# Carb-Loaded: A Culture Dying to Eat

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• ### Transcript

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• 00:08

NARRATOR: This is Lathe.I've known him and his wife for almost 20 years.In fact, about 10 years ago, we started our own companytogether.In 2009, Lathe was 36 years old and weighed 165 pounds.He pretty much ate the standard American diet, exercised

• 00:29

NARRATOR [continued]: regularly, and was precisely the same weighthe was throughout his senior year of high school.But then Lathe received some shocking news.

• 00:44

DOCTOR: OK, you're Mr. Poland.Ah, yes, you have diabetes.

• 00:55

NARRATOR: Hm.Anyway, with no family history of the disease and a dietthat most nutritionists would consider healthy,shouldn't Lathe be the last person with diabetes?How did this happen?Is Lathe an exception to the rule or partof an emerging trend?Did this have something to do with this so-calledheart-healthy diet?

• 01:17

NARRATOR [continued]: And most importantly, how--

• 01:19

LATHE POLAND: Hey, real quick.Do we go straight here or do we take this left?

• 01:26

NARRATOR: Hm.Yeah, I would take the left up ahead.

• 01:30

LATHE POLAND: OK, good.Sorry, what were you saying?

• 01:33

NARRATOR: No, no worries.I was just thinking.How many of the health problems we're witnessing todayare a result of our modern food culture?

• 01:41

LATHE POLAND: That's a good question.

• 01:43

NARRATOR: Definitely.Hey, did you take that left?

• 02:34

LATHE POLAND: With advances in medicine,it would seem that people should be healthiernow than ever before.

• 02:39

ERIC CARLSEN: However, it's startingto appear the opposite is the case.Most experts agree we have a serious problem.

• 02:46

JEFFREY N. GERBER: We are seeing an epidemic explosionof chronic diseases such as a obesity, diabetes,heart disease, cancer, the list goes on and on.

• 02:55

DAVID I. KATZ: We've been talking about epidemic obesityforever.We started talking about pandemic obesitybecause much of the world's population is now affected.In the United States where rates of obesityare high and may be stabilizing at that very high level,we really have hyper endemic obesity, a fixed high level.

• 03:13

WENDY SCINTA: Once we start feeling like we're plateauing,it starts to head back up again in different age groups.It is-- we are in a crisis.There's no other way to put it.We're in a crisis.

• 03:22

NARRATOR: A look at our society revealsan alarming rise in heart disease, hypertension, cancer,Alzheimer's, obesity, fatty liver disease,and of course, diabetes.

• 03:35

DOCTOR: Are you serious?It says here there's more than one kind of diabetes?

• 03:40

LATHE POLAND: That's true, and diabetes has been plaguingmankind for a very long time.In fact, diabetes was first mentioned in medical literaturealmost 2000 years ago.

• 03:53

NARRATOR: The term diabetes was firstcoined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia in the early second century.In 1675, the word mellitus, which means sweet like honey,was added by Thomas Willis.After discovering the urine of his patients was sweet.How would he even figure that out?

• 04:19

LATHE POLAND: 100 years later, and the presenceof excess sugar in a diabetic's urine and blood,was confirmed, hence the sweetness.What could possibly cause a person's blood or urineto be sweet?To find out, we'll need to meet an important character.The pancreas.

• 04:36

NARRATOR: The pancreas is part of the endocrine systemand produces important enzymes and hormonesthat help us break down foods.This includes insulin, which regulates the body's glucose,or sugar level.A healthy pancreas is able to produce these enzymesand hormones at the right time in the right quantities

• 04:56

NARRATOR [continued]: in order to properly digest the food we eat.When a person has type 1 diabetes,the pancreas is being attacked by the body's own cellsand can no longer produce insulinto remove sugar from the bloodstream.In the case of type 2 diabetes, due to the volume and frequencyof insulin being released, receptor cells

• 05:17

NARRATOR [continued]: become less sensitive to the insulin.This insulin resistance results in less sugarbeing removed from the blood.Sadly, over 360 million people worldwide find themselvesin this situation.Regardless of the specific type, overall, diabetesis the seventh leading cause of death in the US,

• 05:40

NARRATOR [continued]: and the eighth leading cause of death worldwide.You may be surprised to learn that obesity rates aregrowing faster in the youngest members of our society.Since the year 2000, pre-diabetes and diabetes casesin children have nearly tripled.Two to five-year-olds lead this frightening trend.A closer look revealed there's even

• 06:01

NARRATOR [continued]: an epidemic of obese infants.

• 06:05

WENDY SCINTA: We have tripled obesity rates in the last 30years in our children.There are one in three children nowwith a weight issue, either overweight or obese.

• 06:14

ANN COOPER: The Centers for Disease Controlhave said that if the children bornin the year 2000 one out of every three Caucasians,and one out of every two African Americans and Hispanics,are going to get diabetes in their lifetime.They've gone further to say that thisis the same generation that will be the first in our country'shistory to die at a younger age than their parents

• 06:35

ANN COOPER [continued]: because of what we feed them.

• 06:37

JENNIFER PHELPS: I mean, this reallyused to be a disease that was past 65.It was old people that had diabetes,and so this shift in the age groupis what's very frightening.

• 06:47

DAVID I. KATZ: When eight-year-oldsare getting adult onset diabetes due largelyto epidemic obesity, stands to reasonthat 10 years later, by the time they turn 18,they'll have coronary disease.They'll start turning up in our emergency rooms.Should current trends persist into the not toodistant future, the day may well dawnwhen angina is an adolescent rite of passage alongside acne.

• 07:10

DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: That may sound imponderable, but not all that long ago,the notion of adult onset diabetes in eight-year-oldswould have been equally outrageous.

• 07:18

NARRATOR: According to the CDC, if this keeps up, by the year2050 one in three Americans will be diabetic, and nearly onein every two Americans will be obese.Not overweight.Obese.The US and Western civilization, and soon, the entire world,

• 07:39

NARRATOR [continued]: have an obesity and diabetes epidemic.The obesity epidemic is fueling the number of casesthat we see who have diabetes.Diabetes in itself is a risk factorfor developing heart disease, kidney failure, eye disease,blindness, nerve damage, foot amputations,

• 08:04

NARRATOR [continued]: and so the implications of diabetes are tremendous.

• 08:09

LATHE POLAND: Diabetes isn't just hurting our health.It's also emptying our pockets, because everyone ends uppaying for diabetes.

• 08:17

NARRATOR: By 2012, diabetes-related costsin the United States reached an estimated $245 billion.That was a 41% increase from just five years earlier.That number includes direct medical costs, absenteeism,diabetes-related job loss, and productivity loss • 08:38 NARRATOR [continued]: due to premature deaths.One out of every five dollar spenton health care in the United Statesgoes to the care of people with diabetes.The worldwide cost is over$470 billion.

• 08:55

DAVID I. KATZ: Should current trendspersist to about the middle of this century,one in three Americans will be diabetic.Now right now, out of a population of over 300 million,there are about 27 million diagnosed diabetics in the US.That's pretty bad.We're having trouble paying the health care bills right now.One in three of us would be over 100 million people.

• 09:17

DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: I don't think there's any way to pay that bill.I think we find ourselves on the front lines of nothingless than homeland security.So I think the fate of the nation hangs in the balance.

• 09:26

YONI FREEDHOFF: The cost of diabetes aloneis astronomically large.And it will impact on society's abilityto handle health care costs and expendituresif we don't make change.

• 09:40

NARRATOR: Of course, while diabetes and obesity getmost of the attention in the news,many experts believe they are actuallyparts of a much larger and more sinister pandemic.And the name of this pandemic is metabolic syndrome.Sufferers have symptoms like high blood pressure, high bloodsugar, excess body fat, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

• 10:04

NARRATOR [continued]: Over 124 million Americans are sick fromthis under-reported condition.It is estimated that 75% of our health care dollarsare in fact spent on the treatment of people sufferingfrom metabolic syndrome.So there is an entire population that is already sick and maynot even be aware of it.

