Correspondent Special: Mafia Women

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    • 00:00

      [MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 00:46

      NARRATOR: In southern Italy, not far from Naples,lie two towns-- Lauro and Quindici.[CHURCH BELLS]Only a mile separates them.But for the last 30 years, a brutal Mafia warhas been waged here.[CHURCH BELLS ]Two families, the Cavas and the Grazianos,

    • 01:09

      NARRATOR [continued]: have fought a murderous campaign against each otherfor control of this valley.[GUNSHOTS][MUSIC PLAYING]But on May the 26th this year, in the quiet streets of Lauro,

    • 01:30

      NARRATOR [continued]: the situation developed a chilling new twist.[SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 01:35

      NARRATOR: The atmosphere was surreal.[SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 01:47

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 01:49

      INTERPRETER: We heard some shots and lots of people running,trying to escape.

    • 01:52

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 01:56

      GABRIELLA BIANCHI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 01:60

      NARRATOR: The first thing we saw was the blue Audi 80with its doors wide open and two bodies on the ground coveredin the usual white sheets.

    • 02:07

      GABRIELLA BIANCHI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 02:18

      GABRIELLA BIANCHI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 02:20

      NARRATOR: There was a blood stain near this manhole and guncartridges all over the ground.

    • 02:24

      GABRIELLA BIANCHI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 02:29

      NARRATOR: A bullet-riddled car, blood-soaked bodies,the usual Mafia trademarks.But this crime was different.

    • 02:39

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 02:40

      INTERPRETER: When I arrived on the scene,I saw bodies being pulled out of the car,but there weren't the bodies of menlike you see in films or in the movies.

    • 02:47

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 02:57

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 02:58

      INTERPRETER: The thing I rememberbest was seeing the sister of Biagio Cava, whose skull wastotally shattered because she'd been shot in the head at veryclose range.

    • 03:06

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 03:13

      NARRATOR: The one unbreakable Mafia rule had been broken.For the first time, it was women, not men,who were both the victims and the suspected murderers.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 03:36

      NARRATOR [continued]: Exactly what had provoked these horrific events isn't clear.But in a hail of bullets, three women from the Cava familywere killed and a further two were seriously injured.The youngest victim, Clarissa Cava, was just 16.Her two aunts died as they threw themselves in front of her.

    • 03:56

      NARRATOR [continued]: Although the police never found the murder weapons,they believed they knew who was responsible-- the Grazianos.Within hours, nine members of the Graziano clanhad been arrested, including four women.The Mafia's time-honored rules of engagementhad been shattered.

    • 04:14

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 04:18

      INTERPRETER: Up until now, there'sbeen a code of honor, which meant that the Mafiawar was between men only.

    • 04:23

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 04:27

      INTERPRETER: It was tacitly forbiddento hit a woman, or even worse, a teenager from the enemy side.It was the men who fought the war.

    • 04:34

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 04:39

      INTERPRETER: What's new about this caseis that there are women on both sides.

    • 04:44

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 04:47

      INTERPRETER: Women among the victims and womenamong the assailants.

    • 04:50

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 04:58

      NARRATOR: The people of Lauro and Quindicidon't say the names Graziano and Cava out loud.That's the power of omerta, the Mafia vow of silence.When we visited the street where it happened,people told us they hadn't seen or heard anything.

    • 05:15

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:18

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:21

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:23

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:24

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:33

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:37

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:37

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:38

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:40

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:46

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:48

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:53

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:54

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 05:56

      TOWNSPERSON: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:06

      NARRATOR: If they did talk, they didn't have a bad word to say.

    • 06:10

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:13

      NARRATOR: I went to school with them.They're nice people, good people, people with kind heartswho give a lot.They're not bad people.

    • 06:20

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:22

      NARRATOR: Let's not create this monster thatdoesn't exist and turn them into people that are horrendous,evil.

    • 06:27

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:36

      NARRATOR: But the events of the 26th of Maywere so traumatic that the people of Laurowere prepared to overcome their fear of omerta.For one day they took to the streets in protestagainst the violence.[CHATTER]

    • 06:51

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:54

      INTERPRETER: The lighting of the torches was an emblem of hopeand of life.

