How Your Mood Influences Your Eye Fixations Over Classical Portrait Paintings: A Case of Motivated Perception

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    • 00:08

      [How Your Mood Influences Your Eye Fixationsover Classified Portrait Paintings:A Case of Motivated Perception]

    • 00:10

      ERIC LAURENT: Well, dear colleagues,thanks for being here.You are towards the end of the mountain.What I would like to do today is to share with yousome views about the influence of moodson eye movements and visual processing.I would like to first to refer to what Dan Simons addressed

    • 00:35

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: before the opening, of the Economic Society,was saying about the research of everybody here.We have to ask first what is a basic question behind our task,behind our experiments.["What is the problem?"]And I think that moods and this idea of the influence of mood

    • 00:56

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: over visual processing asks basic questionsfor cognitive psychology.Why?Because mood is a pervasive and dynamic phenomenon.Pervasive because it characterizes diffuse affectivestate, which may have no obvious origins for the person who

    • 01:17

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: experiences this state of mood.It is connected to a series of cognitive processes,spontaneous visual search, memory,decision making, or reasoning.Mood is a dynamic phenomenon and thisis a characteristic that influencesthe daily cognitive processes in our daily lives.

    • 01:40

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: So it involves, as a function of basic bodily internal states,hormonal cycles, emotions, exercise, hunger,food ingestion, and so on.An interesting object to investigate,complexity and coping in cognition and perception.So people process information and produce action.

    • 02:00

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: They are acting to regulate their moods.For instance, if you are lucky enoughto discover the restaurants in Chicago,you can restore your mood quite interestingly.Or to have a walk or exercise, more or less dry or more

    • 02:23

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: or less snowy.And you can also get to the Art Institute of Chicagoand have a view of the paintings and every artistwill tell you that one goal of the paintingsis to provoke emotions.So the visual inspection of art is a good way

    • 02:52

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: too modify her or his internal state of mood.If you're interested in knowing more about the work we do,in our lab, I produced a paper in 2014on the role of internal needs on perception action cycles.

    • 03:16

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: I'm not the only one for sure.Before me, Isaacowitz had alreadysaid that gaze is employed activelyto regulate mood, as a function of personality,as a function of the states of the body at any given moment.

    • 03:36

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: So mood influences eye movements over visual scenesbut also over faces in various tasks, such as recognition taskor visual and spatial task.So in the series of experiments I would propose here,we are interested in knowing about the approach

    • 03:58

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: and avoidance of visual search relative to specific regionsin the face.We shall design as emotional arouse of interestand basically, in our task, these arousal interestsare the eyes and the mouth.So we wanted to test the model in which people

    • 04:22

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: under positive mood want to keep their positive moodand to do so they will avoid to gaze, faceemotional regions in an uncertain environment.That is, if you are under a good moodand you don't know exactly what will be the stimuli,

    • 04:43

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: then you will tend to avoid the environmental stimulationin order to keep your internal happy mood.In contrast, if you are under negative mood,you will tend to want to change your internal moodand to gaze toward a face emotional region

    • 05:05

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: in an uncertain environment.So the aims of the presence research was twofold.First, to develop a portrait painting databasewith associated emotional ratings.And I will just give this first part.And second, to further test the predictionof an enactive-hedonistic model in a poorly consideredbut ecologically meaningful domain, the visual inspection

    • 05:27

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: of portrait paintings.Oh, sorry for the black box.It's a sad mood.You don't have the text but you have the color.We predicted that under happy mood,people would produce a short percentage of fixationin total fixation duration and shorter mean fixation duration

    • 05:50

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: than in other mood condition or an emotional region,more fixation on the rest of the faceand the background than on emotional regions.People in a sad mood, in contrast,will produce a higher percentage of fixation and total fixationduration and longer mean fixation durationon the emotional region in comparison

    • 06:11

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: with the mood conditions.And finally, under neutral mood, weexpected a pattern that would be intermediatebetween the predicted happy mood pattern and the predictedsad mood pattern.So I will skip the validation processbut we validated the database with the portrait paintings

    • 06:33

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: before the second experiment.So in this experiment, we included 100 participants.We had them placed under different mood inductionwith an autobiographical essay.

    • 06:54

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: People had to write an essay thatwould relate to the worst event in their life for the sad moodinduction or the happiest event in their lifefor the happy mood induction.Afterward, they were presented with 12 portrait paintings

    • 07:16

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: selected from study one for positive,for negative, and for neutral.If we have time for that, I can answerwhy there is a restricted number of portrait paintings.This was deliberately a project like that.And we measured the eye movementsduring the visual inspection of these portraits.