• 10:25

NARRATOR [continued]: A common bias is that the overweight and obesemembers of society are the sickest ones.Incorrectly, then people might in factthink of obesity as a way to identifythe sick people around them.

• 10:38

DAVID PERLMUTTER: We see plenty of individuals who look great,whose body mass index is in the normal range, who don't haveexcess of body fat, and yet, they're already in troubleand they don't know it, because their dietsare such that they are already changingtheir proteins by having too much sugar in the bloodstream.They're already developing a fatty liver

• 10:59

DAVID PERLMUTTER [continued]: because they're eating a lot of fructose, for example.

• 11:02

JONATHAN BAILOR: This has been turnedinto a moralistic and character type issue where individualswho struggle with their weight are killing themselvesare lazy gluttons, because we know there are millionsof, quote unquote, "skinny fat people" who are metabolicallysick inside but do not look characteristically sick

• 11:22

JONATHAN BAILOR [continued]: on the outside.

• 11:23

DOCTOR: Then they said skinny people are fat,even though [INAUDIBLE].This is serious.In fact, it's seriously bringing me down.I mean, does anyone even know how this happened?

• 11:40

LATHE POLAND: Experts agree thereare many factors that account for our current health crisis.For people affected by diet-related illness,the answer is more than likely a combination of many factors.And these can take place over a long period of time.A lifetime, and even generations.For example, We're eating more food than ever before.

• 12:05

YONI FREEDHOFF: You know, it's not just the factthat our restaurant portions have grown dramatically,but our home cooking portions have grown in turn.We bring those portions sizes home with our eyeballs.We see what we get on plates elsewhereand we bring them home to our own personal plates.

• 12:21

WENDY SCINTA: We've sort of defined a new normwith portions, where a very large plate of foodlooks like a normal amount of food, whereas in the old days,we would have looked at that and said,oh my god, that's enough to feed an army or a whole family.Now we look at that and say, that's my dinner.

• 12:35

BRIAN WANSINK: If you take our study of The Last Supper, whatyou're going to find is that if youlook at just the pictures of The Last Supper over the last 1000years, portion sizes have increased 69%.The plate sizes increased 66%, and even bread sizeincreased about 26%.But people have no idea that justthe passing of every decade, we put more and more on our plate.

• 12:58

RONALD TAMLER: I visited my parents in Germanywhere I grew up.And I have a plate in my hand, and I ask my mom,where are the dinner plates?Oh, you are holding one in your hand.No no, that's an appetizer plate.Where's the dinner plate?And she's like, no, we have not changed our plates in 25 years.This is a dinner plate that you're holding.

• 13:22

RONALD TAMLER [continued]: By virtue of having lived in this country for over 10 years,I've gotten used to the large portion sizes here.

• 13:32

LATHE POLAND: But to truly understand the current healthsituation, we're going to need to go all the way backto the creation of the pyramid.

• 13:40

NARRATOR: The pyramids.Monuments enduring--

• 13:43

NARRATOR: Uh, guys, I think that's the wrong pyramid.Ah, yeah, there were go.In the mid 20th century, the scientific communitybegan circling an idea.Scientists, such as Ancel Keys, begandrawing a link between saturated fats and heart disease.They asserted that people needed to start

• 14:04

NARRATOR [continued]: eating a diet higher in carbohydrates and lower in fat.Over a period of time, this nutritional advicecame to be very much in vogue.Dr. Keys is specifically known for twosignificant contributions to nutritional science.One was the K-ration.So the army have developed the now famous K-ration.

• 14:25

NARRATOR [continued]: Each package contains a balanced vitamin rich meal.A day's ration weighs about two pounds.The K-ration was an emergency field rationfor US armed forces in World War II.It was a handy little prepackaged meal.His second major contribution wasa study that is now infamously knownas The Seven Country Study.

• 14:47

NARRATOR [continued]: In it, he revealed that in countrieswhere fat consumption was the highest,they also had the highest rate of heart disease.This supported his idea that dietary fatcaused heart disease.However, there was one little detailthat Doctor Keys had left out.When he started the study, he had begun with 22 countries.But when he looked at the data from this large cross-section,

• 15:10

NARRATOR [continued]: it just wasn't as convincing.So he decided to remove the countries thatdetracted from the picture he had in mind.Fast forward 20 years to 1977, and the science of high carb,low fat diets had become mainstream.

• 15:25

ALL: Food gets everybody together.

• 15:28

MALE: Right on.

• 15:29

FEMALE: The breads and cereals can be found in foodsfrom all over the world.

• 15:32

MALE: Like tortillas from Mexico.

• 15:34

FEMALE: Pumpernickel from Scandinavia.

• 15:36

MALE: Rice cakes from China.

• 15:38

MALE: Hush puppy from the deep south.

• 15:39

• 15:52

BOTH: Like, man.You need new plans to live and grow.

• 15:57

NARRATOR: That year, US Senator, George McGovern,led the charge for the US governmentto adopt the nutritional guidelines touted by Dr. Keys.Shortly thereafter, the USDA placed the full weightof their bureaucratic office behind a dietthat featured food groups in recommended quantities.If you were in school in the late 70s or early 80s,

• 16:18

• 16:22

ALL: And you can get it anywhere in the worldfrom the foods you eat.

• 16:34

GARY TAUBES: This was reflected in the food guide pyramids,where suddenly bread, pasta, potatoes,rice, all these foods that, in the early 1960s,were still considered uniquely fattening,were now foods that should be the staple of our diets.

• 16:50

ADELE HITE: When they came up with the dietary goals,and they were based on weak science,and there was a lot of push back from scientists,from nutritionists, who said even though they agreedwith the recommendations, they said,this is a bad idea because we don't have the scienceto support this kind of experimentation on the public.It did not matter.

• 17:11

ADELE HITE [continued]: The public and the media swallowed ithook, line, and sinker.

• 17:14

TIMOTHY NOAKES: There was not one clinical trialto see whether that diet would make us healthier than if wecontinued to eat our fatty diets, whichwas considered to be so detrimental and dangerous.Not one single clinical trial.And the scientists at the time, whowere independent of industry and government, warned that.They said, we haven't had these trials.

• 17:36

TIMOTHY NOAKES [continued]: How can we expose the American public to this giant experimentunless we know what the outcome will be?Well, the reality is, 30 years later, weknow exactly what the outcome has been.

• 17:47

NARRATOR: As it turns out, all this carb loadingwas not such a good thing.Grains, whether whole or refined,trigger elevated insulin levels.Remember Mr. Pancreas?With the elevated insulin responsecomes increased hunger, but perhaps oneof the most significant side effects from eating grainbased foods is inflammation.

• 18:14

NARRATOR [continued]: Inflammation is your body's natural response to invadersit perceives as threats.If you get a cut, for instance, the process of inflammationis what allows you to heal.When your arteries are damaged, a very similar processoccurs except the scab in your artery is known as plaque.This plaque, along with the thickening

• 18:34

NARRATOR [continued]: of your blood and constricting of your vessels,can increase your risk of high blood pressure and heartattacks.

• 18:40

JONATHAN BAILOR: Think of cholesterol a bitlike a scab inside of your body.So when your arteries become damaged,your body releases cholesterol to patch them up.The cause of cholesterol's releaseis inflammation which is caused in large partby eating sugary and starchy edible products.

• 19:01

DAVID PERLMUTTER: When the arterial lining, whatwe call the endothelium, becomes damaged by becoming oxidized,then cholesterol appears on the scene to help put the fire out.Understanding how refined carbs increasethe damage to your circulatory system sureblows a hole in the myth of a so-called heart-healthy diet.

• 19:20

ACTOR: Hold on.Everything you just said is the oppositeof what scientists, researchers, and doctors havebeen telling us for years.Do you really want to contradict smart people?

