Creating Enduring Strategic Relationships in the Absence of Formal Diplomatic Ties: United States and Taiwan

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    • 00:11

      DR. TODD BRADLEY: Hello everyone,my name is Dr. Todd Bradley.I'm an associate professor of political scienceat Indiana University Kokomo.In today's case study we'll be discussingcreating enduring strategic relationships in the absenceof formal diplomatic ties.And we'll look at the case of the United Statesand Taiwan also known as the Republic of China.

    • 00:37

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: The abstract today involves at the heartof creating sustainable strategic relationsbetween the United States and the Republicof China, AKA Taiwan, has been a balancing act of appeasingthe People's Republic of China.So that's the gist of what we're going to be discussing.Politically, the contentiousness between the executive branch,the presidency, and the US Senate was a litmus tests,

    • 01:00

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: and it continues to be a litmus test, in the case of the TaiwanRelations Act, also known as the TRA,especially in regards to the People's Republic of Chinain the era of the Cold War.A primary impetus of the appeasement of Chinahas been the intentional absence of formal diplomatic tiesbetween the United States and Taiwan, at least since 1979.

    • 01:21

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: Thus, how can the United States and perhaps other countriesmaintain strategic relationships in the midstof regional contentiousness and the absenceof formal diplomatic ties?That is the question.Sustainability in the midst of storms,one of the more enduring challenges in US foreign policyand American politics more broadlyis how to create foreign policies that

    • 01:42

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: can withstand congressional turn over,presidential biases, ideological differences,and international events which can alteroriginal pieces of legislation?The Taiwan Relations Act was created in 1979.Essentially, in part the act quote,"authorizes continued relations with the peopleof Taiwan and the Pescadores, which shall not

    • 02:02

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: be affected by the lack of diplomatic recognitionof the government of Taiwan."Additionally, the term "people on Taiwan," quote unquote,is used in this act to include the governing authorityon Taiwan recognized by the United Statesprior to January 1, 1979 as the Republic of China,its agencies, instrumentalities, and political subdivisions,

    • 02:24

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: the people governed by it or the organizationsand other entities formed under the law appliedby the people on Taiwan.The act contains "all the treatiesand other international agreements enteredinto between the United States and the governmentrecognized as a republic of China prior to January 1, 1979unless terminated by law," end quote.The act was signed by President Carter.

    • 02:44

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: Caveat, this act includes providingTaiwan with the latest military defense weaponry.Thus, the lack of formal diplomatic ties between the USand Taiwan, it's unique in the sensethat it is unprecedented for many countriesto have bilateral relations or any countriesfor that matter including trade and military connections.And they don't have a formal diplomatic linkage.

    • 03:06

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: So this is very unprecedented.It's a classic case study.One of the major questions that wemust address in terms of this case studyincludes, why aren't there any formal diplomatic tiesbetween the US and Taiwan, AKA the Republic of China?

    • 03:29

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: Taiwan was officially part of the People's Republicof China from 1683 to 1895.However, in 1895 Taiwan was ceded to Japanby the treaty of Shimonoseki after China was defeatedin the First Sino-Japanese War.The United States' second largest trading partneris China.

    • 03:50

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: This relationship limits the US's push for formal relationsso as not to upset China because of the strong economic tieswith mainland China in terms of Taiwan and other tradingpartners.As well, strategically, the US hasto appease both sovereign states, China and Taiwan.As well, Cold War animosity, democracy versus communism,

    • 04:11

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: capitalism versus socialism persistsbetween the US and China.Additionally, in the Chinese Communist Party's view,the One China Policy includes the Republic of China.The US wants to rightfully maintainpeace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific.China is continuing to create market reforms.For example, China sent its most senior director

    • 04:32

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: of trade for the first time to Taiwan on June 25, 2014as a way to minimize tensions regarding a trade pact itsigned with Taiwan in 2013.Moreover, the appeasement relationsbetween China and Taiwan have continuedto help the situation in terms of decreasing friction

    • 04:53

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: between China and Taiwan.For example, the presence of China in Taiwanbroke with 66 years of Cold War traditionon Saturday November 7, 2015.It's the first leader to leader summitthe two rivals have held since the civil war split them apartin 1949.

    • 05:16

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: Other tools that have helped continueto nurture the relationship between the US and Taiwanin the absence of diplomatic ties include NGOs.NGOs.act as a link or a mechanism to help bind the two countries.For example, the prominent American Institute in Taiwanis based in Taipei and there is an officein Arlington, Virginia, which is in suburban DC.

    • 05:38

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: It's a private organization funded by the US FederalGovernment and whose trustees are appointedby the US Secretary of State.The main diplomatic agency in the USis currently headed by John Kerry, whichprovides many quote unquote, "soft politicsprograms for Taiwan and the US" whichhelps nurture the economic relations in the absenceof diplomatic relations.Other NGOs include the Pacific Cultural Foundation

    • 06:01

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: and the Institute of International Relations,APEC, the Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation,which is a regional IGO, International GovernmentalOrganization.It includes the 21 member states of the US,the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan.In conclusion, as well as implications,

    • 06:23

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: the lack of formal diplomatic ties between the US and Taiwandoes not, let me repeat, does notminimize the salience or importanceof strategic, military, economic, and politicalopportunities for both countries.Moreover, the open economies, affective macro-economicmanagement policies, solid economic growthover the past 15 to 20 years whichmirrors the economic growth in Singapore,

    • 06:46

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: can provide a quote unquote, "blueprint" for other countrieswhich find themselves quote, "caughtbetween a rock and a hard place" end quote, or middle groundas the US currently finds itself.As well, the Taiwan Relations Acthas illustrated that even in the midst of legislative turnover,presidential biases, ideological political partydifferences, and international events,

    • 07:06

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: countries can still have nurturingbilateral relationships and multilateral relationships,for example, APEC.Calls to include Taiwan in international regimes,those are standards, protocols, rules and regswhich govern interstate behavior, such as the WorldHealth Organization and the WTO World Trade Organizationcan help nurture relationships.After all, healthy populations and fair and free trade

    • 07:29

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: are good for all.In closing, we must consider two main research questions.One, what will the renewed relationship between Chinaand Taiwan mean for the US as a quote,unquote, "middle player?"Secondly, how can other countrieslearn from non-diplomatic relationshipsin terms of sustaining economic relations?Thank you very much for your time,

    • 07:50

      DR. TODD BRADLEY [continued]: and I hope we've at least started the conversation.

Creating Enduring Strategic Relationships in the Absence of Formal Diplomatic Ties: United States and Taiwan

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Abstract

Using the example of Taiwan and the United States, Dr. Todd Bradley explains how two countries can maintain a relationship in the absence of diplomatic ties.

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Creating Enduring Strategic Relationships in the Absence of Formal Diplomatic Ties: United States and Taiwan

Using the example of Taiwan and the United States, Dr. Todd Bradley explains how two countries can maintain a relationship in the absence of diplomatic ties.

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