    • 06:57

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 06:60

      INTERPRETER: All the people joined togetherin a public demonstration of protestthrough the streets of Lauro so that the people towards whomit was directed were made aware of their feelings,that they were not going to stand for it anymore.

    • 07:10

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 07:15

      ANNOUNCER: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 07:24

      NARRATOR: It was the first time that people had activelyshown their anger about the war between the Cavasand the Grazianos.

    • 07:31

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 07:34

      INTERPRETER: This has brought it all home to us.

    • 07:36

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 07:38

      INTERPRETER: While the clans flex their muscles,we are in danger.We are at risk.Me, my daughters, my wife, all innocent bystandersgetting caught up in their wars.

    • 07:48

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 07:52

      INTERPRETER: But what I find most worryingis the fact that these two clans show their absolute powerover the area, unleashing an unprecedented, unparalleledferocity.

    • 08:01

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC - ALABAMA 3, "WOKE UP THIS MORNING"]

    • 08:18

      NARRATOR: Gerardo Puopolo is a Mafia buster, a police chieffrom Sicily who's in Lauro to try and puta stop to the family feud.[MUSIC - ALABAMA 3, "WOKE UP THIS MORNING"]

    • 08:37

      NARRATOR: Puopolo has been fighting the Mafia for 30 yearsand thought he'd seen it all.But women as victims and suspected killersis new even for him.[MUSIC - ALABAMA 3, "WOKE UP THIS MORNING"]

    • 09:04

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:06

      INTERPRETER: This is the car the Cavas were in.

    • 09:08

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:11

      INTERPRETER: The semiautomatic Smith and Wesson40-caliber pistol was used.

    • 09:14

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:23

      INTERPRETER: 20 shots were fired,which traveled through the windscreenand hit the women in the back.

    • 09:28

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:33

      NARRATOR: Of the five Cava women in the Audi,three were under 21.

    • 09:36

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:41

      NARRATOR: Clarissa Cava was sitting in the back.She was 16.

    • 09:45

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:47

      INTERPRETER: A few of them managed to get outand either tried to run away or attack the other side.

    • 09:51

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 09:53

      INTERPRETER: Clarissa, on the other hand,was still sitting in the back because shehad been hit by bullets and couldn't get up or get out.

    • 09:59

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:03

      NARRATOR: Clarissa Cava went to schoolin Lauro, just around the corner from where she was killed.Earlier that day, she'd been sitting in her classroom.

    • 10:13

      FRANCESCO NAPPI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:15

      INTERPRETER: This was her desk.

    • 10:16

      FRANCESCO NAPPI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:18

      INTERPRETER: After it happened, her classmatesdidn't come to school for two days.

    • 10:21

      FRANCESCO NAPPI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:29

      INTERPRETER: 16-year-olds think death happens to old people.When someone their own age dies, it's completely unexpected.It's a trauma.And to die in this way so violently,the trauma is even greater, more intense.

    • 10:39

      FRANCESCO NAPPI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:44

      ERNESTO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 10:46

      INTERPRETER: When I found out that Clarissa was involved,I felt really bad.I spent a long time in silence, thinking, meditating,because this was a girl I knew.It hurt badly.

    • 10:59

      ERNESTO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 11:00

      INTERPRETER: I was really upset about it.

    • 11:23

      NARRATOR: One man wasn't among the mourners at Clarissa Cava'sfuneral-- the head of the clan, Biagio Cava,father of Clarissa and her injured sister Felicia.Some thought Clarissa showed traitsof being her father's daughter.

    • 11:40

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 11:43

      INTERPRETER: One of the three women killed was only 16and attended the local school.Nevertheless, she had acid spray in her handbagto attack or defend herself from the enemy clan.So this would seem to show that Mafia culture had affectedeven a young girl of 16.

    • 11:56

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:02

      NARRATOR: The Cava's alleged killers were the Graziano clan.Driving was Alba, a 41-year-old mother of four.She and her two eldest girls were arrested and chargedwith murder.So was her mother-in-law, who had a 9-millimeter gun stuffeddown her bra.The family car used in the shootout

    • 12:23

      NARRATOR [continued]: was customized for the Mafia.

    • 12:25

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:28

      INTERPRETER: This bit's interesting.

    • 12:30

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:33

      INTERPRETER: The door is bullet-proof.This is the only bit without bullet-proofing.