• 19:34

NARRATOR: Good point.We need smart people.Smart people helped us get here, here, and here.Unfortunately, they also took us here, here,and don't forget here.

• 19:54

LATHE POLAND: Right.Intelligence and education do not equal infallibility.A logical way to determine whether a recommendation isbeneficial or not is simply to observe the results.For instance, mid 19th century Hungarian physician,Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis, came to the conclusionthat unseen germs were at least partly to blame

• 20:16

LATHE POLAND [continued]: for a high mortality rate.He proposed hand-washing between medical proceduressuch as examining a dead body and then delivering a baby.The hospital Dr. Semmelweis worked at agreed.They began washing their hands between procedures.The result?Less than a year later, maternal mortality ratesplummeted to historic lows.

• 20:39

NARRATOR: Here's another example.In the late 70s and early 80s, educationon the dangers of not wearing a seat belt when in a carcame to the fore.Numerous campaigns were created to educate the publicon the benefits of wearing a seat belt. The result?Over the next 30 years, vehicular-related deaths

• 21:02

• 21:10

LATHE POLAND: Now let's talk aboutthe nutritional recommendations based on Ansel Keys' findings.

• 21:15

NARRATOR: As we mentioned, in 1977,the FDA released new dietary guidelines promotinga heart-healthy diet, recommendingthat everyone consume more carbs and less fat.

• 21:30

ERIC CARLSEN: More carbs and less fat?How'd that work out?Unfortunately, over the next 30 years,diabetes rates have nearly quadrupled.Hypertension continues to climb steadily.Obesity levels have skyrocketed.And metabolic syndrome has become commonplace.

• 21:54

LATHE POLAND: Sound health and safety recommendationsshould produce favorable results.In the first examples, that's precisely what happened.But when it came to the aforementioned dietaryguidelines, the opposite has occurred.Clearly, the results have been disastrous.Is it a coincidence that our current health crisisbegan shortly after these nutritional guidelines were

• 22:15

LATHE POLAND [continued]: introduced?

• 22:16

JEFFREY N. GERBER: The legacy of the food pyramidis a great example of an epic mistakethat has caused more chronic disease in modern timesthan anything.

• 22:26

ADELE HITE: The guidelines have alwaysbeen evaluated on how well they were followed.They have never been evaluated on how well they work.It says that in the 2010 dietary guidelines themselves.All of our dietary decisions, from our general conceptof what is healthy, to what our children are served

• 22:46

ADELE HITE [continued]: in their school lunchrooms, to what informationwe get on the package, has never beentested for health outcomes.We should be horrified by this.

• 22:56

JOHNNY BOWDEN: All the things that wehave lionized through the food pyramid in the AmericanDietetic Association, and all the other major healthorganizations, these foods are making us sick, fat, tired,and depressed.And that's the legacy of the food pyramid.

• 23:10

ANDREA DIMAURO: The Western diet,or the standard American diet, is an absolute crimeagainst humanity.It is making us sick and fat, and as the boundariesof the developed world expand, more peopleare becoming fat and sick.

• 23:30

DOCTOR: If you look back historically,I think you'll find we've always had carbs and sugar.So what suddenly changed?Seriously, what changed?

• 23:44

NARRATOR: Sure, refined carbs and sugarshave been around for a long time.But have you been to your grocery store lately?One of the first things Lathe and his wifenoticed after his diagnosis was how hard itwas to find healthy lower carb food options.

• 24:17

LATHE POLAND: But something else happenedin the 70s that would cause this massive shifttowards carb loading.In 1973, secretary of agriculture, Earl Butz,initiated a 180 degree policy change for the farm bill.The new policies subsidized the production of corn and grain,bringing about the corporate friendly model we have now.

• 24:39

LATHE POLAND [continued]: All that cheap corn made it possible for a relativelynew and exciting product to make its way into the food chain.High fructose corn syrup.

• 24:48

NARRATOR: The growing fear of fatmade way for low fat food cultureto permeate nearly every corner of the grocery store.30 years later, and try to find many food products without it.

• 24:58

WENDY SCINTA: Enter high fructose corn syrup.It was the same time that we startedto change our corn policies in the Nixon administrationback in the 1970s.And so, you have the invention of high fructose corn syrup,you have low fat foods, you add the sugar to makethe foods more palatable, and all of a sudden,you're adding fat in the form of fructose,but making it sound like something that'shealthy because it's low fat.

• 25:20

ANDREAS EENFELDT: If you're processing foodand you're taking away the fat, it tastes like crap.And then you have to add, often, more sugar to make up for it.So you have people avoiding fat and eating more sugar or easilyprocessed carbs, making people hungrier, making them eat more,

• 25:41

ANDREAS EENFELDT [continued]: giving them obesity and diabetes in the long run.

• 25:45

TIMOTHY NOAKES: As soon as you take fat out of the diet,the food tastes terrible.But you have to trick the brain into thinking it's healthy,so you add sugar and then you get the sugar addiction, whichtakes over.

• 25:58

NARRATOR: Fructose consumption has dramaticallyrisen since World War II.By the mid 70s, it had almost doubled.And just 20 years later, we were consumingnearly triple the fructose.

• 26:12

LATHE POLAND: My generation, the generationborn in the 70s and early 80s was the first generationto have high fructose corn syrup prenatally.But does that matter?Can what a woman eats while pregnantcause her children to have an attraction to the foodthat she ate?

• 26:28

WENDY SCINTA: There's a lot of memorythat comes through the breast milk to our childrenthat help the children to understandwhat is something foreign and what is somethingthat is accepted in my diet.So if we're giving the memory of sugar, of high fructose cornsyrup, their brains are going to send them in that direction.If we eat lots of fruits and vegetablesduring our pregnancies and we nurseand we give the memory of fruits and vegetables,

• 26:50

WENDY SCINTA [continued]: there's research that shows that they'regoing to be more inclined to eat the healthier foods.

• 26:54

JENNIFER PHELPS: Infants begin to swallowsome of the amniotic fluid and they actually beginto have a taste preference.Depending on what the mother ate,they are tasting all of those foodsthat the mother is tasting.So I really encourage pregnant momsto be mindful of what they are eating,that they are developing somethingthat their child is going to actually have some taste

• 27:17

JENNIFER PHELPS [continued]: preferences when they're born.And they will follow them for later in life.

• 27:22

DAVID I. KATZ: The typical American momhas the typical American diet.It's loaded up with sugar and salt and chemicalsand all the wrong foods.Before ever these babies are born,their palates are being predisposedto a "bet you can't eat just one" kind of environment.It's a set up to perpetuate the status quo where the foodindustry keeps selling junk because the next generation

• 27:44

DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: of customers is being born preferring junk.

• 27:47

LATHE POLAND: So the increasing prevalenceof refined carbs and sugar is a complicated problem.Sure, there are more unhealthy foods to eat.But more importantly, the pervasivenessof the food products we are exposed to every dayhas altered our definition of what healthy food really is.Out of the 600,000 products sold in the American grocery store,

• 28:08

LATHE POLAND [continued]: 80% contain added sugar or high fructose corn syrup.As a result of this cultural shift,many tend to think of processed carbohydratesas our primary source of nutrition.What do you think of when I say the word food?

• 28:23

INTERVIEWEE: Pizza.

• 28:24

INTERVIEWEE: Fried fish and chips.

• 28:25

INTERVIEWEE: Definitely linguine.

• 28:26

INTERVIEWEE: Pizza and sushi.

• 28:28

INTERVIEWEE: Fast food.

• 28:29

INTERVIEWEE: I think of popcorn.And like, maybe cookies, Ben & Jerry's.

• 28:35

INTERVIEWEE: Fried calamari.

• 28:36

INTERVIEWEE: I have to say lasagna.

