International and Local Capacity

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    • 00:04

      [International & Local Capacity]

    • 00:09

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS: So we'regoing to look at peacebuilding and conflict transformation.We're going to cover three topics.The first will be the interactionbetween international actors and local actorsin building capacity in countriesthat have experienced conflict.The second will be focus on UN policies in the peacebuilding

    • 00:34

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: process.And the third one will be a focus on a special group,and that is women.Now how do we break the conflict cycle?How do we end conflicts and how we avoidthe recurrence of conflicts?

    • 00:56

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: Obviously, the first step is to end the hostilities.Stop the fighting, stop the deaths.But once we do that, how can we actually preventthe recurrence of conflict?And that's where international actors can play a role.And their role is to support the local capacity,

    • 01:21

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: to rebuild institutions, further social and economicdevelopment, and enforce the rule of law and limitcorruption.This is the process of peace building.So how do international local actorsinteract in this process?

    • 01:41

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And we're going to use here a seminal article by Doyleand Sambanis in 2000 in The American Political ScienceReview who argued that peacebuildingis like a triangle.So on the one end of the triangle,we have the hostilities, and on the other endwe have local capacity.

    • 02:04

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And the local capacity can be manifestboth at the central government level, but alsothe local communities.And at the tip of the triangle, wehave the international community and its capacity.So what happens is international community, by engaging

    • 02:27

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: in a conflict prone country, a country that has experiencedconflict, it creates a space for local actorsto become more active.And this is the space for peace.Doyle and Sambanis focused on the UN,and there is a particular reason for that.

    • 02:50

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: The United Nations, despite the limitationsand the controversies, remains the only global actorwith a wide range of know how and capacity to engagein peacebuilding processes.However, this is a departure from the traditional role

    • 03:13

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of the UN, which started as basic peacekeeping missions.So what's the difference between peacekeeping and peacebuilding?Peacekeeping, as the word says, is to keep the peace.So monitor peace agreements.Make sure that the factions and the parties in the conflict

    • 03:34

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: remain separated and they observe cease-fires.Peace building, on the other hand,is a much more comprehensive processwhere the effort of a mission is to developthe social and economic and political structure

    • 03:56

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of a country and institutions in orderto avoid conflict in the future, the recurrence of conflict.So build peace.Examples of that would be East Timor or Timor-Leste,Sierra Leone, Kosovo.But what is peace?

    • 04:17

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And in the literature we have two different definitionsof peace, negative and positive.Negative is a very minimalistic definition.Stop fighting, stop the dying off civilians, and evencombatants.Whereas positive peace is more about the kind of society that

    • 04:43

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: emerges, a society that should address the underlying causesof conflict.So therefore, to minimize the potentialfor a conflict to reignite.When we talk about positive peace,we are also looking at how this is distributed

    • 05:04

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: across different groups.So in a post-conflict environmentwith positive peace, we expect, for instance,both women and men to enjoy this piece.But let's look first at the evolutionof peacekeeping missions.And we have, initially, what we call the first generation.

    • 05:28

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: These were established in 1945 and the ideawas behind these first missions to prevent basicallyfrom fractions to fights.Just to keep separate.These were traditional missions.Small, they remained neutral, they

    • 05:50

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: didn't have very heavy armor or equipment,and basically they survived by being neutral.And their job was just to monitorthe behavior of the different parties,or what we call the frozen front lights.Interestingly enough, a lot of those initial missions

    • 06:13

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: are still in place.Cyprus, Kashmir, the Golan Heights.However, in that 1980s, slowly with the transformationconflicts, we move into the second and ultimately,the third generation or integrated peacekeeping

    • 06:36

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: operations.Boutros-Boutros Ghali with his blue helmetsstarted engaging into different levels of involvementof UN missions and troops.In 2000, the Brahimi Report and the doctrine of R2P,

    • 07:01

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: the Responsibility to Protect, led to the more integratedmissions that we observe today, even the conceptof peacekeeping has changed, and oftenthe concept of peace operations is used in the literature.In these integrated missions, we see elements of peacebuilding.