    • 12:36

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:37

      INTERPRETER: You stick a gun through this hole and fire.

    • 12:39

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:48

      INTERPRETER: And this is the boot where theykeep their security systems.

    • 12:51

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 12:55

      INTERPRETER: There are two extinguishers.One's connected to the engine.

    • 12:60

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 13:03

      INTERPRETER: The other's connected to all four tires.

    • 13:05

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 13:11

      INTERPRETER: If there's a fire or they're attacked,it goes off automatically.

    • 13:15

      GUISEPPE LIGATO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 13:27

      NARRATOR: The Graziano's defense casesare being put together in Naples, 30 miles from the crimescene.

    • 13:36

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 13:41

      NARRATOR: Stefania is very young, 19.She's a law student at university in her first year.

    • 13:47

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 13:50

      NARRATOR: She's really conscientious.She left school with the highest grades.She's a really good girl.

    • 13:55

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 14:02

      NARRATOR: Her sister Chiara is 20.

    • 14:03

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 14:05

      NARRATOR: She's in prison in Messina.

    • 14:07

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 14:14

      NARRATOR: She's married with a baby.She's a simple girl, typical of the women from her area.

    • 14:19

      MARIA LAMPITELLA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 14:26

      NARRATOR: Chiara and Stefania Graziano and their mother Albaare sitting in prison charged with murder,but they say they're innocent.A male relative, Antonio Graziano, has stepped forwardand pleaded guilty to all the murders.

    • 14:49

      NARRATOR [continued]: Puopolo's team still believe that some of the womenalso fired guns.Bullets from at least three guns were found at the scene,although no weapons were.Police forensic tests on Alba's handsindicate she's likely to have fired a pistol.

    • 15:17

      NARRATOR [continued]: For Puopolo's team, finding the missing murder weaponsis a priority in the case against the Grazianos.They're searching a deserted Graziano building in the hillsabove Quindici and Lauro.

    • 15:37

      NARRATOR [continued]: [GUNSHOTS]From ballistic evidence gathered at the scene,Puopolo knows what kind of gun Alba might have used.[GUNSHOT]

    • 15:47

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 15:51

      INTERPRETER: This is a semiautomatic pistol.

    • 15:52

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 15:55

      INTERPRETER: The caliber, the type of cartridge,is particularly powerful.It causes very serious physical damage.

    • 16:01

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:08

      INTERPRETER: This is the type of bullet used.

    • 16:11

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:13

      INTERPRETER: And it inflicts considerable wounds.

    • 16:15

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:25

      NARRATOR: Up In the hills there'sno secret Graziano arsenal, but plenty of signs of Grazianodefiance.

    • 16:32

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:37

      NARRATOR: Does it mean that someone's been here?

    • 16:40

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:44

      INTERPRETER: Yeah, someone's been hereand thought they'd leave this message on the wall--

    • 16:48

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 16:50

      INTERPRETER: --to say that we'd never get them.

    • 16:52

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 17:07

      NARRATOR: Without the guns, the prosecution in Naplesare having to use all the technology at their disposalto work out what happened.[SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 17:22

      INTERPRETER: We're just finishingthe technical analyses of the guns and bullets.

    • 17:26

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 17:28

      INTERPRETER: These and the bagged telephone conversations.

    • 17:31

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 17:34

      NARRATOR: Have you reached a pointwhere you can be sure that all the women fired a gun?

    • 17:41

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 17:44

      INTERPRETER: At the moment, the resultsshow that some of the women present at the scenedid fire guns.

    • 17:49

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][CHOIR SINGING]

    • 18:02

      NARRATOR: The idea that women were directly involved inthe killings raises serious questionsfor the local communities.Traditionally, the Catholic Churchhas cast women as protected matriarchs,nurturers, and carers.But in a single incident, that imagehas been turned on its head.[CHOIR SINGING]

    • 18:31

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 18:34

      INTERPRETER: The clans' rules of honorwere that women, old people, and children had to be kept outof any incidents.So the debt has involved only the men of the clans.

    • 18:42

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 18:46

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 18:48

      INTERPRETER: With this killing of women,of young girls, because Biagio's daughter was 15 or 16,all the moral rules have been broken.