• 28:38

• 28:39

• 28:41

• 28:43

NARRATOR: What factors contribute to our beliefsabout food?Are you and I influenced by the food advertisingwe see every day?

• 28:49

YONI FREEDHOFF: The marketers arespending hundreds of billions of dollars.These are not stupid people.They are spending the money because it works.

• 28:57

MARLENE SCHWARTZ: Our research hasshown that it's not even a conscious process,that when people see ads for food, they eat more food.

• 29:05

BRIAN WANSINK: To a person they say, no, you know,I can see you can influence others, but when it was me.And that's the big reason why the solutionof, now that I know it, I'll use my willpowerto keep it from ever happening is just notgoing to work for most people.

• 29:24

NARRATOR: Do you think you're affected by food marketing?

• 29:27

INTERVIEWEE: If you're sitting at home, nothaving anything to do, and once that food comes on the screen,it makes you think about it.

• 29:33

INTERVIEWEE: Not personally, no, not me.But maybe some people might, but not me.

• 29:37

INTERVIEWEE: Well, yes.I think most people are, whether they want to admit it or not.

• 29:42

INTERVIEWEE: I'm not.My husband is, and my son.

• 29:45

INTERVIEWEE: Fast food freaks me out now,and I still sometimes see commercialsand I'm like, wow, that looks pretty good.And then I come back to reality.I'm like, all right.Never that hungry.

• 29:57

INTERVIEWEE: I'm not quite sure if I am,but I'm pretty sure I might be.

• 30:02

INTERVIEWEE: Yeah.

• 30:04

INTERVIEWEE: Oh, yes.But a little.

• 30:07

INTERVIEWEE: I'm a sucker.I see it, I like it, I go for it.I think I would just take my moneyand just give me whatever.I'll eat it, you know?

• 30:14

INTERVIEWEE: Yeah.I think everybody is.I think it's just so mass marketed that there'sno way to avoid it these days.

• 30:23

NARRATOR: Since marketing to adultsworks so well, what about children?How are they affected by the endless paradeof food advertising marching in front of them?I really like the dinosaurs

• 30:51

INTERVIEWEE: Sometimes they try to do commercial funny.And to me, when something gets funny, dangerous.Because they don't want to put your own thinking on the sideeffects of bad foods.

• 31:04

INTERVIEWEE: They use a lot of color and a lot of cartoons.So I guess that's a way that is influencing children.

• 31:12

MARION NESTLE: I'm not against food companiesselling their products, marketing their products,and doing everything they can to sell products.I think there should be some limits placed on whatthey're permitted to do.Food companies should not be permitted to marketto children.Period.End of story.

• 31:28

ANN COOPER: I travel all around the world.Nobody has this idea of kids food the way we do.And it's all about marketing.So the idea that we're brainwashing our childrento think chicken nuggets is a food groupand hot Cheetos is breakfast, we oughtto ban food marketing to children.

• 31:44

MELANIE WARNER: You put a cartoon character on food,and it doesn't matter what's inside the box or the package,they want it.They're just immediately drawn to it.So it's very, very powerful.

• 31:54

MARLENE SCHWARTZ: They are not marketing to the parent,they are marketing to the child.So clearly they know that getting the childto want that food is going to benefit themand the child will then advocate for that foodwith their parent.So it's that undermining, that absolute disrespectof parenting and making the grocery

• 32:16

MARLENE SCHWARTZ [continued]: store a place that's filled with arguments in the cereal aisleabout which cereal you're going to buy,that's what really frustrates me.And I feel like as a society, it istime for parents to stand up, to get really angry,and to tell the food industry, you all need to back off.You need to stop marketing to our kids.

• 32:33

NARRATOR: It's hard to deny marketing's impact on eachof us, regardless of our age.

• 32:38

DOCTOR: Oh, I see where you're going.Food and beverage corporations are the bad guys.

• 32:50

NARRATOR: Well, big food certainlyis part of the problem.But really, everyone is involved.Think about it.Why do publicly traded food corporationsmake addictive foods and escalate marketing efforts?To earn a profit.But that profit is not just for the corporation.It's also for the corporation's shareholders.If we have 401k or a mutual fund that

• 33:12

NARRATOR [continued]: owns shares in a giant food company,we are both contributing to and benefiting from the problem.In addition, profit is driven by demand.Every time we purchase unhealthy food or beverages,we are increasing the demand for unhealthy products.Imagine that.In many cases, we are both a consumer and a shareholder

• 33:34

NARRATOR [continued]: in this vicious cycle.Yeah, it's complicated.Welcome to modern life.

• 33:49

ERIC CARLSEN: Let's face it.The phase of modern life certainlyis contributing to the problem.

• 33:54

LATHE POLAND: People are on the go, so cooking at homeis rarely an option.Vending machines, drive-throughs,and prepackaged meals are seen as a necessity.Only 100 years ago, fast food, snack packs,and other prepared food would havebeen considered unnecessary.

• 34:18

LATHE POLAND [continued]: -You know, the amount that we're eating,the frequency with which we're eating,the types of foods we're eating.They've changed from home cookingto boxes and drive-throughs, and Ithink that is a huge piece of what's going on.

• 34:31

MELANIE WARNER: Food has become somethingthat's become very, very mindless at times.We eat in front of the computer, we eat in front of the TV,we eat behind the wheel of the car,get stuff at the drive-through, and Ithink we really need to rethink the ideaof the experience of eating, and alsoas part of that, of cooking.

• 34:52

NARRATOR: Ironically, while everyone is doing more,we also seem to be moving a whole lot less.

• 34:58

RICK LINDQUIST: Basically, we're sedentary.We get in cars, we drive, we sit, we go to work,we sit, and if we are active, it'spretty limited periods of time.

• 35:08

STEPHAN GUYENET: 100 years ago, life was physical.I mean, a lot of people had physical jobs, a lot of peoplewere on farms, they were in manufacturing.Even around the home, people didn't have dishwashers,they didn't have clothes washers.Everything you did back then involved physical exertion.

• 35:26

NARRATOR: Have you ever stopped to think about how much we loveto watch other people work out?In fact, we carb load just like athletes do while watching themburn it off.What Americans are doing every night at homeis they're getting ready to run a marathon.They're having that big bowl of pasta.They're having that big pie pizza.

• 35:47

NARRATOR [continued]: They're loading up on glycogen on their blood sugar storesthat are readily accessible.And then they're not running in the marathon.Body is not stupid.It's saying well, let me store it for bad times.Let's turn it into fat.

• 36:03

NARRATOR: Many experts agree that carb loadingfor the average person is just going to make them fatter.But what about athletes?Don't they need to carb load in order to perform?

• 36:14

MARK SISSON: I was a marathoner in the 70s and early partof the 80s, and then I was a endurance triathlete.I did Ironman.And I was on the cover of Runner's World Magazinethree times.For all intents and purposes, I wasthe picture, literally and figuratively, of fitness.But not of health.On the inside, I was falling apart.I had become the antithesis of health.So I was putting in a lot of miles

• 36:36

MARK SISSON [continued]: and I was feeling those miles with the assumed best dealof the day, which was carbohydrates.I was carbo-loading.And I discovered quite early that humansought to be deriving most of their energyfrom their stored body fat and notfrom refilling their glycogen and re-upping their glucoseintake every three hours throughout the day.

• 36:57

MARK SISSON [continued]: That was a very big epiphany for me.

• 36:59

SAM INKMEN: Although I've done very well athletically,and I train 12 hours a week or so,I've had really hard time keeping my weight in check.My blood glucose levels have also been pre-diabetic.If I'm getting sick while I'm training four hours a weekand being a top class triathlete,what are the chances that an average personhas to kind of avoid this trap?

• 37:21

SAM INKMEN [continued]: So with no prior rowing experience,we decided to row from California to Hawaii.Almost 28 hundred miles completely unsupported.Took 45 days, and we broke the speed record 40-person boat.

