Encyclopedia of World Poverty

Encyclopedia of World Poverty

Encyclopedias

Edited by: M. Odekon

Abstract

The Encyclopedia of World Poverty provides extensive and current information, as well as insight into the contemporary debate on poverty. The three volumes of this state-of-the-art Encyclopedia contain over 800 original articles written by more than 125 renowned scholars. The entries contributing to this work explore poverty in various regions of the world, and examine the difficulties associated with the definition and measurement of poverty, along with its causes and effects.

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  • Reader's Guide
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  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Antipoverty Organizations
    • Children and Poverty
    • Causes of Poverty
    • Countries: Africa
    • Countries: Americas
    • Countries: Asia
    • Countries: Europe
    • Countries: Pacific
    • Economics of Poverty
    • Effects of Poverty
    • History of Poverty
    • Measurements and Definitions of Poverty
    • People
    • Politics and Poverty
    • Poverty Relief Initiatives
    • Religious and Secular Charities
    • Women and Poverty
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      About the General Editor

      Mehmet Odekon, Ph.D., has been a member of the Economics Department at Skidmore College, New York, since 1982, arriving from Fontainebleau, France, where he was a research associate at the European Institute of Business Administration. His most recent publication, The Cost of Economic Liberalization in Turkey, was published by Lehigh University Press in 2005.

      He also has edited (with T. Nas and P. Dabir-Alai) and/or authored several books and articles on neoliberalism and globalization. His current research focuses on the effects of globalization on labor and on the relief of poverty as a human right. Odekon received his B.A. in economics from Bogazici University, Turkey, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the State University of New York at Albany. He lives in Saratoga Springs, New York.

      Photo Credits

      Wernher http://Krutein/Photovault.com: Pages 11, 13, 16, 23, 30, 37, 64, 70, 71 (bottom), 85, 98, 102, 114, 141, 153 (bottom), 196, 217, 259, 265, 294, 324, 325, 333, 334, 357, 488, 496, 499, 570, 676, 709, 733, 741, 814, 815, 847, 908, 931, 951, 1013, 1175. Library of Congress: Pages 4, 81, 87, 93, 100, 125, 128, 177, 180, 206, 231, 251, 300, 362, 396, 459, 464, 546, 590, 612, 642, 650, 694, 716, 775, 874, 899, 924, 927. Page 46: http://www.transintelligence.org; Page 55: http://www.rareads.com; Page 71 (top) http://www.njwg.gov; Page 74: http://www.episcopalchurch.org; Page 89: http://www.mst.org; Page 144: http://www.stfancis-shakopee.com; Page 153 (top) http://poverty.codengo.org; Page 160: http://www.travelsphere.co.uk; Page 172: http://www.payne-gallway.co.uk; Page 275: NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center; Page 283: http://www.unige.it; Page 310: http://www.marxists.org; Page 319: http://www.maersk.com; Page 360: http://www.edwebproject.org; Page 410: http://www.number-10.gov.uk; Page 416: http://www.worldpeace-conference.net; Page 431: http://www.nab.org; Page 598: LBJ Library; Page 616: Carter Center; Page 672: http://homepage3.nifty.com; Page 756, 1141; : NOAA; Pages 815, 952, 953, 1039, 1040, 1041, 1156, 1158: http://europa.eu.int (ECHO); Page 817: http://www.europanostra.org; Page 845: http://thebiblerevival.com; Page: 975: http://www.save-the-elephants.org; Pages: 1094, 1095, 1096, 1097: UNICEF. PhotoDisc.: 22, 120, 216, 233, 342, 364, 381, 390, 472, 473, 474, 530, 535, 537, 574, 586, 622, 639, 767, 788, 799, 831, 902, 914, 937, 938, 1000, 1058; Page 940: World Bank.

      Introduction

      THE THREE VOLUMES of the Encyclopedia of World Poverty contain some 800 original, previously unpublished articles written by over 100 independent or affiliated scholars. This encyclopedia is intended for use as an authoritative and rigorous source on poverty and related issues. It provides extensive and current information and insight into the contemporary debate on poverty. It can also be used as a reference to other sources through its cross-references and bibliographies. It is a timely project; 2005 was marked by a declaration of concern with poverty by world leaders at the G-8 summit and at the World Economic Forum.

      Furthermore, poverty as a pressing issue was brought to public attention thanks to the efforts of high-profile individuals, such as Bill and Melinda Gates and U-2 lead singer Bono, who were named Persons of the Year (2005) by Time magazine. In a time when public attention is directed to poverty, the Encyclopedia of World Poverty can be an indispensable source for all students of poverty.

      Personally, my first encounter with poverty was during a summer break in the 1960s as a high-school student in Turkey, in a village in mid-Anatolia. A group of us had volunteered to go to the village to build a sewer system and repair the run-down school building.

      There were no water, no electricity, no gas, no teachers, and no doctors. The local economy at best could be described as a non-monetized village barter economy without much even to barter. Most villagers worked for a bare minimum as sharecroppers. Unfortunately the experience was more helpful for me in drawing the future path of my professional career than it was for the villagers. At the ages of 16 and 17, we just did not have enough physical power, or the necessary equipment, to complete our projects.

      It is hard to visualize poverty and the living conditions of the poor without personal exposure. Without that encounter, poverty mostly remains a statistic that we are lucky not to be part of, and dealing with the corresponding human condition is then usually left to those with the willingness and imagination to think about it. Poverty is anything but a statistic, and not all aspects of it are quantifiable. As the 1998 Nobel Prize Laureate in Economics Amartya Sen has eloquently elaborated, poverty is more than just lack of income, even though this is an important factor.

      Poverty is deprivation from basic capabilities, rights, and freedoms that provide individuals the necessary choices and opportunities they need to lead a life they value. Income is a necessary part of life, but alone it is not sufficient. Unless it is coupled with social, political, and economic freedoms, it does not suffice to enhance individual capabilities. In this respect, income is not an end itself but just one of the means to healthy life, to education, and to participation in the surrounding political, cultural, and economic life. It is important to take poverty out of the narrow context of income. Otherwise poverty would be an issue only in developing countries and not in affluent, industrial countries, where even many of the poor have an income higher than most in the world.

      I do not mean to say that statistics related to poverty do not matter. They help us to frame the magnitude of the problem. According to the latest official data, about 1.2 billion people currently live in extreme poverty, defined as living on less than $1 a day at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). If we raise the threshold income to $2 a day (PPP), the number rises to 2.5 billion. Of course, the geographical distribution of poverty is not even. Over one billion of the extreme poor live in South Asia (488 million or 42 percent), in sub-Saharan Africa (315 million or 27 percent), and in east Asia and the Pacific (279 million or 24 percent). The incidence of extreme poverty differs among countries. In Ethiopia and in Uganda, plagued by internal strife, it is 82 percent; in oil-rich Nigeria, it is 70.2 percent; while in Tanzania, Kenya, and Senegal, the corresponding figure is significantly less, 20, 23, and 26 percent respectively.

      The discouraging aspect of the overall poverty data is that in the 1990s, which is promoted as an era of sustained economic growth and prosperity, income poverty increased in 37 of the 67 countries for which longitudinal data are available. These countries are mostly located in central and eastern Europe. In other countries, mostly in eastern and southern Asia and a few in Latin America (for instance Brazil and Chile), however, poverty has significantly decreased. At this juncture, it is worth mentioning that official poverty rates based on threshold income measures tend to underestimate the actual extent of poverty. Is there any reason to believe that a person who makes $1.10 a day (PPP) is not living in poverty?

      In spite of its shortcomings, income poverty gives an idea about the extent of the destitution of the poor. Malnutrition, hunger, and starvation; HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other life-threatening diseases; high child and maternal mortality; high illiteracy; and lack of basic needs are all concentrated in poverty-stricken countries. In Niger in sub-Saharan Africa, one of the poorest countries in the world if not the poorest, 36 percent of the population are undernourished, the under-5 mortality rate per 1,000 live births is 265, the maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births is 1,100, and about 2,000 children per 100,000 die because of malaria. Only one percent of children benefit from the insecticide-treated bed nets that could cut malaria-related deaths significantly. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are other diseases with a high death toll. In 2001, tuberculosis claimed 196 lives per 100,000 people in Niger. The HIV prevalence estimate runs a high range, 0.7–2.3 percent of the 15–49 age group. The probability at birth of not surviving to age 40 is 39 percent. In this measure, Niger compares favorably to Lesotho, where the probability of not surviving is 68.1 percent. Just these few statistics are enough to give an idea about the level of destitution in these countries.

      The poor in affluent societies face similar measures of destitution, even though its magnitude is significantly lower. The United States, the highest per capita income country in the world, is ranked 17th according to the Human Poverty Index. Over 13 percent of the population live below the poverty income threshold of $11 a day, a threshold more than 10 times that of developing countries. The under-5 and overall child mortality rates are 8 and 7 percent, respectively. The maternal mortality ratio is 12 percent. About 10 percent of 1-year-olds are not immunized against measles. The probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 is 12.6 percent. Over 20 percent of the age group 16–65 lack functional literacy. The data clearly reflect the fact that a certain low-income group is not sharing the economic growth and the affluence enjoyed by most in the United States. These findings can easily be extended to other industrial countries as well.

      The poor in developing and industrial countries share similar characteristics. Unmistakably, women, children, the elderly, racial and ethnic minorities, those in rural areas, urban unemployed, and slum-dwellers make up the bulk of the poor. They constitute a socially and economically vulnerable group subject to Sen's “unfreedoms” that worsen their destitution by limiting their opportunities to break through the walls of poverty surrounding them. An additional complication of this gender, age, and race composition is that these are the groups with the least potential to access markets and therefore their poverty becomes a long-term phenomenon.

      In the Encyclopedia of World Poverty, 191 country entries provide current vital statistics on poverty—on its composition and characteristics, on mortality, disease, literacy and illiteracy. These articles also incorporate information on geographic, political, social, cultural, and other economic characteristics of each country. Each country's ranking according to the Human Development Index and the Human Poverty Index, whenever available, is listed as well. The Human Development Index combines life expectancy, education, and adjusted income into an indicator of overall human development. The content of the Human Poverty Index depends on whether it is being used for developing or for affluent industrial countries. For the former group, it combines life expectancy, education, nutrition, and access to water and health services. For the latter group, the access to water and health is replaced by long-term unemployment. Even though these are by no means perfect or comprehensive indices, they attempt to overcome the difficulty of quantifying human development and poverty, both of which do not lend themselves easily to quantification. There are 78 entries in the encyclopedia dealing with the various definitions and measurement techniques of poverty. Absolute versus relative poverty, the headcount index of poverty versus the relative-income-based measure of poverty, and various others measures inevitably yield different results regarding poverty rates. These are important technical issues in that they ultimately affect public policy decisions geared to combating poverty.

      Information on the causes of poverty is equally important for public policy purposes. The level of poverty and changes in it can be an economic phenomenon, for instance the result of a recession. If so, it may be of a temporary nature and is likely to disappear with an improving economy. In this case the policy choice would be very different than when poverty is more permanent and is caused by structural factors. It could be the result of historical, cultural, or social factors, such as colonialism, international economic relations, or apartheid. In these cases, different policies to combat poverty are called for. Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth tops the list of long-term causes of poverty.

      If a disproportionately large share of total income generated in the economy is held by a relatively small group of people or households, the share of the remaining people or households is inevitably limited. Inequality also can deepen poverty by perpetuating it. The pattern of income and wealth distribution determines the pattern of consumption and production in the economy. Consumption preferences of high-income groups are such that they favor luxurious consumption goods, which are produced using relatively more capital-intensive techniques.

      Hence, increases in their production do not necessarily reduce unemployment. This encyclopedia distinguishes among 25 different potential causes of poverty, ranging from discrimination to climate factors, such as draught and famine. In-depth analyses show that, in general, no one single factor causes poverty. It is usually like the movie Murder on the Orient Express, each potential suspect contributing a fair share. Hence, the entries emphasize the importance of all economic, social, and political aspects of poverty.

      Vulnerability, insecurity, powerlessness, social exclusion and disqualification, and stigmatization are among the more than two dozen articles in the encyclopedia on the potential effects of poverty. Some of these effects are quantifiable but some are not. To some degree we can measure the crime rate and environmental degradation associated with poverty, but it is almost impossible to measure the stigmatization and powerlessness a poor person feels. We can somehow measure the output loss associated with poverty, and the cost of welfare programs associated with poverty, but we can hardly quantify a feeling of self-worthlessness and insecurity. A thorough understanding of these tangible and intangible effects is necessary for the reader to realize that combating poverty would benefit not only the poor but society as a whole.

      Understanding the difficulties associated with the definition and measurement of poverty, along with its causes and effects, is essential for the conceptualization of poverty. The design and prioritization of antipoverty policies depend heavily on how poverty is conceptualized.

      A successful fight against poverty calls for engagement from governments, civil society organizations, and individual people, to improve the coordination, collaboration, and implementation of antipoverty policies. There is evidence that in countries where local organizations and people assumed the ownership of antipoverty programs, success has been significantly higher. civil society organizations, secular charities, religious charities, and nongovernmental organizations are therefore important players in the fight against poverty, and the encyclopedia acknowledges their importance by allocating over 150 articles to them.

      The political environment also plays an indispensable role in the effectiveness and success of the antipoverty policies and programs. Their importance is captured by over 20 in-depth analytical entries. Without the engagement of these organizations and institutions, eradication of poverty and human development might well be impossible. A notable example of the importance of civil society organizations and grassroots movements is the recent revival of interest in poverty and its eradication by the political leaders of industrial countries; these organizations have been instrumental in both bringing the urgency of poverty to the attention of world leaders and forcing them to commit themselves to its eradication.

      Conventional fiscal, monetary, and industrial policies, especially in developing countries, have either completely failed or have been of limited success in combating poverty. Structural rigidities in the economy, political factors, and the inadequacy of the policies themselves have contributed to their failure to meet their objectives. One of the important factors that underline poverty is asset distribution in an economy. Members of high-income groups rarely derive their income as labor income; their income is derived from asset ownership. Since labor is a relatively abundant factor of production, return to labor relative to capital is relatively low.

