Early Childhood Assessment

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    • 00:01

      [MUSIC PLAYING][Early Childhood Assessment]

    • 00:10

      NANCY CAPPELLONI: My name is Nancy Cappelloni,[Nancy Cappelloni, Professor of Education,University of San Francisco] I'm a professor in the EducationDepartment at the University of San Francisco.I'm also an independent educational consultant,and I work with families, children,and teachers and schools.In this tutorial, we will be discussing assessmentin early childhood education.

    • 00:31

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: The guiding questions will be, what is assessment?What is the purpose of assessment?Why are we assessing our students?What will we find out from the assessments?And finally, what will we do with the informationonce we have it?[The purpose of childhood assessments]Assessment provides a means for documenting,evaluating, monitoring and identifyinga child's abilities, skills, and characteristicsin the early childhood setting.

    • 01:04

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: assessment should allow the childto demonstrate his or her abilities,skills, knowledge, and competencieswithin the early childhood education setting.Information from assessments give the teacher evidenceto share with a child's family about his or her competenciesand growth.

    • 01:30

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: It also provides some accountabilityfor teachers and their schools.Information from assessments provides the teachers with waysto differentiate and individualizeinstruction for a child.Different types of assessment measure different things.Some assessments measure procedural knowledge,some factual knowledge, and some cognitive abilities.

    • 01:57

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: What we want to do is find an assessmentthat's developmentally appropriateand matches the learning goals of the child.It is also important for us when weassess to recognize individual differences in language,culture, and background experiences.Is important that the assessment be administered over timeand reflects the true picture of the child's growth.

    • 02:26

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: It is also important that we focus our assessmenton the whole child, so we're not onlylooking at the more academic subjects that the child can do,but we're looking at the whole pictureof their social, emotional, and cognitive development.[Asessment methods]There are multiple forms of assessment,such as formal, which are tests and quizzes, and informal,for example, observation, checklists, interviews,questionnaires, completion of tasks,and portfolio collections.

    • 03:04

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Three different points in time that one might assessare the benchmark, the formative,and the summative assessment.The benchmark assessment is measuringwhat the child knows for a specific skillwhen the child first enters school.Formative assessment is measuringa child in some kind of task during a period of time,such as a semester, a unit, or other block of time.

    • 03:35

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Summative assessment is when we measure or monitor a child'sgrowth at the end of the year or the end of a block of time.Informal assessments, such as observations, interviews,checklists, portfolio collections,are most developmentally appropriatefor the early childhood setting.

    • 03:59

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Assessing the child raises several concerns.Is the assessment fair?Is it bias?Does it reflect the teacher's expectationsor interpretations?Does it account for the child's mood or feelingsat the time of the assessment?

    • 04:20

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Does it take into consideration the child's home languageand background experiences?Will the assessment provide important and valuableinformation?And finally, will the assessment drive further instruction?It is important with the young childthat we don't only target our assessmentsto the more academic areas, but that welook at the whole child.

    • 04:49

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Although they have great value, the two areasmost frequently assessed are early or emergent literacyskills and mathematical knowledge.Emerging literacy skills identify a child's readingability and writing ability from scribbles,drawing, and writing.

    • 05:14

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Mathematical knowledge examines areassuch as number identification, sequencingof numbers, number writing, patterning, sorting,and other numeric skills.[Alternative assessments]Three areas that are much less frequently assessed but equallyas important are physical motor abilities,cognitive development, and social emotional development.

    • 05:46

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Assessments to measure cognitive skillslook at the child's understanding of the worldaround her or him.It involves tasks such as drawing a person,answering questions about personal data,and recognizing colors and basic geometric shapes.

    • 06:07

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Assessments that examine physical motor abilitieslooks at the child's fine motor development, graphomotordevelopment, which is handwriting skills, gross motoror large motor, and visual discrimination skills.Assessments that evaluate a child's physical motor skillslook at self-help skills, fine motor skills, graphomotoror hand writing skills, large motor or gross motor skills,and finally, visual discrimination.

    • 06:46

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Finally, social and emotional characteristicshave been found by teachers and is supported by the researchliterature to be the most important areasto identify a child's readiness for school.Some of the social and emotional skillsthat are critical for a child to beproficient in for his or her success in schoolare things such as perseverance and persistent with a task,following directions, sharing and taking turns, workingcooperatively with others.

    • 07:26

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: It is important for children to beable to play and cooperate with other childrenand resolve conflict peacefully.[Key points; the purpose of childhood assessments,assessment methods, alternative assessments]In this tutorial, we have learnedthat assessments can provide important and valuableinformation that helps teachers identify and monitora child's growth, development, proficiencies, characteristics,and the child's readiness for school.

    • 07:58

      NANCY CAPPELLONI [continued]: Teachers need to ask themselves exactly why theywant to assess, what they will assess,and finally, how that information providedwill help drive their instructionto further individual learning goals.

Early Childhood Assessment

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Abstract

Professor Nancy Cappelloni discusses assessment in early childhood education including the definition, purpose and possible discoveries.

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Early Childhood Assessment

Professor Nancy Cappelloni discusses assessment in early childhood education including the definition, purpose and possible discoveries.

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