• 37:35

MEREDITH LORING: We didn't have on board all of the stuffthat endurance athletes typicallyhave during endurance events.So we had no gels, no sports drinks.In fact, we had zero sugar-processed carbohydrateson board.

• 37:48

SAM INKMEN: The amount of work that we performedeach day was about the same as running two marathons a dayeach.So to be able to get through two marathons a daywith just pure whole foods for 45 days nonstop we thoughtwas a very powerful way of demonstratingthat maybe the sugar and processed carbohydratesaren't necessarily to perform or thrive or be healthy.

• 38:10

TIMOTHY NOAKES: I think there are a number of problemsfor athletes who believe they musttake lots of carbohydrates.If you are a world class leading athlete, and you're lean,and you are able to stay lean eating lots of carbohydrates,maybe you do get a little bit of a boost from the carbohydrates.But that's really for the world classathletes competing in short events

• 38:30

TIMOTHY NOAKES [continued]: lasting maybe 15 minutes or so.But once you start putting on weight,that is telling you that those carbohydrate aredoing you no good and you really need to reduceyour carbohydrate intake.

• 38:43

NARRATOR: As a culture, we love to watch sportsand we love to fuel our bodies as if we're going to be active.Imagine if you took that mentality to your local gym.

• 39:04

ERIC CARLSEN: That is strange.

• 39:06

LATHE POLAND: Yeah.But for most people eating the standard American diet,it comes down to one thing.Money.

• 39:18

INTERVIEWEE: I would say probably the numberone factor would be the price.It's really cheap.You know, these dollar menus.Everybody's competing with really cheap things.

• 39:27

INTERVIEWEE: It's just easier to just get out and just say,here's a dollar, gimme a burger, and then--

• 39:30

INTERVIEWEE: The economy's really bad and you know,everyone's struggling.So the cheaper the food and the faster it isis really what they're going to go for.

• 39:39

INTERVIEWEE: It's cheaper.So a lot of people if they don't have money to buy healthy food,they go straight to McDonald's for a dollar.

• 39:47

INTERVIEWEE: Probably a lot cheaperif you compare just one meal and that's a big problem, I think.People think that it's much more cheaper and easierto go McDonald's, for example.

• 39:57

NARRATOR: But is junk food actually cheaper?Well, the initial cost would makeit seem that the answer is yes.But if what we are eating is contributing directlyto our failing health, then cheap foodis actually not so cheap.It's hard to argue against low prices,except that it doesn't really account

• 40:18

NARRATOR [continued]: for the true cost of food.The true cost of food is seen in the messthat it makes with the environment,and what you have to do to clean that up, and, of course,in people's health.If people gain a lot of weight and develop type 2 diabetes,their health care cost's associated with that.Some of those will be borne by the individual,

• 40:39

NARRATOR [continued]: but a lot of people don't have enough moneyto pay for health care, so society picks that one up.

• 40:44

DAVID I. KATZ: We eat badly.We eat fast food failing to consider that the time savedeating fast food will be spent later on trips to the doctor.And then some, with interest.Right?You're not saving money or time by eating fast food routinely.