      Under these circumstances growth increases the income gap between owners of labor and capital, increasing income inequality and deepening poverty. Asset redistribution is then a necessary component of a full-fledged antipoverty program.

      This is one of the main difficulties with antipoverty programs: how the elite can be convinced to support the redistribution of assets, existing or newly created, as the growth-with-redistribution advocates claim. The literature on antipoverty programs is cluttered with such proposals—intellectually appealing but in practice impossible to implement successfully. Numerous entries in the encyclopedia cover public policy issues related to poverty.

      Limited resources, existing economic rigidities, and political bottlenecks have been reasons for developing countries to expect help from industrial countries. The industrial world, on the other hand, has traditionally been reluctant to provide that help. The G-8 Summits and World Economic Forums have frequently discussed targeting global poverty and helping very poor nations, especially those in Africa, but they have been reluctant to commit the financial resources to back their promises.

      At the turn of the new millennium, the highly publicized Millennium Development Goals targeted global poverty, aiming to halve it by 2015. Other goals included universal education, gender equality, reduction in child mortality by two-thirds by 2015, improvement in maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and finally halving the number of people without access to safe water.

      The financial resources needed for these ambitious goals, however, proved to be enormous and industrial countries as a whole failed to allocate the funds required for the project. Five years later, at the 2005 G-8 Summit in Gleneagles in Scotland, leaders renewed their commitment to fight extreme poverty in Africa with a promise of debt relief and economic and humanitarian assistance. The fine print, however, includes conditions for such assistance, with an emphasis on trade liberalization.

      Economic liberalization and globalization have been promoted by some as a panacea to poverty. Economic growth achieved through liberalization and trade is supposed to trickle down to low-income groups by creating employment in areas where each country has a comparative advantage. Others regard globalization and liberalization as having contributed to poverty, as a result of outsourcing, offshoring, and labor market liberalization that has marginalized labor, especially the low-skill, low-wage workers.

      Most likely, in some countries globalization and liberalization have been positive forces, but not in all. Thus, relying on liberalization and globalization as a one-size-fits-all-policy in combating poverty might not be that desirable. Different conditions in each country call for different antipoverty policy approaches. A common denominator in the successful fight against poverty, however, involves unconditional commitment to political and economic democracy, to good governance, and to transparency and accountability.

      M.Odekon, General Editor

      Reader's Guide

      THIS LIST IS provided to assist readers in locating article entries on related topics.

      Chronology of Poverty

      10th century B.C.E.: The first use of the word poverty surfaces in the biblical world, referring to landowners who forced peasants to sell land.

      495–429 B.C.E.: Under the rule of Pericles, Athens undertakes large-scale public works projects as a means of providing employment for the poor.

      550 C.E.: Pope Gregory I of the Roman Catholic Church establishes the world's first orphanage in the city of Milan, Italy.

      1349: King Edward III of England issues the Statute of Labourers, giving greater power to feudal lords and prohibiting begging and giving, except for senior citizens and the physically disabled. Edward made a distinction between the “worthy poor,” which included widows, dependent children, and the disabled, and the “unworthy poor,” which included able-bodied adults.

      1351: Pedro the Cruel of Castile orders all able-bodied, unemployed men in his kingdom to be flogged.

      1381: Wat Tyler leads a peasant revolt against King Richard II of England. Following the invasion of the city of Canterbury, where Tyler's mob murdered the Archbishop of Canterbury, England's leading religious figure, King Richard was forced to abolish feudal serfdom. The decision was later reversed.

      1500–1600: The population of Europe nearly doubles in size, from 30 million to 60 million people.

      1526: Juan Luis Vives publishes De Subventione Pauperum, in which he provides a theoretical justification for state-run poverty relief.

      1529: The city-state of Venice (Italy) enacts a law requiring impoverished people to perform community service in order to receive a license for relief.

      1531: England passes a law requiring local officials to interview people to determine whether they are suitable applicants for poverty relief. Emperor Charles V bans begging in the territories of Spain, Austria, Mexico, and Peru.

      1534: The French city of Lyons creates a comprehensive system of relief for the worthy poor and banning begging by those deemed unworthy.

      1536: King François I of France bans begging throughout the whole of France.

      1596: The first workhouse for the poor is built in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

      1601: British legislators pass the Poor Law Act, providing financial relief to children and the physically handicapped. The act would later be updated in 1795.

      1623: Philosopher William Petty, who would lay the basis for modern census-taking, is born in Hampshire, England, as the son of a clothier.

      1642: The newly settled Plymouth Colony creates the first poor law in the English-speaking New World.

      1651: Philosopher Thomas Hobbes publishes Levia-than, the book for which he is most known. In the book, Hobbes adopts a pessimistic view of the state of human nature, writing that life is nothing more than “nasty, brutish, and short.”

      1750: One of the first almshouses, or ramshackle living spaces designed to house the extremely poor, is built in the United States.

      1789: Six thousand French women march on the palace of King Louis XVI in Versailles, demanding bread.

      1795: British legislators update the 1601 Poor Law Act, extending relief eligibility to the physically able.

      One of the first poverty lines is created in the English city of Speenhamland. When a worker's wage fell below this line, which was based on both the price of bread and the number of dependents, or children, the worker is required to support, a worker would be eligible to receive relief.

      1818: Karl Marx, considered the father of communism, is born in Trier, Germany, to a wealthy Jewish family.

      1820: Friedrich Engels, who would cowrite with Karl Marx six books on the subject of communism, is born in Wuppertal, Germany, to a successful textile industrialist. Sent to work at a cotton factory in Manchester, England, as a young man, Engels's discovery of the working conditions inspires his social consciousness.

      1833: French author Frédéric Ozanam founds the Conference of Charity, later known as the St. Vincent de Paul Society.

      1848: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto, which is summed up by its opening line: “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle.”

      1851: The first American chapter of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), an organization devoted to providing relief to young people despite religious affiliation, is founded in the city of Boston.

      1853: The Children's Aid Society of New York, which would eventually serve over 120,000 needy children annually at a cost of $70 million, is founded by Protestant minister the Reverend Charles Loring Brace.

      1859: Charles Darwin publishes the first edition of Origin of Species. While credited as being a significant contribution to evolutionary science, the book has been criticized for its influence on the theory of “economic survival of the fittest.”

      1861: Upon the election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln, an opponent of slavery, seven southern states officially secede to spark the Civil War in which 500,000 Americans were killed, the most of any conflict in American history.

      The war leads to the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Constitutional Amendments, which granted political and economic rights to a class of people who were previously powerless.

      1864: Author Karl Marx, Italian revolutionary Joseph Mazzini, and English Carpenter's Union secretary Robert Applegarth found the International Working Men's Association in Saint Martin's Hall in London, England.

      1865–70: The South American nation of Paraguay loses over two-thirds of its male population in the War of the Triple Alliance.

      1866: The first congress of the International Working Men's Association is held in Geneva, Switzerland. The adoption of an eight-hour workday is voted as one of the primary goals of the association.

      1870–11990011:: The world's working-class population grows from approximately 20 percent to 33 percent.

      1873: The first chapter of the charitable organization United Way is founded in Liverpool, England.

      1879: American economist Henry George publishes Progress and Poverty, in which he advocates a socialist society based on high taxes for the wealthy. The book would go on to sell more than three million copies.

      1882: The U.S. Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting poor Chinese immigrants from entering the country.

      1884: The Fabian Society, a socialist organization emphasizing gradualism and legislation as a means of achieving reform, is founded in Great Britain by such noted intellectuals as George Bernard Shaw and H.G. Wells.

      1889: Industrial magnate Andrew Carnegie publishes The Gospel of Wealth, largely considered the most influential of his some 70 essays.

      1890: Alfred Marshall publishes his magnum opus, Principles of Economics, in which he advocates a classless society.

      1892: Anticapitalist Ignatius Donnelly is nominated by the American People's Party for vice president of the United States.

      1897: The first chapter of the Catholic Caritas charitable organization is founded in Freiburg, Germany. The organization would later expand to Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Austria.

      1899: Seebohm Rowntree publishes Poverty: A Study of Town Life, in which he coins the term secondary poverty, meaning poverty resulting from a failure of character rather than from a lack of financial resources.

      1900–70:: American agricultural production increases at an average rate of 42 percent per year.

      1912: Massachusetts becomes the first U.S. state to voluntarily institute a minimum wage.

      1913: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs the Under-wood-Simmons Tariff Act into law. The act curbed the cost of living for Americans by lowering average tariff rates from 40 percent to 26 percent.

      1914–18:: Nearly 10 million people worldwide are killed in combat during World War I. Russia's and Germany's casualties, which both amounted to approximately five million, created unstable conditions that led to the rise of communism in Russia and Nazism in Germany.

      1915: British Army chaplain the Revered Philip Clayton founds one of the largest World War I refugee centers, the Talbot House, in the bordertown of Poperinge, Belgium.

      1916: The U.S. Congress passes the Adamson Act, establishing a required eight-hour workday for railroad workers.

      1917: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs the Vocational Education Act into law, providing job training for thousands of low-income Americans.

      The American Friends Service Committee, an organization devoted to providing conscientious objectors with alternatives to joining World War I, is founded. Russia's army grows to 15 million men and the countryside is left devoid of farmers needed to feed the populace. An ever-increasing communist movement that had arisen at the turn of the century capitalizes on the discontent and Russia plunges into its first revolution since the Romanov monarchy took power in 1613.

      1919: Western European nations institute a food blockade against Germany and Austria as a punishment for instigating World War I. In response, journalist Eglantyne Jebb founds the Fight the Famine Council, later known as the Save the Children organization, to feed hungry children in central Europe.

      The signing of the Treaty of Versailles creates the League of Nations' International Labour Organization, which sought to improve working conditions and quality of life. After becoming one of the few surviving League of Nations agencies to be included in the United Nations in 1944, the ILO would receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.

      A group of U.S. Catholic bishops meet at the National Catholic Welfare Conference, where the organization's Social Action Department, later known as the Department of Social Development and World Peace, is created.

      Representatives from the Red Cross chapters of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States assemble to create the League of Red Cross Societies. Within five years, the five nations had raised a sum of 685 million Swiss francs.

      1921: Edgar Allen founds the National Society for Crippled Children, later known as the Easter Seals Society.

      The 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party is held in the capital of Moscow. Premier Vladimir Lenin disbands the policy of War Communism, which enabled officials to forcibly seize agricultural surpluses and divide estates and thus had the result of reducing output to pre-World War I levels. War Communism is replaced with the New Economic Policy, granting farmers compensation for surplus seizures.

      1922: Civil rights leader Roy Wilkins, who would become elder statesman of the NAACP, founds the Center for Human Relations and Social Justice.

      1929: On October 24, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the leading U.S. stock market index, falls by 50 percent, creating an economic tailspin that would last for over a decade. The day would come to be known as “Black Tuesday.”

      1929–32:: The unemployment rate in the United States rises from 3.2 percent to 23.6 percent.

      1930: Great Britain officially bans workhouses, or houses where the poor are forced to work for long hours with little pay.

      1930–31:: Following the Wall Street crash of 1929, the unemployment rate in the United States rises from 8.9 percent to 15.9 percent, an increase of nearly 50 percent.

      1932: Just two days after being inaugurated as president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt issues an executive order requiring all U.S. banks to close for four days until an emergency session of Congress is held.

      Four days later, Congress passes the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which provided for federal inspectors able to declare the banks financially secure.

      President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Economy Act, which alleviated the U.S. federal budget deficit by reducing government salaries and veteran pensions by as much as 15 percent.

      1933: The U.S. Congress passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act, creating the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which sought to raise the price of crops by paying U.S. farmers to reduce the production of certain ones, including corn, cotton, dairy products, hogs, rice, tobacco, and wheat.

      1934: The U.S. Congress creates the Securities and Exchange Commission, the regulatory body of the stock market which provided insurance deposits to investors. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appoints Joseph P. Kennedy, father of future President John F. Kennedy, as the first chairman of the commission.

      1935: Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, providing many programs for relief to needy families, one of which was the Aid to Dependent Children organization, which required potential benefactors to pass a “morally worthy” examination to receive benefits.

      1937: President Franklin D. Roosevelt estimates in a speech that one-third of his countrymen are “illhoused, ill-nourished, and ill-clad.”

      1938: The U.S. Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, establishing a federal minimum wage, guaranteeing overtime pay, and prohibiting most forms of exploitative child labor.

      Franklin D. Roosevelt founds the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later known as the March of Dimes.

      1940: Bishop Herbert Welch founds the Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief (MCOR).

      1940–42:: As Pearl Harbor is bombed and the United States switches from a peacetime to a wartime economy, the unemployment rate drops from 14.6 to 4.7 percent, a reduction of nearly 68 percent.

      1940–46:: An estimated 30,000 Spaniards die from starvation, prompting President/General Francisco Franco to issue ration cards.

      1940–80:: The amount of substandard housing in the United States decreases by approximately 50 percent.

      1944: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, later known as the World Bank, is created. Delegates from 44 nations meet in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to create the International Monetary Fund, an international fiscal aid organization designed to circumvent the debt problems that greatly contributed to the Great Depression.

      1946: The United Kingdom becomes the first nation besides Soviet Russia to implement a universal healthcare system with the establishment of the National Health Service (NHS).

      Based on a proposal by British economist William Beveridge, the NHS was completely taxpayer-funded and provided healthcare to all Britons regardless of income or class.

      1947–73:: The amount of income earned by American families doubles.

      1948: The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Described by First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt as a “Magna Carta for all mankind,” the work would become the world's most translated document, with 321 foreign-language editions.

      1948–51:: The U.S. sends approximately $13.3 billion in aid to European countries devastated by the ravages of World War II.

      1950–2000:: The urban population of underdeveloped Third World nations increases from approximately 14 percent to 50 percent.

      1952: Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine.

      1953: U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower establishes the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, which would later merge into the Department of Health and Human Services.