    • 18:55

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 18:56

      INTERPRETER: Don't touch women.Don't touch children.Now every taboo has been broken.

    • 19:00

      DINO ACERRA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:03

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:06

      NARRATOR: These days, women are worse than men.I think they're more masculine than men and behave worsethan men.Being feminine or nice is no longerwhat today's women are about.I don't even find these qualities in myself.So different from my grandmother's generation.

    • 19:21

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:23

      NARRATOR: We've changed.We live in a different sort of societynow, which gives us too much choice.

    • 19:28

      MARIA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:31

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:34

      INTERPRETER: Maybe women have achieved equal rights now.And even in terms of violence, theywant to get ahead and make their mark.

    • 19:39

      GIANFRANCO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 19:43

      INTERPRETER: It was meant to be a joke.

    • 19:53

      NARRATOR: So has the role of women in the Mafia changed?We'd approached Stefania Graziano,Alba's 19-year-old daughter, who's been in prison in Romesince the killings.She agreed to talk.I came with permission papers and one of her lawyers.

    • 20:15

      NARRATOR [continued]: But two hours later, it seemed Stefania had changed her mind.

    • 20:20

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 20:24

      INTERPRETER: Stefania said that shedoesn't want to be interviewed.

    • 20:26

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 20:29

      INTERPRETER: What happened has depressed her.

    • 20:31

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 20:34

      INTERPRETER: She's in a state of emotional confusionand doesn't want to be reminded about what happened.

    • 20:38

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 20:48

      INTERPRETER: Stefania has been in touch with her mother.She told me that her mother said, don't do the interview.Don't go on television.

    • 20:56

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 20:59

      NARRATOR: And does she have to do what her mother says?

    • 21:01

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 21:02

      INTERPRETER: She's over 18, so not really.But you have to remember, the mother is the mother.

    • 21:06

      PAOLINO BONAVITA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 21:12

      NARRATOR: And the mother in this caseis Alba, matriarch of the Graziano familyand a woman with a heavy heart.11 years ago, her husband, Eugenia Graziano, was murdered.It's widely known that Alba blamed the Cavafamily for her husband's death.

    • 21:34

      NARRATOR [continued]: In the claustrophobic atmosphere of small-town Mafia families,vendettas are a part of daily lifeand handed from generation to generation.[DOG BARKING]Alba's youngest daughter Diana, who's 17,wasn't there on the night of the shootings.Now she's not in Italy either.

    • 21:55

      NARRATOR [continued]: She's in hiding.[PHONE RINGING]

    • 21:58

      DIANA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:02

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:03

      DIANA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:08

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:09

      DIANA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:26

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:27

      DIANA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 22:52

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 23:03

      DIANA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 23:33

      NARRATOR: So what started the two families on the roadto this massacre?Traditionally, one family had controlled the townsof Lauro and Quindici, using extortion and gaininglucrative government building contracts.The Grazianos have always ruled the roost.

    • 24:01

      NARRATOR [continued]: Key to supremacy is the town council,which controls all money from the state.And whoever is mayor runs the town council.That's usually been a Graziano.[MUSIC PLAYING]But in 1972, Fiore Graziano, then mayor of Quindici,

    • 24:23

      NARRATOR [continued]: was assassinated by the Cavas.It was the first time another familyhad challenged the Grazianos.[MUSIC PLAYING]The resulting feud has claimed 30 lives in as many years.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 24:48

      NARRATOR [continued]: The families have separate cemeteries.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 25:02

      CIRO PIETOSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 25:03

      INTERPRETER: This chapel is occupied by Biagio Cava'sfather, Vincenzo.

    • 25:07

      CIRO PIETOSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 25:09

      INTERPRETER: He too died in an ambush.

    • 25:11

      CIRO PIETOSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 25:13

      INTERPRETER: Then there's his wife, Biagio Cava's mother--

    • 25:16

      CIRO PIETOSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 25:19

      INTERPRETER: --his daughter Clarissa Cava.

    • 25:22

      NARRATOR: In just 10 years, this tombhas become crowded with members of the Cava family,killed long before their allotted span.

