Ethnicity, Religion & Sexual Exploitation

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    • 00:04

      [MUSIC PLAYING]Ethnicity, Religion & Sexual Exploitation

    • 00:10

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI: Hello.I'm Muzammil Quraishi, a senior lecturer in criminologyand criminal justice at the Universityof Salford. [Dr. Muzammil Quraishi, SeniorLecturer in Criminology and Criminal Justice]I'm a researcher on issues of Muslim populationsas perpetrators and victims of crime.I have a particular interest in colonialism,in jurisprudence, and also in ethnicity in crime.This case study examines the relatively recent phenomenon

    • 00:33

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: and focus on the ethnicities and religionof some perpetrators of the crime of childsexual exploitation.It also seeks to examine whether this recent focus isa contemporary example of a moral panic, whichis a well-established sociological focus or lens.

    • 00:58

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: In terms of the methodology for this case study,it is resting upon an analysis of secondary reports, theories,studies, and official reports on child sexual exploitation.How does a moral panic arise?The first area I'd like to explore

    • 01:20

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: is the way in which a moral panic arises.So this is a well-established phenomenonfrom the writings of Stanley Cohen.A moral panic is not entirely divorced from reality.It's an exaggeration of an incident

    • 01:41

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: or a series of incidents.And therefore, if we look at the child sexual exploitationcases, no one would deny that there are genuine caseswith victims that are involved.Also academics are not apologists for perpetratorsof crimes which are, in fact, extremely serious

    • 02:05

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: and of significance.So in terms of the tenets of a moral panic,we see the an incident occurs.But the coverage given by the mediato that incident risks exaggeration.But the important thing is that in termsof criminological focus that an incidentcould, in fact, lead to the production of a risk factor.

    • 02:30

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: And that risk factor then leads to the deployment of resources.Avoiding reification.In terms of Asian populations and child sexual exploitation,we also have another philosophical or theoreticalchallenge here.This is the linking of particular negative traits

    • 02:54

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: or crimes to distinct ethnicitiesor religious groups.How does one address this?How does one address the link that'sbeing asserted without reifying the connections being made?How do we, in fact avoid, issues of essentializingthe very populations that we're wishing to engage with?

    • 03:15

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: In terms of the phenomenon of child sexual exploitation,in the last five or six years there'sbeen significant coverage in the mediaof the ethnicity of perpetrators, of childgrooming.In terms of the ethnicity of these perpetrators,lots has been made about the fact

    • 03:38

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: that a number of these perpetratorswere from the Indian subcontinent,particularly from Pakistan or from South Asia.And the ethnicity of these perpetratorswas focused upon within the media.Ethnicity & religion as a cause of the offence.In terms of the link being asserted,

    • 03:59

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: there was a way in which the perpetratorsof this crime or crimes, as I'll come to in a moment,were somehow motivated by their ethnicity or indeedtheir religion, that it was the religionor it was the ethnicity which was the pathology whichwas the cause or prompt for them committing the offense.

    • 04:22

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: Simplifying complexity.In terms of grooming itself, there is also a problembecause this is what we consider a compound crime.Grooming is a specific crime.Yes, indeed.But there's also a number of offenses which perpetratesto being convicted of.

    • 04:44

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: This is glossed over often in the media.So individuals are committing crimes, sexual crimes,but also crimes against the person in termsof assault, kidnapping, et cetera, et cetera.There should also be a distinctionmade between a clinical diagnosis of pedophilia,which is to a degree distinct from grooming, per se.

    • 05:07

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: A biased media coverage.In terms of coverage of individuals,a lot has been made in the press,in particular by work by people such as Murottal, who'veanalyzed a number of broadsheets and tabloidsin terms of the way in which they have covered crime

    • 05:29

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: stories and particularly grooming of largely,as they perceive it, white young womenat the hands of Asian gangs.Their analysis or an analysis of these content analysis studiesis that actually the perpetratorshave been projected in particularly disparaging ways,

    • 05:53

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: often with terms such as evil or bestial.Also, Islam has been projected as backwardand in an Islamophobic manner.The individuals that are often photographed and done so withmugshots.The analysis of the experts who have