      1953: Robert Louis Heilbroner publishes The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers, in which he discusses the economic differences between advanced, modernized societies and primitive ones.

      1954: U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower approves the expansion of Social Security to cover an additional 10 million Americans.

      1955: Dr. Wilbert Saunders founds Medicine for Missions, a private organization dedicated to providing medical supplies for missionaries working overseas.

      1959: Twenty nations from North and South America assemble to form the multibillion-dollar Inter-American Development Bank, of which the United States is the principal shareholder with over 30 percent of the total assets.

      1960: Following the implementation of certain social programs, the infant mortality rate in Algeria drops by 42 percent.

      1961: Amnesty International is founded by British lawyer Peter Benenson after he reads an article describing two Portuguese students who were unjustly imprisoned. The organization's goals are to free political prisoners and to increase international awareness of human rights abuses.

      The United Nations creates the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to help centralize foreign aid efforts.

      1962: American socialist Michael Harrington publishes The Other America: Poverty in the United States. Personally read by presidents, the book would become a driving inspiration behind the War on Poverty, and antipoverty programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, and Food Stamps.

      1963: E. Goffman publishes Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, largely considered to be the foremost resource on the economic concept of stigmatization.

      1964: In his first State of the Union address since being sworn in as president following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon Johnson says, “This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America.” The results of Johnson's proposal are marginal. While poverty for children and senior citizens has fallen sharply since 1964, the percentage of average Americans in poverty fell by only 0.4 percent in 40 years, from 10.5 percent to 10.1 percent.

      The U.S. Congress creates the federal Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), which would be replaced by the Community Services Administration (CSA) 10 years later.

      The Nation of Islam creates the Three Year Economic Savings Program, designed to correct the problems of poverty, unemployment, hunger, and housing problems for needy African Americans living in the United States.

      1965: U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Social Security Act into law. The act created two of the largest government social service programs, Medicare, which provided healthcare for retirees, and Medicaid, which provided healthcare for low-income workers.

      The U.S. government adopts the Mollie Orshansky Method, which defines poverty as any income below three times the cost of minimal nutrition, as its official formula for determining the poverty line.

      The number of participants in the United States' Food Stamp Program, created by Congress a year earlier, reaches 561,261 people.

      The United Nations General Assembly merges the United Nations Special Fund and the Program for Technical Assistance to create the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

      1968–72:: American Social Security benefits rise by 51 percent under the first term of Richard Nixon.

      1970: A group of American Catholic bishops founds the poverty relief organization Campaign for Human Development, which would later be changed to the Catholic Campaign for Human Development in 1998 at the request of certain bishops.

      1970–95: The amount of income per person in Sweden falls from a world ranking of fourth to a world ranking of sixteenth.

      1970–2005: The infant mortality rate for the Middle Eastern nation of Syria decreases from 90 deaths per 1000 births to 23 deaths per 1,000 births, a 74 percent reduction.

      1971:: Dr. Larry Ward establishes Food for the Hungry International, a 1,000-member organization with an annual budget of dozens of millions of dollars, in Geneva, Switzerland. The Swiss philanthropist Klaus Schwab founds the not-for-profit World Economic Forum in Geneva, Switzerland.

      1973–2000:: The income of poor American households grows 12 percent, as compared to a growth of 76 percent for wealthy American households.

      1973–2004:: The poverty rate for Hispanic Americans increases from 10.3 percent to 24.7 percent.

      1974:: The U.S. Congress creates the Supplemental Security Income program, providing funds not included in Social Security for permanently disabled individuals.

      U.S. President Richard Nixon creates the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program, one of the last efforts by the U.S. government to address urban poverty.

      1974–76:: The cost of living in Argentina rises by 355 percent.

      1976: Linda and Millard Fuller found Habitat for Humanity International, a nonprofit organization devoted to constructing houses for those with substandard dwellings. By 2005, Habitat had constructed over 50,000 houses in the U.S. and 150,000 houses worldwide.

      1978: Still reeling from postwar debts, Vietnam signs an agreement with the Soviet Union, allowing the southeast Asian communist nation membership in the Soviet Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

      1979: The organization Second Harvest, a group of 13 food banks with the collective ability to distribute 2.5 million pounds of food annually, is founded.

      The Save the Refugees Fund, later known as the Mercy Corps, is founded to assist Cambodian refugees fleeing their country from the ravages of war, famine, and hunger.

      1980: The U.S. Congress establishes the African Development Foundation, an independent federal agency that distributes small grants of $50,000 to African economic development programs.

      Feed the Children, a Christian organization that ships millions of pounds of food to needy children every year, is founded in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

      1980–90:: China experiences an average 10 percent annual growth rate in both agricultural and industrial production, making it one of the world's fastest-growing major economies.

      1980–2002: Primary school completion for students in the African nation of Tunisia increases from approximately 80 to 100 percent.

      1980–2003: The infant mortality rate of the sub-Saharan African nation of Togo decreases from 128 deaths per 1,000 births to 66.61 deaths per 1,000 births.

      1980–2004: The life expectancy for citizens of the Middle Eastern nation of Syria rises from 60 years to 68.75 years, an increase of 12.72 percent.

      1980–2005: The illiteracy rate for the Central American nation of Honduras falls from 38.1 to 23.9 percent for males and from 42 to 23.7 percent for females.

      1980–2005: The life expectancy for citizens of the South American nation of Suriname increases from 64 years to 68.96 years, an increase of 1.5 percent.

      1980–2005: The infant mortality rate of the African nation of Sudan falls from 104 deaths per 1,000 births to 62.5 deaths per 1,000 births, a 39 percent reduction. The illiteracy rate of the Middle Eastern nation of Syria drops from 27 to 19.3 percent for males, a 28.5 percent reduction, and from 66.2 to 36 percent for females, a 45.6 percent reduction.

      1981–90:: The Squared Poverty Gap Index, a measurement calculating both the prevalence and depth of poverty in a given country, falls from 6.4 percent to 3.6 percent for developing countries, a 43.75 percent reduction.

      1982: Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter founds the Carter Center. Based in Atlanta, Georgia, the Carter Center devoted itself to overseeing foreign elections and providing mediation in international disputes. Carter would win a Nobel Peace Prize in 2002 for his efforts.

      1983–2005:: Some two million citizens of the African nation of Sudan, or 5 percent of the overall population, flee their homeland due to widespread famine.

      1985: Spain's unemployment rate increases to an unprecedented 21.6 percent.

      The United Kingdom-based charitable organization Comic Relief is founded in a refugee camp in Sudan in response to the ongoing African famine.

      1987:: On October 19, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the leading U.S. stock market index, loses 22 percent of its value, ending a five-year period of positive gains. The day would come to be known as “Black Monday.”

      The U.S. Congress passes the McKinney Act, the first piece of federal legislation to address rising levels of homelessness.

      1989:: Sociology Professors Melvin Oliver and Jim Johnson of the University of California found the Center for the Study of Urban Poverty.

      1989–2004:: The Gross Domestic Product of the central Asian nation of Tajikistan decreases by approximately 60 percent.

      1990: The Discovery Institute, a conservative think tank advocating, among other things, supply-side economics, is founded.

      1990–95:: As the former Soviet Union attempts to switch to a more capitalistic economy after nearly 80 years of communism, its Gross Domestic Product decreases by approximately 50 percent.

      1990–2000:: Male illiteracy in the African nation of Sudan drops from 40 percent to 30.8 percent, while female illiteracy drops from 68.3 percent to 53.8 percent.

      1990–2002:: The spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic increases the infant mortality rate in the small sub-Saharan African nation of Swaziland from 77 deaths per 1,000 births to 106 deaths per 1,000 births, an increase of 27 percent.

      1990–2003:: The infant mortality rate for the South Pacific island nation of Tonga decreases from 25 deaths per 1,000 births to 15 deaths per 1,000 births, a 40 percent reduction.

      1991: The Employment Policies Institute, a nonprofit research organization specializing in employment growth, is founded in Washington, D.C. American philanthropist Alan Shawn Feinstein founds the Feinstein Foundation, a charitable organization whose goals are to end world hunger and improve education.

      1992:: The 14th session of the Chinese Communist Party Congress is held in the capital of Beijing. Party members agree to institute a “socialist market economy” in China, reversing revolutionary pledges made 50 years ago of a completely communist state.

      As civil war in the Central Asian nation of Tajikistan results in the loss of 50,000 lives, the country's Gross Domestic Product decreases by an estimated 30 percent.

      1992: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization creates the Comparative Research Program on Poverty.

      1992–2003:: The infant immunization rate for the Caribbean nation of Trinidad and Tobago rises from 80 percent to 90 percent, an 11 percent increase.

      1993:: The U.S. Congress abolishes the House Select Committee on Hunger. In response, Representative Tony Hall of Ohio, the chairman of the committee, fasts for 22 days in protest. Congress capitulates and the Congressional Hunger Center is created.

      The research facility, Institute on Race and Poverty, is founded at the University of Minnesota by law Professor John A. Powell.

      1994:: The value of the Russian ruble on foreign exchange markets falls by 27 percent in one day.

      1995–2005:: The amount of people in the world living in extreme poverty reaches approximately 1.2 billion, and those living in general poverty reaches some 2 billion.

      1996:: U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, a welfare reform bill. Among the bill's provisions, no American can receive welfare payments for more than a total of five years.

      1996––2004:: The percentage of American women in poverty falls from 16.3 percent to 13.9 percent, while the percentage of impoverished men falls from 13.0 to 11.5 percent.

      1998:: The sub-Saharan African nation of Mozambique receives from the U.S. $1.4 billion in debt relief.

      Delegates from over 30 educational institutions meet in New York City to form the Students Against Sweatshops organization.

      1998:: The International Labour Organization estimates there are 150 million unemployed people in the world, of which only 25 percent receive any unemployment insurance.

      2000:: Officials of the small, poor South Pacific island nation of Tuvalu greatly increase their country's revenue by leasing the internet domain suffix “.tv” to private business interests.

      Lawyers Without Borders, a group of legal experts dedicated to correcting human rights abuses pro bono, or without pay, is founded.

      2003––04:: The number of millionaires in the world increases by 8 percent, while at the same time the international poverty rate rises from 12.5 percent to 12.7 percent.

      2003––05:: As the AIDS epidemic ravages the small sub-Saharan African nation of Swaziland, the country's life expectancy drops from 43 years to 35.65 years, a 17 percent reduction.

      Due to the AIDS epidemic, the infant mortality rate in South Africa rises from 53 deaths per 1,000 births to 61.81 deaths per 1,000 births, an increase of 14 percent. The rate of increase for blacks is four times greater than the rate of increase for whites.

      2005:: The United Nations reports the central African nation of Burundi is officially the world's poorest country with over 68 percent of the population below the poverty line and an estimated Gross Domestic Product per capita of $106.

      The United Nations releases its Human Development Index, ranking each country according to a formula encompassing life expectancy, education, and Gross Domestic Product. The African country of Niger is ranked as the nation with the lowest Human Development Index, while the European nation of Norway is ranked as the highest. The United States, the world's most economically advanced nation, is ranked 10th behind such countries as Canada and Ireland.

      Compiled by Kevin G.Golson, Golson Books, Ltd.

      List of Contributors

      Abuzyarova, K.

      National Democratic Institute

      Aguirregabiria, Victor

      Boston University

      Alexander, Kristian

      University of Utah

      Arvin, B. Mak

      Trent University

      Bartley, Abel

      Clemson University

      Basham, Randall E.

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Baumann, Robert

      College of the Holy Cross

      Boguslaw, Janet

      Brandeis University

      Braid, Christina

      Independent Scholar

      Brown, J.L.

      Brandeis University

      Buck, John B.

      Jacksonville University

      Caggiano, Giovanni

      University of Glasgow

      Chiteji, Frank

      Gettysburg College

      Chiteji, Ngina

      Skidmore College

      Clark, Rob

      Indiana University

      Coelho, Alfredo

      University of Montpellier

      Cox, John M.

      University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

      Dabir-Alai, Parviz

      Richmond University

      Davis, Amanda J.

      University of Florida

      Deckers, Wolfgang

      American International University in London

      Donkor, Martha

      Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

      Dvorak, Jaroslav

      Klaipeda University

      Dynan, Linda

      Northern Kentucky University

      Eades, Daniel

      West Virginia University

      El-Amire, Nilly Kamal

      Cairo University

      Endres, David J.

      Catholic University of America

      Erken, Ruth

      Independent Scholar

      Farr, Daniel

      State University of New York, Albany

      Foroughi, Payam

      University of Utah

      Fowler, Russell

      University of Tennessee, Chattanooga

      Frost, Caren J.

      University of Utah

      Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

      University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

      Gómez-Díaz, Donato

      Almeria University

      Green, Gary Paul

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Grubacic, Sanja

      Southern Connecticut

      State University

      Gupta, Rshimi

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Hegar, Rebecca L.

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Hemmerle, O.B.

      Chemnitz University

      Hensengerth, Oliver

      University of Leeds

      Hillmer, Paul

      Concordia University

      Holst, Arthur

      Widener University

      Hughes, David W.

      West Virginia University

      Huong, Ha

      Monash University

      Ibbott, Peter

      King's University College

      Jahanbani, Sheyda

      Brown University

      Jeitschko, Thomas D.

      Michigan State University

      Juby, Cynthia L.

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Kamal, Nilly El-Amir

      University of Cairo

      Kerby, Rob

      Independent Scholar

      Kerr, Don

      University of Western Ontario

      Kich, Martin

      Wright State University

      Kosteas, Vasilios D.

      Cleveland State University

      Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

      University of Utah

      Liczek, I.

      New School University

      Lipka, D.

      University of Economics, Prague

      Lundahl, Brad

      University of Utah

      Machan, Tibor R.

      Chapman University

      MacKenzie, D.W.

      Fairleigh Dickinson University

      Maltsev, Yuri N.

      Carthage College

      Manicas, Peter T.

      University of Hawai'i, Manoa

      Markantonatou, Maria

      Max Planck Institute

      Matheson, Victor

      College of the Holy Cross

      Meenar, Md Mahbubur R.