    • 25:29

      CIRO PIETOSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 25:39

      NARRATOR: But it was a massive earthquake in 1980which fueled the war between the two families.While locals grieved the loss of over 3,000 people,for the Cavas and the Grazianos, it was a golden opportunity.Tens of thousands of pounds of government money

    • 25:59

      NARRATOR [continued]: was set aside to rebuild the area, moneywhich the Grazianos and Cavas felt had their names on it.

    • 26:08

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 26:11

      INTERPRETER: In the last 20 years,there have been a lot of murders on both sides.There are personal grudges and family hatreds.

    • 26:17

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 26:20

      INTERPRETER: And those hatreds and grudgeshave been compounded by economic interests.

    • 26:24

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 26:28

      INTERPRETER: A lot of money for public workshas found its way into those areas,and it's made people's appetites bigger.

    • 26:34

      DOMENICO AIROMA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 26:38

      NARRATOR: The greed for money resurfaced in 1998when the region suffered major flooding and landslides.Those who were killed or lost their homeswere compensated with European and government funds.Some of the money never reached its target.Most of the houses damaged in the floods

    • 26:59

      NARRATOR [continued]: have still not been repaired.[SINGING]From the air, though, it's clear which buildings havehad money pumped into them.Mafia homes have been turned into strongholds.The feuding families now live in a secret world,

    • 27:20

      NARRATOR [continued]: entrenched behind high concrete walls,protected by guard dogs, cameras, and watchtowers.From the ground, the only safe wayto visit this Graziano fortress was in the company of Puopolo.This is Alba's house in Quindici, now empty.All the adults have been arrested.

    • 27:41

      NARRATOR [continued]: The seven children have been taken abroadfor their own protection.

    • 27:47

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 27:49

      INTERPRETER: It really is a bunker.Inside there are solid walls, CCTVto see the arrival of the police,or enemies who may be approaching to attack.

    • 28:02

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:11

      INTERPRETER: The walls inside are extremely thick.

    • 28:13

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:17

      INTERPRETER: And the glass in the windows is bullet-proof.So it really is like a bunker.

    • 28:21

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:27

      INTERPRETER: Some documents were falsified,and this road was declared a public road in orderto do major repairs to it that weren't supposed to happen.

    • 28:34

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:39

      INTERPRETER: They put in sewers, street lights.They even tarmacked the road.

    • 28:42

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:46

      INTERPRETER: But as you can see, the road beyond the villais completely abandoned.

    • 28:50

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 28:55

      INTERPRETER: Inside the villa, it's beautiful and spacious.There's exotic wood, well-kept gardens, and a small swimmingpool.There's even an outside pizza oven.

    • 29:03

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 29:07

      INTERPRETER: It's a very rich villa.

    • 29:08

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 29:11

      INTERPRETER: The house is worth around 5 million euros.

    • 29:14

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 29:20

      INTERPRETER: Mostly nothing is paid for, neither the materialsto build the house nor the furnishings on the inside.

    • 29:25

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 29:31

      NARRATOR: The Cavas live on the outskirts of Lauro,just a few hundred meters from the Grazianos.Although some Grazianos were injured in the shootout,suggesting the Cavas were armed too, none of the Cavashas been arrested.It wasn't safe to stand outside this timeor stop the car, even with Puopolo.

    • 29:54

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 29:59

      INTERPRETER: On the left, we'll be seeing the house of the Cavaclan where Biagio Cava lives.

    • 30:06

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 30:11

      INTERPRETER: It's this house here on the left.

    • 30:13

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 30:17

      INTERPRETER: This house also has several armored defensesas you can see.

    • 30:21

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 30:25

      INTERPRETER: The windows and doorsare reinforced with steel, and the balcony railings have steelreinforcements in them too.

    • 30:32

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 30:38

      NARRATOR: Two months after the killings,and the murder weapons still haven't been found.[HELICOPTER SOUNDS]The crossroads between Lauro and Quindiciis a sensitive zone and an important thoroughfarefor both families.

    • 30:60

      NARRATOR [continued]: All cars are being checked for weapons.And when a car belonging to one of the families is stopped,even the police can be affected by omerta, the reluctanceto talk.

