Bernard’s Discrimination Model

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    • 00:11

      RODNEY GOODYEAR: One of the more interesting things to mein terms of just basic conceptualizationof supervision has been my colleague Jeanine Bernard'snotion of what she calls the discrimination model.And it's a fairly straightforward one.It's easy enough to say.But let me expand on it a bit.

    • 00:31

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: So her notion is that we bring to supervisionparticular roles.And there have been several studiesthat mostly validate her model.And some people have talked about other roles.But in the main, it makes intuitive sense,at the very least, that her model of supervisor as teacher,

    • 00:53

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: a counselor, or a consultant really kind of capturesthe terrain of behaviors of supervisors.So supervision does have some overlaps with counseling.There are opportunities often for a superviseeto bring in material that's puzzling to them,it's touching on kind of hot button

    • 01:18

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: issues in their own lives.So they're going through a divorce themselvesand they're working with a divorcing client,and it's stirring up material for them.And very often, the supervisor's roleis to help them sort through that materialand help them better serve that client, to distance themselves

    • 01:38

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: enough from their personal material to do that.So that's the counselor role.At the same time, there's some ethical implications there,which is that in my counselor role as a supervisor,I don't have free license to start digginginto any particular thing in that person's life,beyond what's going on in the therapy session,

    • 02:01

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: that whatever I do as counselor role needs to be anchoredin the service of that particular client.So there's some ethical boundariesthat people have notice and talked about.But it's an important role.So that's one.Teacher seems fairly obvious.It's one where the supervisor is giving instruction or modeling

    • 02:22

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: or otherwise helping the person learn new material.A consultant role is a little more amorphous,but it really speaks to being a nonjudgmental facilitatorof conversations, to help elicit the supervisee's selfreflections and thoughts about what's occurring.

    • 02:43

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: And so that's one part of the discriminationmodel, the roles.And then the other piece of the discrimination modelspeaks to what you're focusing on at that particular point.So you can focus on, what Janine talks aboutis the personhood issues.So these have to do with the person's affective responses

    • 03:04

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: or their own self-efficacy, the beliefsthat they can do particular thingsand perform the work they're doing,and those kinds of hot spots or personal hot buttons issuesthat get pushed.Those are all personhood issues that certainly affect usas therapists, as new trainees.

    • 03:25

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: There's conceptualization.How do you think about clients?How do you think about what's going on between youand the client?How do you think about what is going on the client's life?How do you put it all together in a way that makes senseto you and to the client, and that you can actuallydo something with with an intervention.And then finally the third focus is actually

    • 03:45

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: on what those interventions are.How do you best intervene with this particular client?So those three focuses-- foci?-- are again personhood,conceptualization, and skills.And in Janine's conception, in any of those three roles,you can match with any of those focus, focuses, foci.

    • 04:09

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: Although I think there are certainlycertain modal responses.So if you're in the therapist role or counselorrole as a supervisor, probably it'smore likely you're going to be focusing on personhood issues.So helping that supervisee again sort through their responsesto the client and their anxiety at that moment, or whatever it

    • 04:34

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: is.That's a personhood issue.Or if you're in a teacher role, it'smuch more likely to be about conceptualization or skills,and so on.So I think it's a pretty straightforward model.It's fairly easy to grasp.And it's easy to talk about.And it also helps provide-- it's a map,

    • 04:55

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: in the notion that with beginning supervisees,you're much more likely to be in a direct teaching role.And as the supervisee becomes more advanced,you move more toward focusing on consultation skills,or the consultation role or the consultant role,

    • 05:18

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: or the therapist role.So there's an evolution across time,as the supervisee develops.But there's also theoretical orientation implication there.So we know from the research that peopleare more psychodynamic or humanistic are much morelikely then in their supervision to focus more

    • 05:41

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: on the personhood elements of what's going on.Whereas a cognitive behavior therapistis much more likely to adopt the role of teacher.So that that gets overlaid in there, as well.And of course, the important thingfor a supervisor to recognize is that good supervision involves

    • 06:02

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: all three of those roles and all three of those foci.And that it would really be inadequate supervisionto simply focus on one role, to stay stuck in the teacher role,for example, or to focus only on skills and strategiesand ignore the affective and other sorts of things.

    • 06:22

      RODNEY GOODYEAR [continued]: So it's a really useful model, I think,and a fairly easy one to grasp, at least conceptually.Although with beginning supervisees, and helpingthem operationalize that in practicethen becomes part of what goes on in supervision.

Bernard’s Discrimination Model

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Abstract

Prof. Rodney Goodyear discusses the discrimination model of counselor supervision, which states that supervision must incorporate the roles of counselor, teacher, and consultant.

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Bernard’s Discrimination Model

Prof. Rodney Goodyear discusses the discrimination model of counselor supervision, which states that supervision must incorporate the roles of counselor, teacher, and consultant.

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