      Temple University, Ambler

      Michalski, Joseph H.

      University of Western Ontario

      Miller, Paul T.

      Temple University

      Mishra, Patit Paban

      Sambalpur University

      Mocnik, Josip

      Mount Aloysius College

      Moni, Monir Hossain

      Waseda University

      Moon, Sung Seek

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Mozayeni, Simin B.

      State University of New York

      New Paltz

      Muhutdinova, Raissa

      United Nations

      Neaman, Elliot

      University of San Francisco

      Neff, Duane R.

      Brandeis University

      Nesslein, Tom

      University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

      Neu, Denese M.

      HHS Planning & Consulting, Inc.

      O'Brian, Robin

      Elmira College

      Odekon, Kerim

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      O'Neill, N.

      Harvard University

      Onyeiwu, Steve

      Allegheny College

      O'Shea, Christopher David

      University of Guelph

      Paleo, Urbano Fra

      University of Extremadura

      Palmer, Scott

      RGMS Economics

      Pascucci, Margherita

      New York University

      Pfau, Wade

      National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies

      Pillai, Vijayan K.

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Pitzl, Gerald R.

      New Mexico Public Education Department

      Pollard, Vincent K.

      University of Hawai'i, Manoa

      Prono, Luca

      Independent Scholar

      Purdy, Elizabeth

      Independent Scholar

      Quane, Jim

      Harvard University

      Quddus, Munir

      University of Illinois, Urbana

      Rainford, William

      Boise State University

      Rashid, Salim

      University of Illinois, Urbana

      Rath, Sudhansu Sekhar

      Sambalpur University

      Robertson, Lucy

      University of Glasgow

      Salinger, Lawrence M.

      Arkansas State University, Jonesboro

      Sanders, Cynthia K.

      Boise State University

      Schuster, Julian

      University of New Haven

      Scigliano, Marisa

      Trent University

      Seaman, Peter

      University of Glasgow

      Seekins, Donald M.

      Meio University

      Segal, Elizabeth A.

      Arizona State University

      Shah, Parth J.

      Centre for Civil Society

      Shantz, Jeff

      York University

      Sini S.

      United Nations

      Sima, Josef

      University of Economics, Prague

      Sloan, Paul and Tanya

      Independent Scholars

      Slovikovski, John J.

      Mount Aloysius College

      Smith, Rebecca L.

      Independent Scholar

      Sorrentino, John A.

      Temple University, Ambler

      Spruill, Carol

      Duke University Law School

      Subbarao, P. Srinivas

      Andhra University

      Sullivan, Timothy

      Towson University

      Swanson, Paul A.

      William Paterson University

      Terdiman, Moshe

      University of Haifa

      Teti, Matthew Evans

      Northwestern University

      Tollefson, Derick R.

      University of Utah

      Toolin, Cynthia

      Holy Apostles College and Seminary

      Troy, Michael J.

      Independent Scholar

      Tyler, Deidre

      Salt Lake Community College

      Verhaegh, Marcus

      Mises Institute

      Walsh, John

      Shinawatra University

      Waskey, Andrew J.

      Dalton State College

      Watts, Thomas D.

      University of Texas, Arlington

      Whaples, Robert

      Wake Forest University

      Whitaker, William H. Simpson

      Boise State University

      Young, Ronald

      Canterbury School

      Zincavage, Rebekah M.

      Brandeis University

      Zukas, Alexander

      National University, San Diego

      Zukas, Lorna Lueker

      National University

      List of Articles

    • Glossary

      absolute poverty: Objective measurement of poverty level, including diet and health factors, income, and education level.

      accumulation: Gathering or amassing of currency and goods in large amounts over a significant period of time.

      African Development Bank: Established in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, in 1964, the ADB borrows funds from the international money market in order to provide assistance to member countries for economic development.

      Aid to Families with Dependant Children (AFDC): American federal program that entitles funding to single mothers so that they may stay home with young children. Replaced in 1996 by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in response to calls to drastically decrease welfare roles.

      almshouse: Shelters and houses maintained by private organizations in order to assist the poor. A function of 18th century British philanthropy that was brought over in limited amounts to the United States.

      allocation: Process of distributing resources for production and distributing goods and services for consumption by the public. Allocation is a significant problem in the developing world, when non-governmental organizations have difficulty providing aid through authoritarian governments or ineffective bureaucracies.

      area deprivation: Also known as neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, extreme poverty and ill health in an area such as a neighborhood in a city or a village in more rural areas. Common in some areas of the developed world as well as large areas of the developing world.

      Asian Development Bank: Established in Manila, Philippines, in 1966. The bank was established to work against rising poverty levels in Asian nations and the Pacific Rim by providing public development funds for infra structural needs.

      balance of payments: The difference between funds received and payments by country. This balance includes merchandise and service exchange, transfer, gift payments.

      balanced budget: Equality of revenue and expenditure in governmental budgets. In many countries, there is a wide gulf between the ability of local, state, and federal governments to balance annual budgets.

      bankruptcy: Declaration initiated either by debtors (voluntary) or creditors (involuntary) when a consumer, corporation, or other economic entity has more liabilities than assets and is incapable of paying bills.

      barrier to entry: Governmental, economic, or technological restrictions on a business entering a particular market or industry. These barriers include intellectual property and other legal restrictions and prohibitive start up costs.

      barter economy: Economy based on exchange of goods and services by trade rather than by currency. Such economies have decreased significantly with the emergence of a more complex currency drive market, though barter economies still exist in the developing world and in times of lacking consumer confidence.

      bilateral aid: Economic aid provided from one country, via appropriate agency, to another country.

      black market: An illegal business or the act of selling goods and exchanging currency in violation of laws protecting price and supply levels.

      capitalism: Economic structure with characteristics such as a relatively free marketplace, private ownership of most goods and services within political boundaries, and the ability to purchase goods and services with relative ease.

      central planning: Planning of production and allocation by government agencies in lieu of competitive markets or free exchange of goods. Central planning is commonly found in communist nations.

      charity: Institution that is established to distribute aid to the poor and needy or the act of individual assistance to the poor and needy.

      child mortality: The rate of children per 1,000 that die between birth and age five, typically one measure of economic prosperity or demise.

      Children's Defense Fund: Organization that works to increase minimum wage and create better jobs and benefits, especially educational and child care benefits, for workers with children.

      Church World Services (CWS): Relief division of the National Council of Churches that provides emergency and relief aid to developing nations.

      colonialism: Policy that a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign dependencies, typically divided into colonies used primarily for natural resources and colonies used primarily for political gain.

      communism: Economy with foundation in common ownership, disappearance of government and needs based allocation to the public. Based on the works of Karl Marx, though it is mostly theory and has rarely been emulated as laid out by Marx.

      competition: Economic actions between two or more individuals or companies in pursuit of higher profits and greater market shares. The less competition that exists within a market, the more control over the market for those few competitors that exist.

      conditionality: Trade agreements between borrowing nations and international lending agencies that require conditions such as lower tariffs and price controls or changes to general trade policy.

      Consumer Price Index: Index of prices on goods and services common to many consumers within a nation, typically characterized by a hypothetical “basket of goods.” Wide recognition in the United States as an indication of inflation and allows public a real indicator of the strength of an economy.

      consumption: Satisfaction of consumer wants and needs by goods and services. Consumption is seen as part of gross domestic product and as a measure of demand.

      Cost of Living: Income and funds needed to achieve certain standard of living based on measures of poverty, the middle class, and the upper class. This measure is tied to inflation and the purchasing power of consumers.

      countryowned: Policies to improve domestic and international trade that are created and implemented by developing governments and not by outside governments or agencies.

      credit: Promise between consumers and creditors in which consumers receive goods and services in exchange for future payments plus interest. Credit is integral to the modern economy, given the need of businesses to purchase assets and build a customer base in the short term to stay viable.

      currency: Paper bills or metal coins issued by national government to act as medium for exchange of goods and services between consumers and businesses.

      culture of poverty: Culture created among the poor which is characterized by feelings of inferiority, marginalization, and a sense that no amount of work or effort will improve the status of the individual beyond poverty.

      cyclical poverty: Poverty based on decline in macroeconomic indicators which improve and worsen on a regular basis. This cycle occurs when a recession occurs, bringing down demand, wages, and increasing unemployment.

      Darwinism: Theory of biological evolution promoted by naturalist Charles Darwin, which states that all living beings arise through a selection of particularly favorable traits to natural and man-made environments. This is known in short as survival of the fittest and it was a popular notion (social Darwinism) in the late 19th and early 20th century in colonial empires.

      debtor nation: Nation whose exports are less than imports and whom owe more to foreign governments than receive in trade from partners. Many of the world's debtor nations reside within the developing world, though the trend toward easy credit and poor savings has added some developed countries to the ranks.

      debt relief: Relief of debts by creditor nations, either in part or in full, by decreasing interest on loans or the easing of preconditions on repayment of a loan.

      debt service: Total payments, on both interest and principal totals, made by a country annually. A major issue for developing nations because interest alone typically expends any funds incoming from foreign trade sources.

      deflation: Extended decline in the average level of prices. This condition is more likely in a stagnate market, but usually only in depressed economies.

      demand: The motivation and capability to purchase a range of goods along a wide spectrum of prices.

      demographics: Characteristics of human populations and population segments especially when used to study and analyze consumer markets.

      dependency: territory under the jurisdiction of a state of which it does not form an integral part.

      depreciation: Long term to permanent decrease in the value of a good, typically real estate and higher priced consumer goods. Depreciation based on the production cost, because of the need to replace depreciated goods with available capital.

      deprivation: The state of extreme poverty including the removal or abstention of physical necessities (food) and social relationships (family).

      deprivation index: Analytical tool composed of social and economic indicators to determine the significance of deprivation in the indexed area.

      deserving poor: The distinction by government of those in poverty who are deserving of aid, due to many different educational, health, or social considerations.

      destitution: Also known as complete poverty, an extreme want of resources or means of subsistence.

      developed country: A nation considered wealthy because of industrial infrastructure, educational value, low child mortality, and high gross domestic product. Developed nations have been active in the last 50 years in the modernization of developing nations.

      developing country: A nation considered poor because they lack sufficient industrial infrastructure, have high child mortality and poor health care. Developing nations are typically nations with young democratic governments or histories of authoritarian governments.

      development economics: Subfield of economic study that attempts to determine how developing economies evolve into developed economies.

      Development Gateway Foundation (DGF): Established in 2001, DGF is a collection of 100 plus public and private organizations worldwide that use information and emerging communication technologies to alleviate poverty in the developing world and promote sustainable development.

      disability insurance: Insurance managed by government or employers and paid into by workers for short term or long term debilitation, typically in the commission of a job task.

      disequilibrium: The imbalance between supply (surplus) and demand (shortage) which requires market forces to change methods in order to reach equilibrium.

      duopoly: Theoretical market condition in which two corporations dominate a particular industry with little to no competition. One noticeable example of a duopoly is in aeronautics, with Airbus and Boeing competing largely for the market share in Europe and North America.

      economic growth: An increase in per capita income and production on a consistent basis that contributes to poverty reduction. Factors that prevent economic growth from eliminating poverty include imbalanced budget priorities and an uneven distribution of money to the upper class.

      economic inequality: Disproportionate income attainment or asset ownership between one group of people and other groups of people in a particular market.

      economic insecurity: Individual or familial economic precariousness due to economic downturn, temporary or underemployment, and poor health, among other considerations.

      economic insufficiency: Economic states for individuals or families in which working members are underemployed or incapable of fulfilling basic needs with wages earned or have opportunity for economic advancement.

      economics of scale: An average cost decrease when business increase market entry points and increase production. This happens within the realm of small business in transition into medium- to large-size businesses.

      economics of scope: Production process by which two or more products can be created from one resource. This allows businesses to market and sell more products but can also cost companies in quality by decreasing focus on popular products, as well as public favor when unusable waste materials are produced.

      educational vouchers: Government aid given to lower income families with the intention of sending children to private schools, typically with smaller class sizes and better resources, in order to gain a better education than in public schools.

      efficiency: The attainment of the highest level of fulfillment in consumer desires and needs with the least amount of resources used.

      elasticity: Relative change in one economic variable to another variable. This includes price elasticity of demand applied to the percentage change in the price of products.

      employment rate: Ratio of employed individuals in a nation to the entire population of that nation which is over 16 and not institutionalized.

      employment: An economic state in which people and resources are activated for production in exchange for wages and other incentives.

      endemic poverty: Poverty that is prevalent in or peculiar to a particular region or people.

      entitlement: A government program that guarantees and provides benefit to a particular group or for certain economic and social preconditions.

      equity: A term referring to relative fairness in income and ownership.

      exploitation: An economic state in which business owners and leaders are seen “taking advantage” of employees by withholding proper wages and remuneration.

      externalities: The costs left out of the price of goods in the marketplace because of their absence in the supply and demand pricing process. One external benefit in the marketplace is education, which is implied in the quality of goods and services provided by a company. One external cost to consumers is pollution, which is not included in the price paid by consumers of a good.

      extreme poverty: Level of poverty where individuals are unable to afford the necessities of living, including food, shelter, and medicine.

      faith-based antipoverty programs: Programs established by churches and religious groups to remedy the symptoms of poverty while attempting to effect larger social change through religious practice.

      famine: Drastic, widespread food shortage, typical to developing nations and accompanied by malnutrition, disease, and economic difficulties.

      feminization of poverty: The increase in the poverty rate among single women and single mothers because of underemployment, lack of education, and poor social welfare systems.

      feudalism: Political and economic system popular in 9th to 15th century Europe based on the relationship of lords, whom own land and employed vassals. Vassals worked the land, engaged in military service, and paid homage to the lord in order to have a piece of land for themselves and a home.

      fiat money: The medium of exchange useful in trade but with no material value. This term includes currency and checking accounts, which are based on the acceptance of fiat money by everyone in the marketplace and the confidence of its worth in trade.

      food stamps: Government program that provides food credit to lower income families in order to ensure sufficient nourishment.

      foreign direct investment: Investment in foreign companies to gain greater control over the marketplace, as well as construction of buildings and factories for domestic businesses on foreign soil.

      foreign exchange market: Virtual market which is managed by various financial institutions that deals with global exchange in currency and stocks.

      foreign exchange rate: The price of one nation's currency when compared to another nation's currency, measured by the amount of currency traded compared to a unit of another currency.

      fraud: Deception deliberately practiced in order to secure unfair or unlawful gain in a market while harming another party physically or economically.

      free market: Economic market that is competitive because of relatively unrestrained trade, with long term equilibrium ideally achieved by the macroeconomic forces of supply and demand. The downfalls of the free market come with decreased competition, devalued currency, and the involvement of external markets with different market limitations.

      free trade: The unhindered trade of goods and services worldwide. Free trade provides lower prices to consumers through lowered tariffs, but can also lead to lower quality of goods, labor issues, and environmental concerns in the various marketplaces worldwide.