• 40:58

JONATHAN BAILOR: The economic burdenof just type 2 diabetes on our countrynow exceeds the economic burden of tobacco by $50 billion.You want to understand why we have a health carecrisis in this country?It's because of all that wonderful inexpensive food. • 41:16 MARK SISSON: It's very expensive to be sick.A tremendous amount of advertisinghad to go into getting them on the store shelfand getting them in your line of sight.You pay a lot of money for that stuff. • 41:26 ANN COOPER: Of course fast food isn't really cheap.It may cost us less today, but in the long term,it's the most expensive food we can put in our bodies. • 41:37 NARRATOR: It might seem that junk food and fast foodis very cheap.A closer look, however, paints a much different picture.The average American spends over$6,000 a year on food.Nearly half of that is spent at some kind of a restaurant.On average, those same individuals spend over $8,000annually on medical bills. • 41:57 NARRATOR [continued]: You may have heard the expression"pay the farmer now, or pay the doctor later."Many people now realize that what we eathas a direct correlation to our health.Unfortunately, the solution isn't alwaysas easy as simply buying better quality food. • 42:20 NARRATOR [continued]: The USDA estimates that 23 and 1/2 million peoplelive in what are called food deserts.Food deserts are typically urban neighborhoods or rural townswithout easy access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. • 42:44 NARRATOR [continued]: Instead of supermarkets or grocery stores,these communities are usually served by fast foodor convenience stores.More than half of the population living in food deserts,or 13.5 million people, are considered low income,so it seems that for many people,low quality food is their only choice. • 43:04 NARRATOR [continued]: This tsunami of low quality food is becoming a global concern.In an effort to stem the effects of someof the most harmful foods, countrieslike Denmark, Hungary, and Mexicohave instituted soda and junk food taxes.This creates issues that have governments, corporations,and individuals locked in a debate about who • 43:26 NARRATOR [continued]: is responsible for deciding what and how much people shouldeat and drink.But research reveals that our freedom of choiceis not based solely on conscious thought.As humans, we are incredibly susceptible to the signalsaround us, things like ambient lighting,music, portion size, even how many people we're eating with. • 43:56 BRIAN WANSINK: We do this really cool study with Chicagoansand found out that they know they'rethrough eating when the TV show they're watching is over.We don't monitor how much we're eating'cause we're paying too much attentionto what we're flipping through.If you give people a bowl of different colored M&Ms, • 44:16 BRIAN WANSINK [continued]: they end up eating significantly more,almost half again as many, as if you just gave them ones thatwere all one color.We find that if you eat with one other person,you eat about 30% more than if you eat by yourself.If you eat with seven other people, you eat almost 90%more than you eat by yourself.What happens is you don't pay attention to what you're doing, • 44:39 BRIAN WANSINK [continued]: you're having fun in the conversation,and you also stick around that table a long time.Everybody orders an extra dessert, you decide to get one.They decide to stay for coffee, you stay for coffee,and it's really easy to overeat. • 44:51 NARRATOR: To make things worse, many packaged snacks are highlypalatable, either by design or by coincidence,and they can trick our brains into thinking we needto eat just a little bit more.And more.And more. • 45:05 DAVID I. KATZ: Combining flavors that tickle the appetitecenter in the hypothalamus so that it just wants more, more,we can't stop eating.Simple, natural, wholesome foods close to naturehave exactly the opposite property.They reduce the number of calories it takes to feel full.There is abundant research to back this up.You think about a food like almonds, raw almonds. • 45:26 DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: Anybody who likes almonds is goingto eat raw almonds until you get tired of being raw almonds.But if you honey roast those almonds,you take those same almonds, roast them in oil,coat them in honey, and salt them,you now have not just the flavor of the almonds,but sugar and salt. You don't stop eating those babiestill your arm gets tired from lifting into your mouth,and our whole food supply is like that. • 45:47 DOCTOR: He's absolutely right.I can't stop eating these.But can you tell me why? • 45:58 ERIC CARLSEN: We're fooling ourselvesif we think modern food products aren't addictive.Research has established that the brain scans of drug addictsand sugar addicts are virtually identical. • 46:10 WENDY SCINTA: It makes us feel so good,it causes us to release dopamine, we want more of it,we eat more of it, the fat cells get bigger,we become more hungry, and we juststart this whole vicious cycle.And anyone can tell you if they tryto wean off of carbs and sugar, it reallyis sort of like a withdrawal that you will go through. • 46:29 GARY TAUBES: I mean, even with sugar today,most researchers would say I don't know if it's addictiveor not.My calendar that I would need-- do you have children?Like, I don't need fancy science to tell meif sugar is addictive.I've got a 4-year-old and a 7-year-old.You know, it's pretty clear that thisfunctions as a drug for them. • 46:50 TIMOTHY NOAKES: So the reason why dietary advice failsis because current dietary advice isyou reduce your calories, but youcan stay-- continue to eat all the same foods, whichmeans you've got the addictive foods in there, whichis exactly the same as saying you must cutyour cigarettes to one cigarette a day from twenty down to one.If you continue to smoke one cigarette a day,it makes you back at twenty. • 47:11 TIMOTHY NOAKES [continued]: Everyone knows. • 47:12 DAVID I. KATZ: The food industry hasbeen engaging PhDs in biochemistry and neuroscienceto devise foods that are addictive.You know, this is right out of the tobacco industry'splaybook.You know, guilty as charged.We make the cigarettes people want to smoke.Behind the scenes, we're making themas addictive as we possibly can.Well, we've devised food that maximizes • 47:32 DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: the number of calories it takes before peoplerun up the white flag, cry uncle, and stop eating. • 47:38 LATHE POLAND: Addiction aside, our bodies need food.Hunger can be a strange impulse.It can be a signal that we're running low on fuel,but sometimes it can get us to eat when we're completely full. • 47:60 LATHE POLAND [continued]: Clearly, our minds and our stomachshave a complicated relationship. • 48:04 ACTOR: Gosh, man.We are watching a movie here. • 48:06 ERIC CARLSEN: There is a movie playing. • 48:08 ACTOR: Trying to watch this movie,this man come up in here talking.So anyway-- • 48:15 NARRATOR: When we eat high levels of carbohydrates,our bodies produce higher levels of insulin.One side effect of excess insulinis that it prevents our bodies from hearing whatleptin is trying to tell us.The unfortunate consequence is that we don't hear leptintelling us we are full.So we keep eating. • 48:33 RICK LINDQUIST: Leptin is a hormonethat was discovered in the mid-1990sto have a role in satiety and endingin the cessation of hunger.Most people have elevated levels of leptin,and so leptin is not turning hunger off. • 48:53 RICK LINDQUIST [continued]: There is, if you will, a leptin resistance.So most people with overweight and obesity problemshave high leptin levels but their brain isn't reallylistening to that leptin anymore. • 49:05 NARRATOR: But eating more isn't the only reason we gain weight.Insulin's number one job is to supply sugarto cells for energy.But if they already have all the sugar they need,the body turns it into fat. • 49:18 NARRATOR: For some people, it shows up as middle aged pudge.This can be something that we take for granted.You get older and you put on a little weight.Most of us think that's just the way it is.Of course, we all know what the solution is.Diet and exercise.But is that an actual solution? • 49:39 ANDREAS EENFELDT: People should just eat less and exercise moreand this obesity epidemic would reverse.But that's what we've been saying for 30 yearswhile it's getting worse every year.So it's not working. • 49:51 GARY TAUBES: Just ask yourself, whyis it that the two things any of uswould do guarantee that we work up an appetite, that wegot hungry.The very same two things, eat less and exercise more,that we tell obese people to do to lose weight.Right there, you know, there's a problem.There's something wrong with this thinking. • 50:13 MARK SISSON: 80% of your body compositionis determined by how you eat.The other 20% can be affected by what you do in the gym.The corollary to that is you can't-- you can't work outto fix a bad diet.You can't exercise away bad dietary choices. • 50:28 TIMOTHY NOAKES: I was regularly active.I ran 70 marathons and ultra marathons.I could not regulate my weight.But the instant I changed my diet,whether I exercised or not, my weight just dropped off.And now I can keep my weight absolutely rocksolid whether I run 20 kilometers in a day or not. • 50:50 TIMOTHY NOAKES [continued]: My weight is absolutely stable.So now, I absolutely believe that if youhave to exercise to regulate your weight,your diet is wrong. • 51:00 NARRATOR: Now this doesn't necessarilymean that all carbs are bad, because let's face it.Fresh pineapple and broccoli have carbs in them.So the quality of the carb is just as important.One way to judge the quality of a given foodis by analyzing how much insulin is required to process it.This is called glycemic load. • 51:21 NARRATOR [continued]: Refined foods tend to have a very high glycemic load,whereas complex carbs are more likely to havelow glycemic load.For many people, the quality of their healthcan be directly linked to the quality of their food. • 51:40 DAVID I. KATZ: Are all carbs created equal?You've got some of the most nutritious foodson the planet in the category of carbohydrate,and then you get some of the most egregious junk.So the issue, whether it's carbohydrate or fat or protein,is the overall quality of food.Good foods are good for us.Wholesome foods are good for us.Foods close to nature tend to be good for us, • 52:01 DAVID I. KATZ [continued]: and they tend to be sources of good carbs, good fats,and good proteins. • 52:05 MARK SISSON: Carbohydrates take different forms.There are low glycemic index carbs,burn slowly, that into the bloodstream slowly.There are high glycemic index carbsthat convert to glucose rapidly and causean increase in insulin.For athletes, for instance, who are looking to replenish liverglycogen after a workout or muscle glycogeneven, after a hard workout, fruits and fruit, • 52:26 MARK SISSON [continued]: those are probably a good option.For somebody trying to lose weight,fruit is not your friend.Fructose, because of its different pathway,if your glycogen stores are already full,fructose becomes triglycerides very rapidlyand enters a fat storage pathway more readily.So there are lots of different ways to look at carbohydratesand it's not necessarily with the eyethat all carbohydrates are either good or bad. • 52:47 MARK SISSON [continued]: They all have context. • 52:48 NARRATOR: So far, we have talked about how the food we eatcan instigate the many symptoms of metabolic syndrome.Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the fatty liver diseasefound in fat and skinny alike.Mainstream science is starting to accept the fact that theymay need to add one more. • 53:07 NARRATOR: In some circles, they are calling it type 3 diabetes.So this relationship between diabetesand Alzheimer's in terms not only ofrisk of developing Alzheimer's but the actual mechanismsin the brain that relate to insulinhas caused people like myself to actually call Alzheimer'sdisease type 3 diabetes. • 53:29 NARRATOR [continued]: Type 3 diabetes is a term that's been applied basically to thisdevelopment of glycosylated end products in the brain,which is related to Alzheimer's. • 53:41 JONATHAN BAILOR: now describing Alzheimer's disease,one of the most heartbreaking conditions on the planet,as type 3 diabetes as a consequence of this sugarand starch poisoning.We're having problems in the central nervous systemdue to inappropriate signaling and low levels of inflammation • 54:03 JONATHAN BAILOR [continued]: that is due specifically to this carbohydrate loaded dietthat we're consuming. • 54:09 NARRATOR: As we have seen, there is a delicate balance.Our digestive tract is almost like a dancebetween our hormones and our organs.If we aren't careful, they can lose their balanceand the consequences can be disastrous. • 54:26 DOCTOR: I love those little guys.But I get there's a problem.Let's talk about a solution. • 54:31 NARRATOR: In the past, various studiesdemonize the consumption of fat as the cause of heart diseaseand other health related woes.For most people, that seems like a pretty logical conclusion.Eating fat clogs our arteries and also makes us fat.Surprisingly, the answer may in factbe the completely opposite of that long held belief. • 54:51 JIMMY MOORE: Without inflammation, therewould be no heart disease.A lot of people, they look at cholesterolbeing at the scene of the crime.So it's like a fire fighter going to put out a fire.Are we blaming the firefighters for why there's a fire?They happen to be at every single fire,so therefore, they must be the reason why the fires happen. • 55:13 JIMMY MOORE [continued]: No, that would be absurd.And yet, that's the exact thing that we'redoing with cholesterol. • 55:19 JONATHAN BAILOR: What we need to do is take a step back and say,what caused all of that cholesterol to be present?And what we find is it's the exact formof sugary and starchy edible productsthat we have at the base of our food guide pyramidand as a huge chunk of my plate.So cholesterol is the body's healthy response • 55:39 JONATHAN BAILOR [continued]: to eating a carb rich diet. • 55:43 JOHNNY BOWDEN: And so this insanefocus, which is now powered by a$31 billion a yearindustry in reducing cholesterol and veryhard to get it to turn around, guys, cholesterol,the emperor's new clothes, we've been wrong.It makes you almost look like youthink the CIA is talking to you through the fillingsin your teeth.I mean, it is so much of a cultural meme

• 56:04

JOHNNY BOWDEN [continued]: that this is the cause of heart disease.You go to a cocktail party and say, how's your heart doing?Well, my cholesterol is good.It's become synonymous.