    • 07:26

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: For instance, more engagement with decommissioning programs,security sector reforms, conduction of elections.For instance, in Cambodia and Timor-Leste.In other cases, we have the protectionof operations with much higher military capability,

    • 07:51

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: and even enforcement.So for instance, Angola, Somalia,and also in Sierra Leone and Liberia.Now as students of [INAUDIBLE] pointed outin 2000, at that stage UN was bad at war, but good at peace.

    • 08:14

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: So UN missions were not meant to fight wars.And of course, we have to keep in mindthat UN depends on member states to provide troops.There's no such an independent UN Army.But their research showed that theywere quite good at fostering peace

    • 08:36

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: in the aftermath of conflict.And in case you wonder whether the UN chooses easy targets,research overwhelmingly shows that the UNgoes into the hard cases.So the fact that we find any evidence of successis actually astonishing.

    • 08:60

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: But for them to be successful, theremust be some level or local capacity.And the Doyle and Sambanis argument, a frameworkwas that external actors can assist with buildinglocal capacity and governance.

    • 09:23

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: Following that, the Brahimi Report in 2000focused on three areas.The need for an interim administration,because when we talk about post-conflict countries,we are talking about destroyed conflict countrieswith no infrastructure, no institutions,where any kind of government is by definition, weak

    • 09:47

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: and they almost deal with failed states.So they need to offer an interim administration,addressing the refugees and internally displaced people,and also addressing property rights and land disputes thatoften lead to local cleavages, and can reignite conflict

    • 10:12

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: within communities, and also former combatants.How do you decommission former combatants, especiallyin countries where a lot of them haveno education, no skills, and no other experience of life.Much later on, the Capstone Doctrine

    • 10:35

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: by the Department of Peacekeeping Operationsin 2008, emphasized the need to coordinate and integratethe multitude of tasks that the international community facesin post-conflict environments.And that's when we're talking about the more advanced form

    • 10:57

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of peacekeeping or peace operationsthat engage with peacebuilding.So what are the requirements for successful peacebuilding?And as I said, the first thing is to stop the fighting.And it might seem to us as a very limited goal,

    • 11:21

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: but for people who are living in a conflict country,the fact that there is no more killing is a huge step forward.Because without that step, it is notpossible to move to the next stage.So security is a primary goal.

    • 11:43

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And that will involve two process: decommissioning,in other words disarmament, demobilization,and reintegration of former combatants and security sectorreform, which also is linked to the reestablishment of ruleof law.

    • 12:06

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: The third one would be rebuilding infrastructure.The amount of destruction of roads, electricity grids,clean water is tremendous.We're talking about basic human needs.And this destruction of infrastructure

    • 12:26

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: targets the most vulnerable, usually women.And that's why in a lot of conflict countries,we observe the high maternal mortalityand infant mortalities.Even simple things like access to hospitals.

    • 12:47

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: If there is a hospital and it has not been destroyed,very often accessing a hospital becomes an ordealbecause there are no roads.Or there's no electricity grid and therefore, youcan only have electricity if you have the resources to havea generator.

    • 13:09

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: So basic infrastructure has to be rebuilt.Financial reconstruction, especially banking sectorand taxation.The ability of the central governmentto collect taxes, a tax system.And of course, last, but not least,

    • 13:32

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: rebuilding state institutions.And here are the two dimensions.First, we have the central government,but we should not also forget local governments.We don't want to create a state thatoverwhelms local communities and local capacity,

    • 13:53

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: and especially in countries that experiencecall fleet in their peripheries.It's even more relevant to strengthen local governanceand link that to central government.[U.N. Peacebuilding Policies]

    • 14:15

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: So in what kind of politics does the UN get involvedin integrating peacekeeping?As we said, the Capstone Doctrineemphasizes integrative peacekeeping,and it covers a whole range of activitiesfrom infrastructure, employment, political processes,