      Free Trade Area of the Americas: Created in December 1994 during the Summit of the Americas, a single economic area in North and South America where barriers to trade are decreased with the goal of free trade in the near future.

      G-8: Eight leading developed nations that meet on a regular basis to deal with economic issues. Members of the G-8 are Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States.

      gender discrimination: Determinate by a person or people in power of one gender to withhold economic or social opportunities to another gender. Most conspicuous in employment, but present throughout developed and developing societies.

      gender equality: Standards set by nations and international organizations to ensure equal rights and opportunities in education, the workforce, and the law for both men and women.

      gender gap: Measure of the difference between male and female achievement in areas such as income and education.

      Gini Coefficient: Simple measure of income distribution, whereby the higher income is on a given range (between 0 and 1) equals a higher inequality in income distribution in the measured area.

      global commons: An idea born in the development of environmental law that considers all environs (such as the atmosphere and oceans) as part of global well being. The most recent and controversial global commons argument is over the Kyoto Protocol, which would decrease global air emissions but to some would damage industry and the economy.

      globalization: Long term international development involving decreasing barriers to trade, increased global communications, and increased involvement of developed countries into the affairs of the developing world.

      gold standard: The use of gold in determining the value of currency. This standard is either used directly, by the use of gold coins as currency, or indirectly, by the assurance that fiat money is backed by a stable amount of gold in a national reserve.

      Great Society programs: Social programs created between 1965 and 1968 by President Lyndon Johnson in order to improve American culture and education. Programs included in the Great Society programs include Head Start, work-study programs for college, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

      Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Popular measure of economic progress, encompassing all goods and services produced for export, private and public sector, and capital goods minus imported products. Also can be divided by population to determine the productivity of an average person within a nation (called gross domestic product per capita).

      Head Start: Federal preschool program for kids from lower income families, created during the Great Society.

      hierarchy of needs: Psychologist Abraham Maslow's theory that people satisfy basic physical needs before fulfilling more complex psychological needs and social obligations. An explanation for the progress or regress of nations and societies, typically because of the prevailing political system and resource management.

      homelessness: The state or condition of having no home or shelter, typically leaving an individual to live on the streets or in other public places.

      Human Development Index: Measure of individual well being, combining economic and social factors such as income and life expectancy, updated yearly by the United Nations Development Program.

      Human Poverty Index: Measure of individual poverty based on educational, environmental, and health factors contributing to deprivation. This index is updated yearly by United Nations Development Program.

      hunger: Condition common among those in poverty where individuals are unable to afford sufficient food to fulfill basic nutrient needs. It is widespread among a majority of people in the developing world and the lower classes of developed countries.

      immigration: The movement of people from one country to another, whether individually or in groups. The positives of immigration is a more diverse society, more competition for employment, and the decreased cost of production from the fulfillment of most production needs. The negatives of immigration have included increased taxes for social services, housing issues, and language barriers.

      imperialism: Policy of extending a nation's authority by acquisition of new territories or holding economic and political hegemony over other nations. One example of imperialism would be the maintenance of French hegemony over former French colonies in Africa.

      incentives: Benefit that motivates consumers or corporations to participate in economic or social activities. For example, price incentives influence the motivation to purchase goods or services, with higher prices decreasing the likelihood of a purchase and vice versa.

      indentured servitude: Service by one person to another person or family for a prolonged period of time in exchange for food, money, shelter and/or land.

      indigence: State of extreme poverty and neediness.

      industrialization: The development of industry and infrastructure on an extensive scale for long term economic development.

      inelasticity: An economic relationship in which major changes in one economic variable have minimal effects upon one or more other variables.

      infant mortality rate: The rate of death among infants from birth to age one, measured in amount per one thousand births.

      inflation: Consistent increase in the average price levels of goods and services in the economy, which is a common phenomenon in the global economy.

      infrastructure: Capital used to improve telecommunications, electrical services and other structures needed to advance businesses, industries, and governments toward efficient production of goods and services.

      insolvency: Economic condition where liabilities exceed assets over a sustained period of time, typically leading to the declaration of bankruptcy.

      interdependence: Psychological principle of macroeconomics where one company's decisions are influenced by or influence the decisions of other businesses.

      InterAmerican Development Bank: Created in 1959 to aid in the regional development of the Bank's 46 Latin American and Caribbean nations. This aid comes in the form of development loans to businesses and governments along with technical assistance.

      International Monetary Fund (IMF): Created in 1944 as a counterpart to the World Bank, the IMF offers short term loans to developing nations in order to stabilize currency and fledgling banking systems.

      international poverty line: Income level at which a person in any area of the world is incapable of acquiring basic necessities, such as food and clothing.

      Islamic Development Bank: Headquartered in Saudi Arabia, the IDB has 54 member countries worldwide, defined typically as nations with Muslim governments or large Muslim populations. The Bank participates in equity capital grants and loans for businesses and enterprises to its members.

      Jubilee 2000: Also known as Drop the Debt, this 1990s campaign sought to relieve developing nations most harmed by debt.

      Keynesian economics: Based on the book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money by economist John Maynard Keyes, this economic outlook determines that aggregate demand is the culprit for most economic problems. As opposed to the supply side economics of the 1980s, Keynesian economics seeks to provide the bulk of services and economic prosperity to the lower and middle income in a nation in order to stimulate higher demand for goods. Popular in the Roosevelt administration and credited for fixing the problems of the Great Depression.

      Laffer curve: Created by economist Arthur Laffer, a justification for the supply side economics of the 1980s. It states that at zero percent and 100 percent of tax rate, there is no revenue taken in by the government because at maximum taxation there is no motivation to work. This curve also shows that with decreased taxation, there is the possibility for greater revenues to be produced for the government.

      Laissez-Faire: The theory that markets on their own can achieve efficient allocation of resources. This is in opposition to the idea of central planning and governmental paternalism and is becoming more popular in the modern form of free trade agreements and globalization.

      Least Developed Countries (LDC): A group of 49 developing nations that meet certain criteria for low economic output, poor infrastructure, and ineffective government. A majority of LDC are African nations.

      liberation theology: A response to structural conditions of poverty which includes breaking down social, economic, and political barriers and promoting a life satisfied by sufficient resources and the ability to practice religion, speech, and other liberties. Practiced extensively in Latin America and other developing areas.

      Low-Income Cut-Offs (LICOs): Social indicator that measures relative income distribution. Measured by taking the percentage of income spent on necessities (preestablished by studying agency), which gives the relative place of an individual in the economy.

      lumpenproletariat: Lowest, most degraded level of the working class (proletariat). Referenced by Karl Marx in his works, the lumpenproletariat typically included the unemployed, the criminal, and the mentally ill.

      macroeconomics: The branch of economic study that analyzes the entire economy and its large components, including production, inflation, and general business cycles.

      malnutrition: Health condition brought on by inadequate consumption of protein, calories, and vital nutrients. Experienced by many in the developing world due to inadequate aid or poor distribution of resources.

      market adjustment: The study of market equilibrium caused by supply and demand determinants.

      market efficiency: The idea that market competition automatically adjusts for efficient distribution of resources by equating demand and supply levels with price and quantity levels.

      market failure: The inefficient allocation of resources resulting in consumer dissatisfaction, whether by externalities, imperfect information to consumers, or other causes.

      mass production: The production of large amounts of identical goods by the use of large scale machinery and production methods. A consequence of the Industrial Revolution resulting in mass goods by mass means.

      maternal mortality: Rate of mortality for pregnant women or women during childbirth compared to the total number of births per year. One indicator of the strength of a nation's health care system and general quality of life.

      means testing: Determination of the needs of people in need of government aid programs, such as education vouchers, food stamps, and financial aid for college.

      Medicaid: Program initiated in 1965 by the United States government to provide health coverage to the poor, governed by individual states under federal regulations.

      Medicare: Program initiated in 1965 by the United States government to provide health coverage to those who were over 65 years of age.

      mercantilism: Predominant economic system of 16th, 17th, and 18th century Europe characterized by increased exports, the exploitation of raw resources, increased tariffs, and state control of most economic functions.

      microcredit: Small loans given to farmers, small business owners, and factory workers whom are typically incapable of receiving a regular bank loan.

      microeconomics: The branch of economic study that analyzes lower level economic activity, including demand and supply at the individual and business levels.

      minimum wage: The legal price floor for labor wages, established in the United States in 1938 and exists in many industrialized nations. This wage was established to ensure a certain minimum level of fair wages for all jobs.

      misery index: The sum of the unemployment level and inflation rate in a nation. Created in the United States during the 1970s, in a particularly stagnate economic period.

      monopoly: Economic structure with one seller of a particular good without substantial competition. Monopolies essentially run the market on a particular good, including pricing and supply, but also are limited by consumer demand.

      most-favored nation: Diplomatic and economic status established by trade agreements, whereby one nation receives least restrictive trade barriers in trade with another nation.

      multilateral aid: Aid from multiple international sources channeled through appropriate organizations (i.e., the World Bank) to developing countries.

      natural unemployment: Condition of unemployment existing when employment level is full, as well as when resources of demand and supply are equal and price levels are stable.

      neoliberalism: Predominant economic belief in Western nations at present, which includes decreasing taxes, creating smaller domestic governments, embracing globalization and encouraging free trade principles.

      New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): Initiative of African nations (OAU) promoted by South African President Thabo Mbeki, which would use the collective power of African states to create economic prosperity and promote future and sustainable development.

      nongovernmental organization (NGO): Nonprofit organizations not associated with any level of government that attempt to provide aid to developing nations. non-income poverty

      nonworking poor: Those in poverty whom are chronically poor and unemployed, typically because of a lack of education, incapability of entering the workforce or physical limitations to work.

      normative economics: Division of economic study in which ideal standards of economy are prescribed.

      North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Established in 1994, NAFTA is an agreement between Canada, the United States, and Mexico to eliminate trade barriers between nations within a decade of inception. Free trade agreements such as this can create efficient trade and lower prices for goods but is also detrimental to labor and the environment.

      odious debt: Debt accrued by nations under undemocratic leadership, with profit typically going to government officials and patrons.

      oligopoly: Condition where a small number of major corporations involved in selling similar products dominate the market by obstructing other corporations from entering into competition.

      Organization of American States (OAS): Created in 1948 with 35 member nations in North, Central, and South America, the OAS is the hemisphere's main conduit for political discussion. Issues dealt with by the OAS include human rights, the drug war, and the spread of democratic government.

      Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): An economic organization of over a dozen African, South American, and Middle Eastern states that produce oil and act to control a major market share of petroleum. OPEC has acted as a source of economic power for some nations that would otherwise have little influence in the global economy.

      outsourcing: To sent out work or services to an outside provider or manufacturer in order to cut costs and make goods more readily available to world markets.

      pension programs: Programs typically provided employers to insure post-employment or disability financial security for workers.

      poverty gap: Measurement that determines the place of individuals or families in relation to the poverty line. A high poverty gap, for example, show that most people in poverty live well below the poverty line.

      poverty line: The official measurement of the income needed by a household to stay out of poverty, according to several tangible requirements. The poverty line is a relative measure by nation, based on measures like income and family size as well as education and geographic location.

      poverty rate: Ratio of those under the poverty line to the rest of a nation's population.

      poverty threshold: The income threshold at which a family is in poverty for administrative and statistical purposes.

      poverty trap: Large scale situation that forces those in poverty to remain poor despite efforts at money management. This is possible because of low incomes, trade deficits, and major infra structural gaps.

      price ceiling: The legal maximum price for a good, with apartment and rental prices as one common example. Ceilings help control pricing but can create a shortage created by a restricted price range.

      price floor: The legal minimum price for a good, with farm goods as one common example. Farmers, whom create a large amount of goods and typically are in debt due to the prohibitive costs of running a farm and owning land, benefit from price floors and subsidies that create competition for goods.

      privatization: The transfer of government responsibilities to the private sector, for the purpose of decreased bureaucratic costs and more efficient management.

      progressive tax: A type of income tax whereby an increase in income level means an increased tax rate. As opposed to a flat tax, where everyone that pays taxes pays the same rate, or a regressive tax, where higher incomes meet with lower tax rates.

      pro-poor growth: Economic development and growth, particularly in developing countries, that favor the poor.

      public good: A good or service usable by both payers and nonpayers, usable by many people at one time, and reusable for sustained periods of time. Examples of a public good are public parks, libraries, and the protection of the military.

      racial discrimination: Discrimination by a person or group of one race against a person or group of another race, in terms of employment and public services.

      rationing: The allocation of commodities by prescribed standards, typically based on the needs of the public.

      recession: A general period of economic contraction, lasting at least two consecutive business quarters, with a decrease in gross domestic product and an increase in unemployment.

      redistribution: Economic theory that promotes reducing inequality in the distribution of wealth by reorganizing capital more evenly.

      regressive tax: Tax system whereby higher income levels pay a increasingly lower tax percentages of income. Favorable to upper income levels and considered by some scholars to be effective in putting more money into the economy.

      relative deprivation: Theory which compares the objective nature of an individual's work and home life with the subjective ideas on fairness, entitlement, or success by this same individual.

      relative poverty: A definition of poverty that compares one individual or family to the poverty of others within the same area of measure.

      right to work law: Legal restrictions on employers who want union membership as a prerequisite to employment. Employers are not able to force employees to join unions. Right to work laws allow the freedom of workers to participate in unions at every level, but also conflict with the public benefits of unionization, which are able to protect workers and provide benefits not available in nonlabor work.

      rural deprivation: Extreme poverty on farm lands and other rural areas, made common by difficult agricultural markets, high farming costs, and the drastic increase in urbanization.

      scarcity: Continuing condition in society because of the imbalance between an unlimited amount of wants and needs and limited resources. Scarcity is the major underlying theme of economics.

      segregation: Practice of separating people of different racial, economic, and ethnic groups in public areas as a form of discrimination.

      slavery: State of one individual bound to serve another individual and act as property in economic exchanges.

      social democracy: Theory advocating the use of democratic means to achieve an eased transition from capitalism and socialism.

      social insurance: Programs, popular largely in Europe and North America that allow workers to pay into pension and insurance programs for retirement, disability, and unemployment funding.

      social mobility: The ability of individuals or groups to move within a social hierarchy with changes in economic and social indicators.