• 56:11

MARK SISSON: Cholesterol itself is probablyone of most important molecules in the body.The body makes 1200 to 1400 milligrams a day on its ownwhether or not you take in dietary cholesterol.Indicting cholesterol is like saying, you know,band-aids are responsible for cutsbecause wherever you see a cut, there's a Band-Aid.

• 56:29

DAVID PERLMUTTER: One of the most important chemicalsfor the human brain serving as a precursor for vitaminD, the precursor for progesterone, estrogen,testosterone, cortisol, and even acting as a brain antioxidant,is oddly enough cholesterol.So cholesterol has been so castigatedover the years, the decades, that we've

• 56:51

DAVID PERLMUTTER [continued]: been told it's our enemy.Cholesterol is absolutely the friend of the brain.

• 56:56

NARRATOR: And just to clarify, weare talking about naturally occurring saturated fats.Not trans fats.Trans fats, found in margarine, fried foods,and frozen dinners, have been provento be highly toxic and destructive to our bodies.People the world over are discoveringthat healthy fat should have a prominent place in their diets.

• 57:18

NARRATOR [continued]: The diet higher in healthy fats and lower in carbohydratesis helping them regain their ideal weight and health.Remember our buddy leptin?When leptin isn't being blocked by insulin,it can signal our bodies that we are full.Fat rich foods tend to trigger leptin much more readily,thereby having a self-managing effect.

• 57:41

LATHE POLAND: The bottom line is if you feel full,you will eat less.So satiety is a big part of the solution.Seek out foods that satisfy your hunger.The natural fat found in grass fed meats, organic dairy,avocados, and nuts can be fantasticsources of healthy energy that also help you eat less.

• 58:02

JONATHAN BAILOR: The cause of the obesity epidemicand diabetes epidemic is that we are not eating enoughof certain types of foods.People are going to eat until theyare satisfied and energized, which they should.So the question is not, how can wejust eat less of the diet that has made us sick and sad,but rather, how can we eat more of the foods that will fill us

• 58:24

JONATHAN BAILOR [continued]: up and energize us so much that wehave no room for these addictive and disease causing substances?

• 58:31

ANDREAS EENFELDT: Fat is good for the diet.If you eat more fat, you become less hungry.If you eat bad carbohydrates, you become more hungry.So that's the problem.You can't just talk about caloriesbecause there's good calories and bad calories.Good calories make you less hungry,bad calories make you more hungry.

• 58:51

DAVID PERLMUTTER: Let's be real clear.We're talking about the olive oil, nuts and seeds,coconut oil, grass fed beef, wild, not farm-raised fish.

• 59:02

CHRISTINE STRALEY: It's a great sourceto give us energy, to get us focused, for our memory,for prevention of neurological disorders.Keeps us full, helps us burn fat,and I think those come in food sources best.

• 59:16

NARRATOR: It can be easy to oversimplifywhat it means to be hungry.Sometimes, we're just looking for comfort.Food can be a quick and easy way to takeour minds off the things that make us sad.But if one of the things that makes us sadis our weight or our health, it can playinto a really painful loop.Find someone to talk to and eat with people

• 59:37

NARRATOR [continued]: that eat healthfully.Be conscious of what causes you to keep eating.Learn to find people, places, and activitiesthat aren't food centric, and thatwill provide meaning and comfort to your life.If you live in a food desert, think about the waysyou can grow your own food.If space is limited, seek out local healthy food

• 59:58

NARRATOR [continued]: sources like farms, healthy markets, or maybe join a co-op.

• 01:00:02

INJACQUELINE GJURGEVICH: Stockbox locates in urban fooddesert communities, so areas without accessto a good grocery store.Our mission is to go to areas that really are askingfor good food and have a population that could respondwell to a grocery store.So our stores range in size from 500 square feetto 2,000 square feet, so the size of a typical convenience

• 01:00:24

INJACQUELINE GJURGEVICH [continued]: store or 7-Eleven, focusing on really good fresh food.Produce is always front and center.One promotion that we run in orderto increase people's consumption of fresh produceis produce happy hour.We run that every weekday.We give people 10% off between 3 and 6PM of produce.We design our stores with an elementof fun, engagement, and joy.

• 01:00:45

INJACQUELINE GJURGEVICH [continued]: We want people to come in and just feel like they'rein a different place.They're not in a typical grocery store.You feel something different.

• 01:00:52

NARRATOR: If enough people are demandingcertain types of products or services,corporations will notice.After all, big food is driven by demand.So demand healthy options, and the industrywill respond because in some ways that got us herein the first place.People demanded that food corporations provide themwith low fat alternatives.

• 01:01:12

NARRATOR [continued]: And these days, it's almost impossibleto find healthy fat in the middle of a grocery store.

• 01:01:18

JONATHAN BAILOR: You redefined foodas things you could find directly in nature.The things that sustained humanityand every other species on the planet for, frankly,every generation except for the current obesity and diabetesriddled generations, then healthybecomes very, very simple.If you can't find it directly in nature,

• 01:01:39

JONATHAN BAILOR [continued]: you'd be better off not putting it into your body.

• 01:01:41

RICK LINDQUIST: If it's white and refined sweetened products,you don't need it, and it's probably at some pointgoing to cause you some harm.

• 01:01:48

ANN COOPER: I would say processed stuff of any kind,be it snack foods or beverages, iswhat we really need to get rid of in our kids' diets.

• 01:01:58

• 01:02:07

ANN COOPER: Just one thing at a time.Take your kids to the farmer's market or to the grocery store.Let them pick out something that they've never tasted,and that can be their thing and youcan cook it with them together.So I think cooking with kids, gardening with kids,involving them in the process, eating as a family,finding our kitchens again.

• 01:02:26

NARRATOR: There are a lot of helpful programs designedto educate children about how to prepare healthy food.

• 01:02:31

KASHIA CAVE: My City Kitchen, we tryto provide a healthy lifestyle for kids,teaching them how to cook healthy foods.The kids come in here for about an hour and a half every day,Monday through Friday.We work with different age groups,and we cook food that's healthy, nutritious,and something that they would be able to do at home.

• 01:02:52

KASHIA CAVE [continued]: Most of the family that we serve is underprivileged kidson welfare and different things.Basically, we only have one grocery store here.They go to the bodegas to buy food.So most of the stuff that we cookis really basic food that the kids have at homethat they can use and utilize to make different thingsin many different ways.

• 01:03:12

KASHIA CAVE [continued]: We try to show them where the food comes from,not just coming from the grocery store.Some kids, you show them certain fruits and vegetablesand they have no idea where it came fromor what it is unless it's cut up in a can.So we got a responsibility to show them thatand take them to local farms, farmer's market,and expose them to what is available for them.I love what I do.

• 01:03:33

KASHIA CAVE [continued]: I'm really passionate about cooking.With a labor of love, it's hard work.But just to see some of the kids growingand be able to make a meal, that is worthwhile.

• 01:03:45

DOCTOR: Sounds great.But won't it be too hard?I don't like to do things-- I mean, some of my patientsdon't like to do things that are hard.So is it worth it?

• 01:03:57

LATHE POLAND: A few years ago, I cut the majority of the carbsfrom my diet.My desire to fill up on them slowly ebbed away,and I noticed I could maintain my blood sugarlevels without medication.Now of course, every case is different.So it's best to work with a doctorbefore making any decisions regarding medication.Hippocrates famously said, let food be thy medicine.