    • 06:15

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: been consulted by the media are often not critical.There are a series of ways in which language is deployedwhich perpetrates Islamophobic sentimentsin the coverage of this crime.And this is in contrast with the wayin which some official reports have covered the incidents

    • 06:39

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: of child sexual exploitation.A significant report by the children's commissionerwho examined a number of sites where CSE, Child SexualExploitation, has occurred contained a numberof important caveats about not readinginto the ethnicity or religion of the perpetrators

    • 07:04

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: of this type of crime.In fact, the children's commission's viewis that this crime is far more extensivethan is officially known.And it covers a wide range of strataand a wide range of ethnic groupsboth in terms of perpetrators and victims.

    • 07:24

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: A link between pedophilia, Islam, and terrorism.Another key factor is a link being made between pedophilia,Islam, and terrorism.These three seemingly incongruous aspectsof populations were linked together

    • 07:46

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: in a series of important pieces of researchin America, particularly by Daniel Filler, whoexamined the way in which the connection between Islam,pedophilia, and terrorism was being made in America.Daniel Filler's assertion is that there was the Southern

    • 08:10

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: Baptist Convention and extremist preachers,such as the Reverend Vine, who had at their annual meetingclaimed that Islam was linked to both pedophilia and terrorism,that the religion endorsed this.What was remarkable about this statement

    • 08:33

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: was that it went unchallenged by the state authorities.And in fact, entered the media sphere.And there were a whole series of articles and news itemsthroughout the radio and TV that were makingthis connection between the religion, terrorism,

    • 08:54

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: and sexual crime.So this was an import to the UK in termsof there's been a decade-long association between Muslimsas potential perpetrators of extremism or terrorism,

    • 09:15

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: but also in terms of linking thisto them being sexually deviant.Conclusion.And what we see is that there havebeen a series of populations over the centuriesthat have been the subject of sexual deviance.In other words, the construction of people as perpetrators

    • 09:38

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: of sexual deviance.There are a number of studies whichhave examined the distortion of aligning Jewish populationswith prostitution in Europe and southern America at the turnof the 20th century.So an important point to note here

    • 09:58

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: is that the people who are often subject of moral panicsgo in cycles.At the moment we seem to have a focus on Muslim perpetrators.These populations don't just appear or operate in vacuums.Populations are subject to constructionsabout racial constructions but also

    • 10:21

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: about their likelihood to be perpetratorsof particular crimes.It's worth noting that the contemporary debatearound Muslim or Asian perpetrators of sexual crimemust be posited against a broader discussion about Asiansbeing conformists within contemporary criminology.

    • 10:44

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: What I mean by this is that the involvementof Muslim and Asian populations, particular in UKcriminal stats, began with relative conformity.So in the 1980s and beyond, therewere relatively under reported and underrepresented in official criminal statistics.

    • 11:06

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: In the area of sexual crime, we are seeing now a focus.So if one acknowledges that the criminal justice system isbased upon a series of mechanismsthrough which individuals become known to the authoritiesand to which resources follow risk,

    • 11:27

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: then we can see that there may be a caseof self-fulfilling prophecy.So for many decades the resources were not focusing,the criminological lens was not focused upon Muslim or SouthAsian populations.But now there is a focus.And as officials have asserted, this crime

    • 11:48

      DR. MUZAMMIL QURAISHI [continued]: goes across sections of society.You will unearth this crime.And therefore, that will lead to a justificationof the original deployment of resources.A self-fulfilling prophecy will occur.

Ethnicity, Religion & Sexual Exploitation

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Abstract

Dr. Muzammil Quraishi examines the recent focus on the ethnicity and religion of child sexual exploitation perpetrators. He discusses the stereotype and media portrayal of a link between Islam and pedophilia, but notes that government reports on pedophilia stress that it crosses all racial and ethnic lines. Is this simply a new moral panic?

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Ethnicity, Religion & Sexual Exploitation

Dr. Muzammil Quraishi examines the recent focus on the ethnicity and religion of child sexual exploitation perpetrators. He discusses the stereotype and media portrayal of a link between Islam and pedophilia, but notes that government reports on pedophilia stress that it crosses all racial and ethnic lines. Is this simply a new moral panic?

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