      Social Security: A system providing economic assistance to the elderly, poor, and disabled whom participate in a system of taxation. In the United States, Social Security was established in 1935 during the Great Depression and has continued to the present, with similar programs in many Western nations.

      social stratification: Condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group.

      socialism: The government ownership of resources, workers control the production of goods and the distribution of products based on need. Socialism is considered the middle ground between capitalism and communism.

      solidarity: The rallying cry for organized labor and the general labor movement to utilize a “us versus them” mentality across all industries in order to gain mutual benefits.

      squatting: To settle an unoccupied land without legal claim.

      stabilization: Government policies to act against economic fluctuations and prevent short term effects such as unemployment and inflation. One important stabilization method is the adjustment of interest rates on loans.

      standard of living: The average real gross domestic product or the economy's ability to fulfill consumer needs.

      starvation: State of extreme hunger from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period of time.

      stigmatization: To be characterized as disgraceful or as a pariah, typically because of involvement in entitlement programs, prolonged poverty, or involvement in the culture of poverty.

      subsistence: Minimal resources for living, often times associated with farmers and those in rural areas.

      Supplemental Security Income (SSI): American program created in 1974, providing a singular safety net under the Social Security Administration from several former programs providing assistance to the disabled, the blind, and the elderly.

      supply: The ability and momentum by owners and producers to sell quantities of a good at a range of prices during a certain period of time.

      supply-side economics: Emphasis on the production capability of available resources in national economic policy. Promoted vigorously by the Reagan administration during the 1980s as a counter to Keynesian economics, which was blamed for the stagnate economy of the 1970s.

      sustainable development: Economic and social development that utilizes natural resources in an ecologically efficient manner, to ensure consistent development.

      tariff: Typically a tax on imports which form a barrier to trade meant to protect domestic markets and generate revenue for the federal government.

      Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Replaced AFDC in 1996, TANF is a state administered block grant program designed to assist mothers off of welfare into the work force.

      Third World: Term used for developing nations, made obsolete by the end of the Cold War. The First World refers to Western nations and the United States and the Second World refers to the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.

      tied aid: Economic aid made available to developing nations contingent upon narrowly prescribed usage, typically on trade with donor nations.

      trade deficit: Situation when a nation's imports are greater than a nation's exports. Deficits are remedied by trade barriers and the reduction of exchange rates on currency.

      trade surplus: Situation when a nation's export are greater than a nation's imports, or when foreign markets purchase more than they sell to domestic markets.

      trading bloc: Loose organization of nations that are economically intertwined, common in culture and proximity. Nations in a trading bloc coordinate foreign trade policies, including the North American bloc and the European bloc.

      underclass: Lowest social strata, composed of the poor, needy, and underprivileged.

      undeserving poor: The distinction of government officials of those in poverty whom are not deserving of aid, either because of their longevity in poverty or seeming inability to find work.

      unfair competition: Deceptive or dishonest trade practices meant to hamper competitors and gain greater market share. Such practices include false advertisement, bribery, and industrial sabotage.

      universal healthcare: Theory of national health care system that would provided health insurance to every person within a nation. Universal health care has been adopted in many Western European nations as well as Canada and has been a small part of the health care reform debate in the United States.

      United States Agency for International Development (USAID): An organization run by the United States government that transfers technical and economic aid to developing nations.

      urbanization: Social process in which cities experience increased growth and cultures become more urban and cosmopolitan.

      Uruguay Round: Round of meetings between 1986 and 1994 that replaced the General Agreement of Tariff and Trade (GATT) with the World Trade Organization. These meetings also attempted a reduction of trade restrictions on member countries.

      vagrancy laws: Laws at the local and state level that prevent loitering or other activities of those in poverty whom are trying to survive on the streets. The rationale for vagrancy laws is to protect tourism, public health, and to prevent crime. In some areas, vagrancy laws have been required to accompany the creation of shelters.

      voluntary poverty: Choice made by individuals to go into poverty for personal, spiritual, or religious reasons.

      wages: Payment to laborers for utilization of labor resources in the production of goods and services.

      War on Poverty: Series of government programs under President Lyndon Johnson between 1965 and 1968 to combat conditions of poverty, crime, and urban education standards.

      welfare dependence: Condition cited by many conservatives that consists of welfare recipients not working or searching for work in order to stay in welfare programs.

      welfare-to-work programs: Government programs that attempt to move individuals off of welfare assistance into one or more jobs to provide sufficient income. Popularized in several American states and nationally during the Bill Clinton administration.

      working poor: Individual or groups that are at or below the poverty line whom work one or more jobs which do not provide sufficient income.

      World Bank: Financial institution created in at the Btretton Woods conference 1944 to aid in the reduction of poverty worldwide, as well as attempt to address the issue of foreign debt of developing nations around the world.

      World Trade Organization (WTO): Organization that mediates disputes in global trade such as tariff and intellectual property issues. The WTO also holds negotiations on increasing globalized trade and investment in developing nations.

      NicholasKaters, Independent Scholar

      Resource Guide

      Books

      ADB/OECD. Technology and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific (ADB/OECD, 2002)

      Allen T. and Thomas A. Poverty Development in the 1990s (Oxford 1992)

      Arundhati, Roy. The Cost of Living (Vintage Canada, 1999)

      Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward 2000–1887 (Modern Library, 1951)

      Beveridge, W. Full Employment in a Free Society (W.W. Norton, 1945)

      Beveridge, W. Social Insurance and Allied Services (HMSO, 1942)

      Bhagwati, Jagdish. In Defense of Globalization (Oxford University Press, 2004)

      Bhalla, A.S. and Lapeyre, F. Poverty and Exclusion in a Global World (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)

      Blim, Michael. Equality and Economy: The Global Challenge (AltaMira Press, 2005)

      Boucher, Douglas M. The Paradox of Plenty: Hunger in A Bountiful World (Food First Books, 1999)

      Brandeis, L.D. Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It, Edited by M.I. Urofsky (Bedford Books, St. Martin's Press, 1995)

      Carnegie, Andrew. The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays (Doran and Company, 1933)

      Champernonwne, D.G. and Cowell, F.A. Economic Inequality and Income Distribution (Cambridge University Press, 1998)

      Chilcote, Ronald H. Theories of Development and Under-development (Westview Press, 1984)

      Citro, Constance F. and Michael, Robert T. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach (National Research Council, 1995)

      D. M. Schydlowsky, editor. Structural Adjustment—Retrospect and Prospect (Praeger, 1995)

      Dandekar, V. M. and Rath, N. Poverty In India (Indian School of Political Economy, 1971)

      Drèze, J. and Sen A.K. Hunger and Public Action (Clarendon Press, 1989)

      Edin, K. and Lein, L. Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low Wage Work (Sage, 1997)

      Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization (New Internationalist; Between the Lines, 2001)

      Epstein, R. Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws (Harvard University Press, 1995)

      Fisher, G.M. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach (National Academy Press, 1992)

      Fisher, Gordon M. The Development and History of the U.S. Poverty Thresholds—A Brief Overview (U.S. Census Bureau, 1997)

      George, Henry. Progress and Poverty (Doubleday and McClure, 1879)

      Ghilarducci, T. What You Need to Know About the Economics of Growing Old (University of Notre Dame Press, 2004)

      Gilbert, N. and Terrell, P. Dimensions of Social Welfare Policy (Allyn & Bacon, 2004)

      Green, Gary Paul and Haines, Anna. Asset Building and Community Development (Sage, 2002)

      Haines A. and Smith R. Working Together to Reduce Poverty's Damage (BMJ 1997)

      Handler, J. and Hasenfeld, Y. The Moral Construction of Poverty: Welfare Reform in America (Sage, 1991)

      Iceland, John. Poverty In America: A Handbook (University of California, 2001)

      International Labour Organization. World Labour Report 2000: Income Security and Social Protection in a Changing World (International Labour Office, 2000)

      Killick, Tony, et al. African Poverty at the Millennium: Causes, Complexities, and Challenges (World Bank, 2001)

      Krueger, A. A New Approach to Sovereign Debt Restructuring (IMF, 2002)

      Krugman, Paul. The Great Unraveling (Penguin Books, 2004)

      Kuznets, Simon. Economic Growth of Nations: Total Output and Production Structure (Belknap Press, 1971)

      Lal, Deepak and Myint, H. The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: A Comparative Study (Clarendon Press, 1998)

      Lerman, Paul. Deinstitutionalization and the Welfare State (Rutgers University Press, 1982)

      Lister, R. Poverty (Polity Press, 2004)

      Logan, B. Ikubolajeh. ed. The Third World State of Poverty Alleviation in the Twenty-First Century (Ashgate, 2002)

      Marshall, Alfred. Principles of Economics (Prometheus Books, 1997)

      Marx, Karl Wage-Labour and Capital and Value, Price and Profit (International Publishers, 1976)

      Marx, Marx Das Kapital (Regnery, 1999)

      Mead, L. Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligations of Citizenship (Free Press, 1986)

      Mead, L. The New Politics of Poverty: The Nonworking Poor in America (Basic Books, 1992)

      Midgley J. Social Development: The Developmental Perspective of Social Welfare (Sage, 1995)

      Mincer, J. Schooling, Experience and Earnings (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1974)

      Moriss, M.D. Measuring the Condition of the World's Poor: The Physical Quality of Life Index (Pergamon Press for the Overseas Development Council, 1979)

      Myrdal, Gunnar. Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations (Twentieth Century Fund, 1968)

      Nolan, B. Resources, Deprivation and Poverty (Clarendon Press, 1996)

      Osberg, Lars. Economic Inequality and Poverty: International Perspectives (M.E. Sharpe, 1991)

      Oyen, Else, et al. Poverty: A Global Review Handbook on International Poverty Research (Scandinavian Press, 1996)

      Page, Benjamin I., What Government Can Do: Dealing with Poverty and Inequality (University of Chicago Press, 2000)

      Petrucci, A. et al. The Application of a Spatial Regression Model to the Analysis and Mapping of Poverty (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003)

      Pogge, Thomas. World Poverty and Human Rights (Polity Press, 2002)

      Poppendieck, J. Sweet Charity: Emergency Food and the End of Entitlement (Viking, 1998)

      Rank, M. Living on the Edge: Realities of Welfare in America. (Columbia University Press, 1994)

      Rodgers, Harrell R., Jr. American Poverty in a New Era of Reform (M.E. Sharpe, 2000)

      Rosen, Harvey. Public Finance (McGraw-Hill, 2005)

      Ross, Edward A. Social Control, and the Foundations of Sociology (Beacon Press, 1969)

      Rowntree, S.B. Poverty: A Study in Town Life (Macmillan, 1901)

      Sachs, Jeffery. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time (Barnes and Noble, 2005)

      Schiller, B.R. The Economics of Poverty and Discrimination (Prentice-Hall, 1980)

      Shapiro, Thomas and Wolff, Edward. Assets for the Poor: Spreading the Benefits of Asset Ownership (Russell Sage Foundation, 2001)

      Sherraden, Michael. Assets and the Poor (M.E. Sharpe, 1991)

      Shipler, David. The Working Poor: Invisible in America (Alfred A. Knopf, 2004)

      Stewart, Frances. Adjustment of Poverty: Options And Choices (Routledge, 1995)

      Stiglitz, Joseph. Economics of the Public Sector (W.W. Norton, 2000)

      Trattner, W.I. From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America (The Free Press, 1999)

      UNCTAD. Globalization and Liberalization: Effects of International Economic Relations on Poverty (UNCTAD, 1996)

      Van den Bosch, K. Identifying the Poor: Using Subjective and Consensual Measures (Ashgate, 2001)

      Vedder, Richard K. and Gallaway, Lowell E. Out of Work (New York University Press, 1997)

      Wilson, William. When Work Disappears (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996)

      Wolff, Edward. Economics of Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination. (Southwestern Educational Publishing, 1996)

      World Bank. Global Development Finance (World Bank, 2000)

      World Bank. Making Transition Work for Everyone: Poverty and Inequality in Europe and Central Asia (World Bank, 2000)