    • 07:42

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: So the procedure was like that.First, a fixation dot appeared on the screenand after, we had people answer the questionnaire for controlof their current violence, current arousal,and current dominance.And after, we had a [INAUDIBLE] procedure

    • 08:07

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: that consisted in creating an image of what they had writtendown on their paper and this was repeated every two trialsin order to have a relatively constant moodacross the trials.

    • 08:31

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: So here are the results I'm presenting.The controlled mood, percentage of eye fixation,analysis of the percentage of fixation duration,and point of gaze density.So we controlled first that mood that was already induced.So and people under sad mood inductionwere sadder than people under a neutral and under a happy mood

    • 08:55

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: induction.We have some programs to create truly happy mood conditionbecause our subjects were not different from the happy moodto the neutral mood condition.But if we have a look on the evolutionprocess of the level of mood across the experiment,

    • 09:19

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: we can see that maybe the happy moodinduction served to stabilize the happy moodacross the trials.So here are the main results.People under a sad mood induction,this is the left bar, the extreme left bar,

    • 09:41

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: had a greater number of eye fixationsas compared to people under happy mood inductionand as compared to people under neutral mood induction.This was a stable pattern of resultsbecause in the different conditions,

    • 10:04

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: were two similar level of differences.If we represent graphically the patterns of an example for oneparticipant, we can see that people under positive mood

    • 10:24

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: induction have a more spread out scan pass than peopleunder neutral mood or under negative mood induction.Concerning the mean fixation duration [INAUDIBLE] fixation,

    • 10:46

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: we have differences between the extreme left red bar thatrepresents the mean fixation duration [INAUDIBLE] for peopleunder sad mood condition relative to the baron the right that concerns what wefound for people under happy mood induction.

    • 11:07

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: That is that people under sad mood inductionhave a longer fixation duration, [INAUDIBLE] fixation,for emotional regions than people under happy moodinduction.We finish by showing you what happens if we take now

    • 11:33

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: the point of gaze from raw data and we plot that across time.So on the left, you'll have the case of scan pass,of density, for people under sad mood induction

    • 11:55

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: and on the right, what happens in a subject whois under happy mood induction.You can see that there is on an approach of emotional regionsfor people who are under sad mood inductionwhile there is an avoidance of eyes and mouth

    • 12:17

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: for people who are under happy mood induction.And this is [INAUDIBLE] results whateverthe valance of the portraits.This is the case for now the negativity valanced portraits.It's a little bit less [INAUDIBLE] for happy moodinduction but there you see this strong avoidance

    • 12:40

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: of the eyes and the mouth.And finally, for the neutral portraits.

    • 13:00

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: OK, so basically, we confirm three of the four hypotheses.People under happy mood inductionhave a shorter percentage of fixation and total fixationduration and shorter mean fixation durationthan in other mood conditions on emotional regions

    • 13:21

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: and more fixation on the rest of the face and the backgroundthan on the emotional region.For us, it's a sign of an approachstyle of the emotional regions of the portrait paintings.We have, in contrast, the opposite for people

    • 13:42

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: under sad mood induction.I'm finishing with this slide.I think that we tend to show that thereare two basic strategies, to keep mood and to change moods.The keep mood concerns people who are already

    • 14:04

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: in a positive mood and the change mood strategyconcerns people that are under a negative mood.This pattern is to test further namely with a [INAUDIBLE]

    • 14:26

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: populations between-- because we havedifferent results for many elderly peoplewho tend to produce different patterns of eye movementand to react differently than this global, overall

    • 14:46

      ERIC LAURENT [continued]: description we had with younger [INAUDIBLE] participants.Thank you very much for your attention.

How Your Mood Influences Your Eye Fixations Over Classical Portrait Paintings: A Case of Motivated Perception

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Abstract

Dr. Eric Yann Laurent presents his research into the influence of mood on eye movement and visual processing. He found that happy moods were linked to fewer and shorter eye fixations than the other moods. Sad moods were linked to more and longer fixations. Laurent believes this shows that people try to maintain happy moods and change sad moods through interaction with stimuli.

SAGE Video Forum
How Your Mood Influences Your Eye Fixations Over Classical Portrait Paintings: A Case of Motivated Perception

Dr. Eric Yann Laurent presents his research into the influence of mood on eye movement and visual processing. He found that happy moods were linked to fewer and shorter eye fixations than the other moods. Sad moods were linked to more and longer fixations. Laurent believes this shows that people try to maintain happy moods and change sad moods through interaction with stimuli.

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