hence again the importance of multilateral securitycooperation.So I think, as I said, the signs are positive,

    • 35:55

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: in that there is now an increasing appreciationfor states to really work togetherin addressing these transnational nontraditionalsecurity issues.When it comes to what it means to the wider community,

    • 36:16

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: I think there's a deeper appreciation that these issuesthat you're researching on, whether it is food, water,or whether it is issues of protection for migrant workers,for example, that they actually have a stake in this research,that they are part of-- that they can not just relate to it,

    • 36:38

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: but that their participation, whether it is in the forumsthat you organize as a result of your research,that they can actually have a voice.And I think this is very important in that whateverit is that you do as an academic or as a practitioner,that it must find resonance with a wider community.

    • 36:59

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: And at least I'm speaking from the context of Southeast Asia,that non-traditional security is no longer a research agenda.It has become a policy agenda.And it is an agenda that is found in manyof the civil society meetings.

    • 37:21

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: There are advocacy groups.And I said the appropriation of that languageby various sectors in the community,whether it's government, whether it is your academe,or it is your civil society groups,even the U-- I mean, if there is a proliferation of the usageof that language, I think that's the best impact that you

    • 37:44

      MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY [continued]: could actually think of.

Nontraditional Security

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Professor Mely Caballero-Anthony outlines nontraditional security and explains the impact of the field on international affairs.

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Nontraditional Security

Professor Mely Caballero-Anthony outlines nontraditional security and explains the impact of the field on international affairs.

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