      Journals

      American Economic Review

      American Sociological Review

      Chronicle of Philanthropy

      Contemporary Economic Policy

      CROP Newsletter

      Econometrica

      European Economic Review

      Human Development Report

      Human Rights Quarterly

      Journal of Economic and Social Research

      Journal of Economic Growth

      Journal of Economic Inequality

      Journal of Urban Economics

      Labour Economics

      Review of Social Economy

      Social Indicators Research

      Social Security Bulletin

      Social Service Review

      Social Work

      The International Glossary on Poverty

      The Journal of Socio-Economics

      The World Bank Economic Review

      Urban Geography

      Urban Studies

      World Development Report

      Internet

      http://www.adb.org

      Asian Development Bank

      http://www.afsc.org

      American Friends Service Committee

      http://www.bls.gov

      Bureau of Labor Statistics

      http://www.cbpp.org

      Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

      http://www.cencus.gov

      United States Census

      http://www.childrensaidsociety.org

      Children's Aid Society

      http://www.epionlne.org

      Employment Policy Institute

      http://www.imf.org

      International Monetary Fund

      http://www.oecd.org

      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

      http://www.povertymap.net

      Poverty Map

      http://www.secondharvest.org

      Second Harvest

      http://www.socwatch.org

      Social Watch

      http://www.theirc.org

      International Rescue Committee

      http://www.un.org

      United Nations

      http://www.unctda.org

      United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

      http://www.undp.org

      United Nations Development Program

      http://www.unicef.org

      United Nations Children's Fund

      http://www.weforum.org

      World Economic Forum

      http://www.who.org

      World Health Organization

      http://www.worldbank.org

      The World Bank

      http://www.worldconcern.org

      World Concern

      http://www.worldhunger.org

      World Hunger Education Services

      Appendix A: U.S. State Economic Data

      U.S. Census Bureau
      Percent of Persons in Poverty: By U.S. State: 2002, 2003, 2004