• 01:04:19

LATHE POLAND [continued]: Many people like me have found their health againby doing just that.

• 01:04:23

MARK SISSON: Everyone has the abilityto avoid getting type 2 diabetes or becoming obese based, again,on food choices, exercise pattern, sunexposure, the amount of sleep you get,and a lot of other factors.So none of us are really doomed as a resultof our genetic heritage.

• 01:04:38

DAVID PERLMUTTER: The ball is it across the net, backinto your court as a consumer.That you've got to make the changes right now, the dietaryand lifestyle changes, that will reduce your risk of becomingdiabetic, that focus on a low carbohydrate diet, and again,as a neurologist, I want people to understandthis has a huge role to play in reducing

• 01:04:59

DAVID PERLMUTTER [continued]: your risk for dementia.

• 01:05:01

ANDREA DIMAURO: Be really diligent about makingthe right decisions.Because the payback is phenomenal.There's nothing like good health,and there's nothing like seeing your children thrive.

• 01:05:13

NARRATOR: Clearly, there can't bea one size fits all approach.Everyone has a different tolerancefor the carbs in their diet.So go ahead and experiment.Start reducing the carbs in your diet.Try it for a month or two and seeif you notice the health benefits of walking awayfrom the standard American diet.

• 01:05:32

RICK LINDQUIST: We have essential amino acids.We have to eat protein or we're going to die.We have fatty acids that are essential.We have to eat fats or we're going to die.But there's really no such thing as an essential carbohydrate.We can go long periods of time, and in fact,are adapted to that as a human species.

• 01:05:51

JONATHAN BAILOR: There are essential amino acids,proteins, essential fatty acids, fats.There is no such thing as an essential starchor an essential sugar.Even our United States Department of Agriculture,the people who make the food guide pyramid in my plate,acknowledge this in the official documentused to design those diagrams.

• 01:06:11

JOHNNY BOWDEN: We're talking about cutting outprocessed foods, carbohydrates thatare loaded with sugar and starch,carbohydrates with high glycemic loadsthat raise your blood sugar, raise your insulin,send you into fat storage mode, and ultimatelylead to insulin resistance and diabetes in susceptible people.And there are a lot more susceptiblepeople than anybody's talking about.

• 01:06:32

LATHE POLAND: The good news is we can do something.In a recent study from UCSF, researcherswere able to make direct correlation between the sugarwe eat and drink and diabetes.

• 01:06:44

NARRATOR: In fact, that study estimatedthat 25% of all diabetes cases resulted from drinking soda.Consider cutting your carbs as an option.There is absolutely no harm in doing soand if you are suffering the effects of the Western diet,there is a whole lot to gain.

• 01:07:02

DAVID PERLMUTTER: There's no questionthat the ideal diet, from a metabolic perspective,and even from the perspective of speaking to your DNA,is a diet that's rich in nutrients,low in carbohydrates, and high in good fats,avoiding the bad fats, the trans fats, and the modified fats.

• 01:07:20

CHRISTINE STRALEY: Getting rid of the fake fats, the vegetableoils, the soybean oil, and reallystarting to use real fats again.Olive oil, coconut oil, grass fed butter from a pastureraised cow.

• 01:07:31

JONATHAN BAILOR: If you want to make a quick switch thatwill transform your life and the life of your family,just swap starch for non-starchy vegetables.When you go out to eat, tell your server, hold the starch,double the veggies.It's that simple.

• 01:07:47

ANN COOPER: It's really about priorities,and it doesn't need to be hard work.Now when I talk to groups of people about this,I say there's some really easy things you can do.Just for instance, the other day, I wentand I bought a whole bunch of root vegetablesand I bought some broccoli and cauliflowerat the grocery store.Threw it all in the oven and it roasted,and I had all these roasted veggies

• 01:08:07

ANN COOPER [continued]: that I did different things with in the course of the week.So think about cooking once, eating twice, or three times.So pick the little things that you can do.It doesn't have to be a big deal.But you just have to start to incorporate itinto a lifestyle.

• 01:08:24

ANDREAS EENFELDT: Well, I just try to eat real food,avoid processed food, avoid too much sugar,avoid too much flour.So I eat meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, vegetables, nuts,berries, all kinds of food.I don't try to avoid every single gram of carbohydrate,but I avoid most of it.I avoid the worst carbs, and I'm not afraid of fat.

• 01:08:45

MELANIE WARNER: The extent to whicha food is processed is the most important factorto think about in terms of trying to identifyhow to eat a healthy diet.It's much more revealing than trying to add up calories,or grams of this or that, or milligrams,and it's much simpler to understand,is this a food that was grown or made?

• 01:09:06

ANDREA DIMAURO: Know what real food is and what it is not.Real food comes from a farm, a field, or a forest.It does not come from a factory.So if you're eating something with a bar code, look twice.Figure out what process it went through to get to your plate,

• 01:09:27

ANDREA DIMAURO [continued]: and then make a decision if it's good enough for you.

• 01:09:30

• 01:09:33

LATHE POLAND: That way, we can movefrom being a culture dying to eat to one that eats to live.When people ask me about the details of my food choices,my answer is, just eat real food.Did that sound right?

• 01:09:49

ERIC CARLSEN: Oh, totally, man.You knocked it out of the park.

• 01:09:52

LATHE POLAND: What about the emphasis?Just eat real food.Just eat real food.OK, wait.Are we afraid they're going to do something other than eat it?Just eat real food.Ooh, I like that one.Just eat real food.Hm.Not so much.

• 01:11:31

ERIC CARLSEN: So more carbs, less fat?How'd that work out?

• 01:11:34

LATHE POLAND: OK, unfortunately, I hit the button too soon.

• 01:11:37

ERIC CARLSEN: How'd that work out?

• 01:11:38

LATHE POLAND: It didn't work out too good.One more?

• 01:11:49

ERIC CARLSEN: More fat.More carbs.I have one line.I have one line.

• 01:12:02

LATHE POLAND: Sound health and two slow teleprompterscan really cause problems.Sorry.

• 01:12:07

ERIC CARLSEN: That was good, too.

• 01:12:08

LATHE POLAND: I know, it was.

• 01:12:37

ERIC CARLSEN: Yeah, go ahead and go left.

• 01:12:39

LATHE POLAND: OK.Wait, did I have a line after that?

• 01:12:46

ERIC CARLSEN: What were you saying?

• 01:12:47

LATHE POLAND: OK, what were you saying?

• 01:12:54

NARRATOR: The health problems we are witnessing todayare a result of modern food culture.

• 01:12:59

LATHE POLAND: Hm.That's a good question.

• 01:13:01

NARRATOR: Definitely.Hey, did you take the left?

• 01:13:29

LATHE POLAND: Addiction aside, our bodiesneed hu-- need hunger.They do.They just do that.Back to one, sorry that's me.[INAUDIBLE]

• 01:13:50

DOCTOR: I know.Quiet on set.

• 01:14:14

GARY TAUBES: Something wrong with this thinking.And right there, you know clearly why it hasn't worked.Cut.The timing was [INAUDIBLE].It was good, it [INAUDIBLE], so.And cue the cat.

# Carb-Loaded: A Culture Dying to Eat

View Segments Segment :

## Abstract

Eric Carlsen and Lathe Poland examine the U.S. food and health situation, including portion sizes and the obesity epidemic. The obesity epidemic has taken over much of the world, and in the United States the rates are high and stabilizing at that level. Carlsen and Poland look at diabetes, the American sedentary lifestyle, and the unconscious mindset.

Carb-Loaded: A Culture Dying to Eat

Eric Carlsen and Lathe Poland examine the U.S. food and health situation, including portion sizes and the obesity epidemic. The obesity epidemic has taken over much of the world, and in the United States the rates are high and stabilizing at that level. Carlsen and Poland look at diabetes, the American sedentary lifestyle, and the unconscious mindset.

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