    • 14:39

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: rule of law, elections, human rights.The actual peacekeeping process is a small component of that.And once it ends, then a lot of the UNagencies or international actors link to the UN,

    • 15:00

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: like the world bank, but also UN agencies like UNICEF,UNDP remain active in a country.And there are three stages.The first is to stabilize the country,the second is to consolidate the peace,and the third stage is to focus on long term development, which

    • 15:22

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: is essential in order to avoid the recurrence of conflict.In our own research, we have observed,by looking at most African UN missions after 1990s,that the UN peacekeeping policies concentrate

    • 15:43

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: in five key areas: state, building statecapacity; conducting elections; humanitarian relief;reconciliation programs; and human rights.State capacity, or building the capacityof the central government, takes over 1/3 of the UN peacekeeping

    • 16:05

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: policies.So that is a clear indication of the emphasisis that the UN places on rebuildingthe capacity of central government to govern.And when we zoom into capacity building

    • 16:26

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of the central government, 53% of the policiesinvolve strengthening the central government,but 47% involve replacement.In other words, the UN often runsthe show because of the inability

    • 16:46

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of the central government to provide basic services.So for instance, in the country of Liberia,the health system was pretty much run until very recentlyby the UN and other international actors,both international organizations and non-governmental

    • 17:08

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: organizations because the government did nothave the capacity to do so.[Women]Now let's look at this particular group,and that's women, and their role in the process.

    • 17:29

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: So why the emphasis on women?As we're going to see, there is an increasing body of researchthat suggests that the status and the active role of womenin political processes is linked to less conflict,both at an international and a domestic level.

    • 17:54

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: Now as we said, in a post-conflict environment,central governments lack capacity,and especially in the remote parts of the country, right,that cannot extend there power.So for peace to be built and maintained,it has to be won at the central level, the central government,

    • 18:18

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: but also locally.And that leads to two types of peacebuilding.There are two ways to achieve that, either top-down,from the external actors through the central government,or bottom-up, by encouraging the local communitiesto be active participants.

    • 18:40

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: There's a third option, which is the hybrid approach thatcombines elements of the top-down and bottom-uppeacebuilding.Ultimately, we need to develop synergiesbetween domestic and external actors.As Doyle and Sambanis argue that the international communitycreates a space for peace where local capacity

    • 19:03

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: can be reinforced.Now in order to do that and reinforce this local capacity,can be done in two possible ways.The first one is to regenerate horizontal networks.And the second is to act as a broker

    • 19:24

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: between local and national actors.In other words, facilitate vertical networks of powerand link them to horizontal networks.So horizontal networks interlink different communitiesor groups.

    • 19:45

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And they're essential for peace because they oftencut across other divisions such as ethnic,religious communities, and groups.So allow communications to flow.Vertical groups, on the other hand, are hierarchical,are from they elite to the populace, the population.

    • 20:11

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: In conflict situations, horizontal networkstend to dissipate and weaken.Therefore, the different communities become more rigid,the boundaries become more rigid,and therefore they do not have communicationswith opposing communities or as perceived,

    • 20:36

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: like enemy communities.On the other hand, what we observeis that vertical networks that connectthe leaders to a particular community get strengthened.What we want in a peacebuilding process is the opposite.We want the strengthening of horizontal networks

    • 20:57

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: and some kind of weakening the vertical networks,and an interaction between vertical and horizontalnetworks.It is much easier to do that if in the countrythere have been pre-existing local institutions.

    • 21:20

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: So let's take the example of Liberia, a country thatexperienced devastating civil wars, a very poor country,and a small country.But even in this small country, wehave areas that communities traditionally

    • 21:43

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: had strong social organization and leaders,and areas where the communities did nothave that kind of leadership, [INAUDIBLE].During the violent civil wars, the communitiesthat had some kind of leadership structurewere able to mitigate the effects of conflict,

    • 22:07

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: often by negotiating with rebel forcesat the local level, or even governmental forces.On the other hand, the [INAUDIBLE] communitiesjust dissipated into the bush, the low level jungle,and therefore, lost whatever network and capacity they had.