    • 31:14

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 31:20

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 31:22

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 31:23

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 31:24

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 31:26

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 31:39

      NARRATOR: That same code of silencehas reasserted itself in Lauro.Public support for the anti-Mafia campaignseems to be dwindling.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 31:49

      ANNOUNCER: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 32:05

      NARRATOR: But a dedicated few persist.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 32:20

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 32:26

      INTERPRETER: The young people are very important,because I think they're the most susceptibleto becoming involved with the Mafia, which could leadto very serious consequences.

    • 32:33

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 32:38

      INTERPRETER: For this demonstration,we tried to give them a theme, violence, in order to raiseyoung people's awareness.

    • 32:43

      PASQUALE COLUCCI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 32:52

      NARRATOR: Campaigners know that if this Mafia vow of silenceis ever to be broken, then it is the younger generation thatneeds to be targeted.Quindici primary school educates childrenfrom both Cava and Graziano families.

    • 33:05

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:09

      NARRATOR: Giudita Ciera is a local psychologistwho works in schools trying to get childrento talk about their feelings.

    • 33:16

      STUDENTS: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:17

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:19

      CRISTIANA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:28

      ALFONSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:39

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:40

      ALFONSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:42

      ANNA RITA GRAZIANO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 33:58

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:00

      NARRATOR: We get into a circle and we talk.

    • 34:02

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:04

      NARRATOR: Not only about the thingsthey know in school, but also about what they're feeling.

    • 34:08

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:18

      STUDENTS: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:19

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:22

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:24

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:25

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:27

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:32

      NARRATOR: When they're able to express their emotions,they can give them a name and can recognize themin situations, not only in the context of school,but also outside.

    • 34:41

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:42

      ALFONSO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:46

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 34:50

      NARRATOR: Giudita hopes that if childrentalk about their own violent behavior,it will help them understand and resist the deadlier versionthat afflicts their valley.

    • 34:58

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 35:25

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 35:35

      STUDENT: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 35:38

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 35:41

      INTERPRETER: But a child who has the courageto say, I don't like violence, I'm not comfortable with it,is a child who has been able to express his own dissentwhile at the same time still belonging to the group.

    • 35:51

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 35:56

      INTERPRETER: From the work we're doing,I would like individuals to emerge,while still belonging to a group,individuals who are able to be free to choose their own paths.

    • 36:05

      GIUDITA CIERA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][CHURCH BELLS][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 36:17

      NARRATOR: Nearly four months after the shootout,and it's Patron Saints Day, when the village of Quindiciturns out to worship a golden Madonna.[MUSIC PLAYING]Ever hopeful for a peaceful future,the villagers donate gold and money.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 36:41

      NARRATOR [continued]: But for Puopolo and his men, it'sa day fraught with tension, one of the rare occasionswhen Cavas and Grazaianos not in prisonwill be in the same place at the same time.[CHEERING][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 37:01

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 37:03

      INTERPRETER: The people of Quindici are very religious.So it's unlikely that anything bad willhappen during the festival.

    • 37:08

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 37:13

      INTERPRETER: On the other hand, it'sa very sensitive time at the moment.So people have taken lots of precautions.

    • 37:17

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 37:22

      INTERPRETER: In other words, some people have stayed away.

    • 37:24

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 37:37

      NARRATOR: But the spirit of cooperation is only temporary.[MUSIC PLAYING][CHURCH BELLS]

    • 37:51

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 37:54

      INTERPRETER: So during the festival,I'm sure we won't have any particularlydangerous situations.

    • 37:58

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 37:60

      INTERPRETER: But as soon as that's finished,the hostilities will start again.

    • 38:03

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN][MUSIC PLAYING][CHURCH BELLS][SINGING]

    • 38:31

      NARRATOR: Religious ceremony over, the partying begins.And without the Madonna's disapproving eyewatching over them, it's up to Puopolo to keep the pace.[SINGING]

    • 38:57

      NARRATOR [continued]: There's just one incident.A man is arrested for beating up a policeman.As it happened, he's a Cava.[SINGING][APPLAUSE]

    • 39:27

      NARRATOR [continued]: Two weeks later, the police seem to havea lead on the May massacres.They think they've found one of the guns used by the Grazianos.

    • 39:41

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 39:43

      INTERPRETER: It's likely that this weaponwas used to commit a murder.

    • 39:46

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 39:48

      NARRATOR: Where did you find it?