    • 22:32

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And we're talking about a very small country here.It is much easier then, after the war,to deal with communities that had some kind of leadershipor some kind of structure, some kind of network,some kind of norms, than the communities that basically

    • 22:53

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: dissipated and that were isolated.So women's organizations is a special group, in a way,off these horizontal networks.First of all because gender is a broad conceptthat can recruit members across all other ethnic or religious

    • 23:16

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: or any other kind of identity.And second is because networks where women are includedtend to exhibit more reciprocity,they're more efficient in terms of outcomes,and also there is research suggesting

    • 23:37

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: that women's social and economic roles can shape long termdevelopment as [INAUDIBLE] has already argued.In fact, as I said, there's an increasing body of researchthat suggests that societies where womenenjoy relatively higher status are

    • 23:59

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: more peaceful and prosperous.Ultimately, using women's organizationsmakes use of horizontal social networksthat are distinct forms of local capacity.

    • 24:19

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: And it's important here to point outthat women's status is not linked, for instance,to economic development.In fact, is considered an independent factorthat can predict levels of corruption or levels

    • 24:40

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of human development in a country.And this is recognized with the UN Security Council Resolution1325 that celebrated its 15th anniversary in 2015.The need of women to be involved in protection,

    • 25:00

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: participation, an increase of participation of women,and also gender mainstreaming policies in post conflict.Moreover, evidence across conflicts and missionssuggest, by using a host of indicators of women status,

    • 25:27

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: demographic or educational ratios,that there's an interactive effect between UN presenceand high female status.In these cases where the UN has a presence, has a missionand women's status is higher, theseare the cases where there is a higher likelihood

    • 25:48

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: to have a successful peacebuildingprocess five years after the termination of conflict.And these kind of findings, it's also similarwhen we look at variation within mission, or within the regions

    • 26:13

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: within the country.We observe more cooperation with the UN, more emphasison communal projects, and also more activitiesby women's organization and less residual conflict.

    • 26:35

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that that's not alwaysgood news for women's rights, because still,despite the evidence, policies, peacebuilding and peacekeepingpolicies, tend to follow a top-down approach.

    • 26:56

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: In other words, there's a targeting of women elites,rather than women's organizationsand social networks.And the truth is that if these networks are weak,they will be less likely to benefit from attention

    • 27:17

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: by external actors.If anything, they will become even more dependent,strengthening the vertical networksat the expense of the horizontal, whichis what we want to have in a peacebuilding process.Finally, a lot people might have heard

    • 27:37

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: of occasional instances of rape and violenceagainst women committed by UN peacekeepers,but also economic distortions where it becomes highlyprofitable to work either for the UN or other organizations,

    • 27:58

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: but at the same time often it leads to increasingprostitution, or [INAUDIBLE] service as it'scallled in some countries.So in this topic we looked at how internationaland local capacity interact in order to solidify peace

    • 28:24

      THEODORA-ISMENE GIZELIS [continued]: in a post-conflict country.We looked at particular policies that the UN engagewith in integrated missions, and we alsolooked at the special group, womenand women's organizations, and their rolein the peacebuilding process and post-conflict reconstruction.

International and Local Capacity

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Abstract

Professor Theodora-Ismene Gizelis examines peace building and conflict transformation. She discusses the interactions between international, state, and local actors in rebuilding countries to prevent a recurrence of conflict. She particularly highlights the roles of the United Nations and women in the peace building process.

SAGE Video Lectures
International and Local Capacity

Professor Theodora-Ismene Gizelis examines peace building and conflict transformation. She discusses the interactions between international, state, and local actors in rebuilding countries to prevent a recurrence of conflict. She particularly highlights the roles of the United Nations and women in the peace building process.

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