    • 39:50

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 39:50

      INTERPRETER: Here, opposite the villa,where there are probably other rounds hidden.

    • 39:55

      NARRATOR: And how come they hid them so close to the house?

    • 39:59

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 40:00

      INTERPRETER: Because they don't own that land,and they probably didn't expect the police to search there.

    • 40:05

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 40:07

      INTERPRETER: It's not Graziano land.

    • 40:10

      GERARDO PUOPOLO: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 40:15

      NARRATOR: And the discovery of the weaponallows the police to search the Graziano compound.No flower is left unturned, but no guns are found.

    • 40:36

      NARRATOR [continued]: And the weapon they'd found outside the villawas not used in the killing of the Cava women.The bullets don't match.It may have been used in another murder.By September, the police have yet another problemon their hands-- Biagio Cava, the head of the Cava clan.

    • 41:00

      NARRATOR [continued]: While he's been in prison, he's lost his sister,his sister-in-law, and his 16-year-old daughterin the Lauro shootings.His release is imminent.He will want revenge.Is he dangerous?

    • 41:13

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 41:15

      INTERPRETER: Oh, yes.He's a very cunning man.He's seriously dangerous.

    • 41:20

      POLICEMAN: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 41:24

      NARRATOR: One of the two survivors from the attackis Biagio Cava's daughter Felicia.This bullet left the 19-year-old paralyzed.She wouldn't let us in to her fortified home.But when we managed to reach her on the telephone,she left us in little doubt that the feud would continue.

    • 41:44

      FELICIA CAVA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:01

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:03

      FELICIA CAVA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:06

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:07

      FELICIA CAVA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:08

      NARRATOR: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:09

      FELICIA CAVA: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:17

      NARRATOR: While many in Quindici and Lauroare appalled at the prospect of further violencebetween the two families, we foundthat there was some sympathy for Biagio Cava's position.This from a 12-year-old, her facedisguised to protect her identity.

    • 42:33

      GIRL: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:36

      INTERPRETER: I feel very sorry that those two women died.And in my opinion, the father of these girlsshould get his revenge for those deaths.

    • 42:42

      GIRL: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:45

      INTERPRETER: In my opinion, it's not badthat they killed his two daughters.It's really unfair.

    • 42:50

      NARRATOR: But if he does that, there'llbe more problems than now, right?It'll be more dangerous, won't it?

    • 42:55

      GIRL: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 42:56

      INTERPRETER: Well, sure.But I don't want them to kill each other in Lauro.They can do it in Quindici.But he must get his revenge.

    • 43:03

      NARRATOR: How?

    • 43:05

      GIRL: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

    • 43:06

      INTERPRETER: I don't know, by killing other peopleor doing something bad to them.I really don't know.

    • 43:10

      NARRATOR: Do your friends think like you do?

    • 43:14

      INTERPRETER: Yes, most of them.

    • 43:19

      NARRATOR: The Cava clan clearly couldn'twait for the boss's release before executing revenge.A week after the town festival, a bombwas planted under a Graziano supermarket,shattering any hope that the events of May the 26thhad shocked the families enough to end the feud.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 43:46

      NARRATOR: Life in the Lauro valleyappears to continue as before.But the warring clans have broken an unwritten rule.Women have been directly involved in violence.[DOG BARKING]The feud seems certain to get worse.[MUSIC PLAYING]

    • 44:17

      NARRATOR [continued]: To join our live interactive debate,log on to www.bbc.co.uk/correspondent,or digital satellite viewers can press the red button now.Next week on Correspondent, WhiteTerror in Kenya-- new evidence of British atrocities,including the death and torture of thousands.

    • 44:39

      NARRATOR [continued]: [MUSIC PLAYING]

Correspondent Special: Mafia Women

View Segments Segment :

Abstract

The Italian Mafia has always been known for being brutal, but members have always followed a code that kept women and children out of the violence. That all changed when women from the Graziano family murdered women from the Cava family. Follow an investigation of both families and explore the circumstances of the murder.

Correspondent Special: Mafia Women

The Italian Mafia has always been known for being brutal, but members have always followed a code that kept women and children out of the violence. That all changed when women from the Graziano family murdered women from the Cava family. Follow an investigation of both families and explore the circumstances of the murder.

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