      (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

      2004 Percent2003 Percent2002 Percent
      United States12.712.512.1
      Alabama16.915.014.5
      Alaska9.29.68.8
      Arizona14.413.513.5
      Arkansas15.117.819.8
      California13.313.113.1
      Colorado10.09.79.8
      Connecticut10.08.18.3
      Delaware9.17.39.1
      D.C16.716.817.0
      Florida11.612.712.6
      Georgia13.111.911.2
      Hawaii8.49.311.3
      Idaho9.910.211.3
      Illinois12.212.612.8
      Indiana11.69.99.1
      Iowa10.88.99.2
      Kansas11.410.810.1
      Kentucky17.714.414.2
      Louisiana16.717.017.5
      Maine11.611.613.4
      Maryland9.88.67.4
      Massachusetts9.210.310.0
      Michigan13.311.411.6
      Minnesota7.07.46.5
      Mississippi18.616.018.4
      Missouri12.210.79.9
      Montana14.115.113.5
      Nebraska9.49.810.6
      Nevada10.910.98.9
      New Hampshire5.45.85.8
      New Jersey8.08.67.9
      New Mexico16.518.117.9
      New York15.014.314.0
      North Carolina14.615.714.3
      North Dakota9.79.711.6
      Ohio11.610.99.8
      Oklahoma10.812.814.1
      Oregon11.712.510.9
      Pennsylvania11.310.59.5
      Rhode Island11.511.511.0
      South Carolina14.912.714.3
      South Dakota13.412.711.5
      Tennessee15.914.014.8
      Texas16.517.015.6
      Utah9.99.19.9
      Vermont7.98.59.9
      Virginia9.310.09.9
      Washington11.512.611.0
      West Virginia14.217.416.8
      Wisconsin12.39.88.6
      Wyoming9.99.89.0
      Alabama
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,737,385100.0
      Less than $10,000250,52614.4
      $10,000 to $14,999140,8808.1
      $15,000 to $24,999257,39314.8
      $25,000 to $34,999236,73213.6
      $35,000 to $49,999286,61216.5
      $50,000 to $74,999298,34717.2
      $75,000 to $99,999134,1357.7
      $100,000 to $149,99985,9874.9
      $150,000 to $199,99922,1711.3
      $200,000 or more24,6021.4
      Median household income (dollars)34,135(X)
      With earnings1,337,09777.0
      Mean earnings (dollars)46,719(X)
      With Social Security income486,28728.0
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,374(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income104,1736.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,686(X)
      With public assistance income38,9642.2
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,108(X)
      With retirement income311,58117.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,110(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)18,189(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,383(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers22,518(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families153,113(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.5
      With related children under 18 years113,695(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.2
      With related children under 5 years51,692(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present85,644(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)35.6
      With related children under 18 years73,882(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.6
      With related children under 5 years33,426(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)56.6
      Individuals698,097(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.1
      18 years and over460,216(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.3
      65 years and over86,276(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.5
      Related children under 18 years233,961(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years164,899(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.3
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over196,748(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.3
      Alaska
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households221,804100.0
      Less than $10,00012,4585.6
      $10,000 to $14,99910,9955.0
      $15,000 to $24,99922,91710.3
      $25,000 to $34,99925,02511.3
      $35,000 to $49,99935,51916.0
      $50,000 to $74,99948,91222.1
      $75,000 to $99,99930,37113.7
      $100,000 to $149,99925,38111.4
      $150,000 to $199,9996,0782.7
      $200,000 or more4,1481.9
      Median household income (dollars)51,571(X)
      With earnings198,60089.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)57,171(X)
      With Social Security income30,28213.7
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,273(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income6,8543.1
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,259(X)
      With public assistance income19,2308.7
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)4,436(X)
      With retirement income32,55514.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)21,037(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)22,660(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers41,257(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers31,151(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families10,270(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      With related children under 18 years8,812(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      With related children under 5 years4,854(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.4
      Families with female householder, no husband present4,686(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.0
      With related children under 18 years4,407(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.7
      With related children under 5 years2,428(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)35.8
      Individuals57,602(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.4
      18 years and over35,561(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.3
      65 years and over2,330(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.8
      Related children under 18 years20,792(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years14,298(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.3
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over20,113(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.3
      Arizona
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,901,625100.0
      Less than $10,000163,2218.6
      $10,000 to $14,999120,7706.4
      $15,000 to $24,999264,39213.9
      $25,000 to $34,999265,64514.0
      $35,000 to $49,999332,85717.5
      $50,000 to $74,999365,02419.2
      $75,000 to $99,999184,0269.7
      $100,000 to $149,999131,0686.9
      $150,000 to $199,99935,9261.9
      $200,000 or more38,6962.0
      Median household income (dollars)40,558(X)
      With earnings1,496,60678.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)52,835(X)
      With Social Security income515,89227.1
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,955(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income69,2813.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,529(X)
      With public assistance income54,6452.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,596(X)
      With retirement income351,58718.5
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,248(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,275(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers35,184(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,777(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families128,318(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      With related children under 18 years102,378(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.2
      With related children under 5 years56,623(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.3
      Families with female householder, no husband present52,017(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.8
      With related children under 18 years46,150(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.1
      With related children under 5 years23,205(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)43.7
      Individuals698,669(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      18 years and over440,959(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      65 years and over54,737(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.4
      Related children under 18 years249,327(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years170,524(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.8
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over203,211(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.4
      Arkansas
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,042,807100.0
      Less than $10,000139,26213.4
      $10,000 to $14,99989,9018.6
      $15,000 to $24,999174,09316.7
      $25,000 to $34,999156,91015.0
      $35,000 to $49,999182,88117.5
      $50,000 to $74,999170,24516.3
      $75,000 to $99,99967,0956.4
      $100,000 to $149,99939,5743.8
      $150,000 to $199,99910,1181.0
      $200,000 or more12,7281.2
      Median household income (dollars)32,182(X)
      With earnings800,78976.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)42,936(X)
      With Social Security income316,69830.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,470(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income60,4495.8
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,636(X)
      With public assistance income30,0232.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,188(X)
      With retirement income169,54016.3
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,469(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)16,904(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers29,784(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers21,270(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families88,478(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      With related children under 18 years66,975(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.1
      With related children under 5 years32,816(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present42,523(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)34.7
      With related children under 18 years38,037(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)43.7
      With related children under 5 years18,591(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)55.7
      Individuals411,777(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.8
      18 years and over265,456(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.8
      65 years and over49,096(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.8
      Related children under 18 years142,406(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.4
      Related children 5 to 17 years97,837(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.1
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over115,751(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.1
      California
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households11,512,020100.0
      Less than $10,000967,0898.4
      $10,000 to $14,999648,7805.6
      $15,000 to $24,9991,318,24611.5
      $25,000 to $34,9991,315,08511.4
      $35,000 to $49,9991,745,96115.2
      $50,000 to $74,9992,202,87319.1
      $75,000 to $99,9991,326,56911.5
      $100,000 to $149,9991,192,61810.4
      $150,000 to $199,999385,2483.3
      $200,000 or more409,5513.6
      Median household income (dollars)47,493(X)
      With earnings9,502,77682.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)64,725(X)
      With Social Security income2,565,23422.3
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,331(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income607,1065.3
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,990(X)
      With public assistance income563,4094.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)4,819(X)
      With retirement income1,774,45215.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,826(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)22,711(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers40,627(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers31,722(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families845,991(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      With related children under 18 years699,159(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.3
      With related children under 5 years366,529(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.0
      Families with female householder, no husband present350,138(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.0
      With related children under 18 years310,533(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.5
      With related children under 5 years147,900(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.0
      Individuals4,706,130(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.2
      18 years and over2,949,030(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.3
      65 years and over280,411(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.1
      Related children under 18 years1,705,797(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years1,216,541(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.5
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over1,321,169(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.1
      Colorado
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,659,308100.0
      Less than $10,000114,6586.9
      $10,000 to $14,99982,5845.0
      $15,000 to $24,999185,99711.2
      $25,000 to $34,999208,98212.6
      $35,000 to $49,999281,88917.0
      $50,000 to $74,999351,66321.2
      $75,000 to $99,999197,33911.9
      $100,000 to $149,999150,5729.1
      $150,000 to $199,99942,7072.6
      $200,000 or more42,9172.6
      Median household income (dollars)47,203(X)
      With earnings1,422,90585.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)59,313(X)
      With Social Security income330,02419.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,995(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income49,7273.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,294(X)
      With public assistance income41,0662.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,420(X)
      With retirement income241,63014.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)19,342(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)24,049(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers38,446(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers29,324(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families67,614(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.2
      With related children under 18 years54,061(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.2
      With related children under 5 years28,693(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      Families with female householder, no husband present31,283(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.6
      With related children under 18 years28,478(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.1
      With related children under 5 years14,217(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)38.9
      Individuals388,952(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      18 years and over267,338(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.6
      65 years and over29,661(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.4
      Related children under 18 years115,626(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years78,587(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.0
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over156,428(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.8
      Connecticut
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,302,227100.0
      Less than $10,00091,7217.0
      $10,000 to $14,99964,8955.0
      $15,000 to $24,999126,1579.7
      $25,000 to $34,999130,91610.1
      $35,000 to $49,999188,02114.4
      $50,000 to $74,999265,47020.4
      $75,000 to $99,999172,56913.3
      $100,000 to $149,999152,40511.7
      $150,000 to $199,99948,5333.7
      $200,000 or more61,5404.7
      Median household income (dollars)53,935(X)
      With earnings1,057,41781.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)74,838(X)
      With Social Security income351,23527.0
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)12,180(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income43,6183.3
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,708(X)
      With public assistance income47,9143.7
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,511(X)
      With retirement income229,67917.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,121(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)28,766(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers45,787(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers33,318(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families49,983(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)5.6
      With related children under 18 years39,015(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.6
      With related children under 5 years19,314(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present29,897(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.6
      With related children under 18 years26,802(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.6
      With related children under 5 years13,097(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.2
      Individuals259,514(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.9
      18 years and over173,606(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.0
      65 years and over30,818(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.0
      Related children under 18 years82,866(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years58,246(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over95,731(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.8
      Delaware
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households298,755100.0
      Less than $10,00021,1257.1
      $10,000 to $14,99915,2845.1
      $15,000 to $24,99933,89811.3
      $25,000 to $34,99936,36112.2
      $35,000 to $49,99950,58216.9
      $50,000 to $74,99963,66321.3
      $75,000 to $99,99935,96812.0
      $100,000 to $149,99928,1459.4
      $150,000 to $199,9997,5492.5
      $200,000 or more6,1802.1
      Median household income (dollars)47,381(X)
      With earnings242,76281.3
      Mean earnings (dollars)59,142(X)
      With Social Security income80,45726.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,997(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income10,5193.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,499(X)
      With public assistance income8,0472.7
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,516(X)
      With retirement income62,82721.0
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,871(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,305(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers38,961(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers29,544(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families13,306(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.5
      With related children under 18 years10,403(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      With related children under 5 years5,419(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.2
      Families with female householder, no husband present7,671(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.4
      With related children under 18 years6,950(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.3
      With related children under 5 years3,413(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.1
      Individuals69,901(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.2
      18 years and over46,496(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.2
      65 years and over7,633(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.9
      Related children under 18 years22,572(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      Related children 5 to 17 years15,276(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over25,725(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.3
      District of Columbia
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households248,590100.0
      Less than $10,00036,93914.9
      $10,000 to $14,99914,5945.9
      $15,000 to $24,99928,44311.4
      $25,000 to $34,99930,59212.3
      $35,000 to $49,99935,31114.2
      $50,000 to $74,99939,55315.9
      $75,000 to $99,99922,4379.0
      $100,000 to $149,99920,7908.4
      $150,000 to $199,9998,2923.3
      $200,000 or more11,6394.7
      Median household income (dollars)40,127(X)
      With earnings195,43478.6
      Mean earnings (dollars)64,401(X)
      With Social Security income48,38819.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)8,960(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income11,5214.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,935(X)
      With public assistance income13,6645.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,307(X)
      With retirement income44,59717.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)26,348(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)28,659(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers40,513(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers36,361(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families19,365(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.7
      With related children under 18 years15,231(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.5
      With related children under 5 years7,662(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present14,272(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.0
      With related children under 18 years12,184(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.3
      With related children under 5 years6,186(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)47.7
      Individuals109,500(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.2
      18 years and over74,133(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.2
      65 years and over10,887(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.4
      Related children under 18 years34,350(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)31.1
      Related children 5 to 17 years23,940(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over42,071(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.5
      Florida
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households6,341,121100.0
      Less than $10,000606,9959.6
      $10,000 to $14,999427,0506.7
      $15,000 to $24,999918,45514.5
      $25,000 to $34,999901,45414.2
      $35,000 to $49,9991,103,55417.4
      $50,000 to $74,9991,170,56918.5
      $75,000 to $99,999552,3798.7
      $100,000 to $149,999398,8606.3
      $150,000 to $199,999114,4321.8
      $200,000 or more147,3732.3
      Median household income (dollars)38,819(X)
      With earnings4,739,36974.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)51,993(X)
      With Social Security income2,072,25832.7
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,814(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income265,8834.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,295(X)
      With public assistance income178,1662.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,449(X)
      With retirement income1,262,32519.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,701(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,557(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,212(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers25,480(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families383,131(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.0
      With related children under 18 years281,303(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.2
      With related children under 5 years132,180(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.4
      Families with female householder, no husband present187,257(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.3
      With related children under 18 years164,596(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.8
      With related children under 5 years75,752(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.6
      Individuals1,952,629(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.5
      18 years and over1,324,632(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.0
      65 years and over246,641(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      Related children under 18 years607,607(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years434,180(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over663,080(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.2
      Georgia
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households3,007,678100.0
      Less than $10,000304,81610.1
      $10,000 to $14,999176,0595.9
      $15,000 to $24,999369,27912.3
      $25,000 to $34,999378,68912.6
      $35,000 to $49,999502,96116.7
      $50,000 to $74,999593,20319.7
      $75,000 to $99,999311,65110.4
      $100,000 to $149,999234,0937.8
      $150,000 to $199,99966,0842.2
      $200,000 or more70,8432.4
      Median household income (dollars)42,433(X)
      With earnings2,520,99383.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)56,625(X)
      With Social Security income658,86221.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,445(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income134,9804.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,889(X)
      With public assistance income87,4032.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,261(X)
      With retirement income433,03414.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,957(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,154(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers35,791(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,679(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families210,138(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      With related children under 18 years163,137(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      With related children under 5 years79,164(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.8
      Families with female householder, no husband present120,303(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)28.5
      With related children under 18 years105,840(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)35.3
      With related children under 5 years49,472(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)45.9
      Individuals1,033,793(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.0
      18 years and over668,387(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.5
      65 years and over102,228(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Related children under 18 years354,633(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years247,970(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.1
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over313,639(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.4
      Hawaii
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households403,572100.0
      Less than $10,00031,9377.9
      $10,000 to $14,99918,5724.6
      $15,000 to $24,99942,23210.5
      $25,000 to $34,99946,22611.5
      $35,000 to $49,99963,48515.7
      $50,000 to $74,99982,99720.6
      $75,000 to $99,99951,28412.7
      $100,000 to $149,99944,86711.1
      $150,000 to $199,99912,0033.0
      $200,000 or more9,9692.5
      Median household income (dollars)49,820(X)
      With earnings334,39282.9
      Mean earnings (dollars)58,733(X)
      With Social Security income112,35027.8
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,611(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income14,4553.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,515(X)
      With public assistance income28,8867.2
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)4,616(X)
      With retirement income85,66221.2
      Mean retirement income (dollars)20,419(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,525(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers35,535(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers28,546(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families22,101(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.6
      With related children under 18 years17,182(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.3
      With related children under 5 years8,470(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present10,024(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.6
      With related children under 18 years8,737(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.5
      With related children under 5 years3,879(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.4
      Individuals126,154(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.7
      18 years and over85,612(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.6
      65 years and over11,683(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.4
      Related children under 18 years38,730(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years27,159(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over46,365(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.4
      Idaho
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households470,133100.0
      Less than $10,00040,6768.7
      $10,000 to $14,99933,4317.1
      $15,000 to $24,99971,92115.3
      $25,000 to $34,99970,39115.0
      $35,000 to $49,99989,61219.1
      $50,000 to $74,99990,46219.2
      $75,000 to $99,99939,2498.3
      $100,000 to $149,99922,7974.8
      $150,000 to $199,9995,3951.1
      $200,000 or more6,1991.3
      Median household income (dollars)37,572(X)
      With earnings386,64282.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)46,344(X)
      With Social Security income118,24825.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,328(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income16,6473.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,104(X)
      With public assistance income15,9883.4
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)1,824(X)
      With retirement income73,52115.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,786(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,841(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,603(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers22,939(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families28,131(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.3
      With related children under 18 years22,205(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      With related children under 5 years11,846(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.0
      Families with female householder, no husband present10,982(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.7
      With related children under 18 years10,178(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)35.3
      With related children under 5 years4,865(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)49.2
      Individuals148,732(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.8
      18 years and over96,864(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.8
      65 years and over11,635(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.3
      Related children under 18 years49,787(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years33,275(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over50,259(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.9
      Illinois
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households4,592,740100.0
      Less than $10,000383,2998.3
      $10,000 to $14,999252,4855.5
      $15,000 to $24,999517,81211.3
      $25,000 to $34,999545,96211.9
      $35,000 to $49,999745,18016.2
      $50,000 to $74,999952,94020.7
      $75,000 to $99,999531,76011.6
      $100,000 to $149,999415,3489.0
      $150,000 to $199,999119,0562.6
      $200,000 or more128,8982.8
      Median household income (dollars)46,590(X)
      With earnings3,754,06181.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)61,954(X)
      With Social Security income1,132,16124.7
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,716(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income179,4853.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,559(X)
      With public assistance income152,6673.3
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,532(X)
      With retirement income709,48515.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,770(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,104(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers40,999(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers29,106(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families244,303(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      With related children under 18 years192,590(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.6
      With related children under 5 years98,467(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present131,485(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.1
      With related children under 18 years116,851(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.1
      With related children under 5 years57,509(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)43.6
      Individuals1,291,958(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.7
      18 years and over835,057(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.4
      65 years and over117,931(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.3
      Related children under 18 years443,296(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years309,030(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over408,625(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.4
      Indiana
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,337,229100.0
      Less than $10,000188,4088.1
      $10,000 to $14,999145,4936.2
      $15,000 to $24,999314,89313.5
      $25,000 to $34,999319,76213.7
      $35,000 to $49,999417,54617.9
      $50,000 to $74,999499,71721.4
      $75,000 to $99,999237,29910.2
      $100,000 to $149,999147,8456.3
      $150,000 to $199,99931,6871.4
      $200,000 or more34,5791.5
      Median household income (dollars)41,567(X)
      With earnings1,912,39481.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)52,275(X)
      With Social Security income606,88826.0
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,735(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income80,6953.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,414(X)
      With public assistance income61,6832.6
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,186(X)
      With retirement income398,45217.0
      Mean retirement income (dollars)14,171(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,397(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,055(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers25,252(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families107,789(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      With related children under 18 years84,392(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.2
      With related children under 5 years45,173(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present58,402(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.4
      With related children under 18 years53,075(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.4
      With related children under 5 years28,086(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)43.6
      Individuals559,484(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.5
      18 years and over371,683(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      65 years and over54,287(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.7
      Related children under 18 years180,277(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years118,654(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over206,846(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.0
      Iowa
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,150,197100.0
      Less than $10,00093,7838.2
      $10,000 to $14,99977,3336.7
      $15,000 to $24,999165,12214.4
      $25,000 to $34,999168,71314.7
      $35,000 to $49,999218,20419.0
      $50,000 to $74,999242,02221.0
      $75,000 to $99,999101,2878.8
      $100,000 to $149,99955,9984.9
      $150,000 to $199,99912,8791.1
      $200,000 or more14,8561.3
      Median household income (dollars)39,469(X)
      With earnings925,23480.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)48,183(X)
      With Social Security income328,91928.6
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,543(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income37,1813.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,124(X)
      With public assistance income32,9462.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,555(X)
      With retirement income168,37414.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)13,862(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,674(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,697(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers24,023(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families46,641(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.0
      With related children under 18 years35,315(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      With related children under 5 years18,725(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present22,015(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.4
      With related children under 18 years20,292(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.5
      With related children under 5 years10,982(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)46.1
      Individuals258,008(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      18 years and over178,761(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      65 years and over31,118(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.7
      Related children under 18 years74,957(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years50,252(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.5
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over107,718(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.3
      Kansas
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,038,940100.0
      Less than $10,00088,9268.6
      $10,000 to $14,99966,2646.4
      $15,000 to $24,999143,13813.8
      $25,000 to $34,999145,43114.0
      $35,000 to $49,999187,85018.1
      $50,000 to $74,999211,01420.3
      $75,000 to $99,99999,9339.6
      $100,000 to $149,99962,9266.1
      $150,000 to $199,99916,1061.6
      $200,000 or more17,3521.7
      Median household income (dollars)40,624(X)
      With earnings849,97981.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)51,037(X)
      With Social Security income272,33726.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,871(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income32,4083.1
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,986(X)
      With public assistance income24,4862.4
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,372(X)
      With retirement income153,88714.8
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,030(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,506(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers35,104(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers25,249(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families47,299(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      With related children under 18 years36,722(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.0
      With related children under 5 years19,681(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present21,793(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.5
      With related children under 18 years19,919(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.7
      With related children under 5 years10,209(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.5
      Individuals257,829(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      18 years and over173,872(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      65 years and over26,840(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.1
      Related children under 18 years80,439(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years53,011(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over98,217(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.3
      Kentucky
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,591,739100.0
      Less than $10,000220,69213.9
      $10,000 to $14,999133,9778.4
      $15,000 to $24,999245,03415.4
      $25,000 to $34,999219,94413.8
      $35,000 to $49,999261,68416.4
      $50,000 to $74,999274,53017.2
      $75,000 to $99,999122,0087.7
      $100,000 to $149,99973,2284.6
      $150,000 to $199,99918,7571.2
      $200,000 or more21,8851.4
      Median household income (dollars)33,672(X)
      With earnings1,217,19976.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)46,278(X)
      With Social Security income454,20028.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,293(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income114,3637.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,809(X)
      With public assistance income60,0713.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,174(X)
      With retirement income278,75717.5
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,795(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)18,093(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,357(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers23,285(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families140,519(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.7
      With related children under 18 years101,463(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.1
      With related children under 5 years46,375(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.6
      Families with female householder, no husband present60,657(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)33.1
      With related children under 18 years53,320(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)42.7
      With related children under 5 years24,661(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)55.9
      Individuals621,096(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.8
      18 years and over417,549(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.2
      65 years and over67,477(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.2
      Related children under 18 years197,794(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.4
      Related children 5 to 17 years137,470(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over177,484(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)28.3
      Louisiana
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,657,107100.0
      Less than $10,000258,08615.6
      $10,000 to $14,999141,9308.6
      $15,000 to $24,999248,48815.0
      $25,000 to $34,999223,40913.5
      $35,000 to $49,999260,62215.7
      $50,000 to $74,999274,55016.6
      $75,000 to $99,999126,7527.6
      $100,000 to $149,99980,2374.8
      $150,000 to $199,99919,5021.2
      $200,000 or more23,5311.4
      Median household income (dollars)32,566(X)
      With earnings1,294,22278.1
      Mean earnings (dollars)45,923(X)
      With Social Security income418,01725.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,041(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income101,4426.1
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,879(X)
      With public assistance income54,6463.3
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)1,985(X)
      With retirement income244,48114.8
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,063(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)16,912(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers33,399(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers22,069(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families183,448(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.8
      With related children under 18 years143,172(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.1
      With related children under 5 years66,805(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present109,526(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)40.6
      With related children under 18 years95,891(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)49.4
      With related children under 5 years44,883(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)60.7
      Individuals851,113(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.6
      18 years and over531,443(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.0
      65 years and over81,693(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.7
      Related children under 18 years313,922(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.3
      Related children 5 to 17 years223,312(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.3
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over212,479(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.0
      Maine
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households518,372100.0
      Less than $10,00053,25910.3
      $10,000 to $14,99939,2317.6
      $15,000 to $24,99976,63314.8
      $25,000 to $34,99973,61414.2
      $35,000 to $49,99994,84818.3
      $50,000 to $74,999100,42319.4
      $75,000 to $99,99943,3418.4
      $100,000 to $149,99924,3484.7
      $150,000 to $199,9995,8661.1
      $200,000 or more6,8091.3
      Median household income (dollars)37,240(X)
      With earnings406,91278.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)46,990(X)
      With Social Security income149,72728.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,569(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income23,7124.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,084(X)
      With public assistance income24,9184.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,173(X)
      With retirement income90,04917.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,211(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,533(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,372(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers24,251(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families26,611(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      With related children under 18 years19,723(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      With related children under 5 years8,964(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.0
      Families with female householder, no husband present13,327(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)28.1
      With related children under 18 years12,183(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)36.4
      With related children under 5 years5,544(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)54.7
      Individuals135,501(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.9
      18 years and over95,330(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.1
      65 years and over17,879(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.2
      Related children under 18 years37,952(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years26,734(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over55,588(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.5
      Maryland
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,981,795100.0
      Less than $10,000137,1996.9
      $10,000 to $14,99983,3284.2
      $15,000 to $24,999188,1049.5
      $25,000 to $34,999212,13510.7
      $35,000 to $49,999305,98715.4
      $50,000 to $74,999427,18021.6
      $75,000 to $99,999268,55813.6
      $100,000 to $149,999230,28511.6
      $150,000 to $199,99969,1023.5
      $200,000 or more59,9173.0
      Median household income (dollars)52,868(X)
      With earnings1,660,63183.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)66,315(X)
      With Social Security income446,56022.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,170(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income66,9193.4
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,361(X)
      With public assistance income47,6432.4
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,729(X)
      With retirement income370,94518.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)21,370(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)25,614(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers41,640(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers32,155(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families83,232(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.1
      With related children under 18 years64,063(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.7
      With related children under 5 years30,328(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present49,841(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.4
      With related children under 18 years43,754(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.4
      With related children under 5 years20,403(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.6
      Individuals438,676(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      18 years and over296,799(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.7
      65 years and over48,854(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      Related children under 18 years135,892(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.3
      Related children 5 to 17 years95,561(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.8
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over160,929(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.2
      Massachusetts
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,444,588100.0
      Less than $10,000214,7008.8
      $10,000 to $14,999137,1875.6
      $15,000 to $24,999248,20810.2
      $25,000 to $34,999253,12510.4
      $35,000 to $49,999355,19514.5
      $50,000 to $74,999490,99820.1
      $75,000 to $99,999312,74112.8
      $100,000 to $149,999267,30010.9
      $150,000 to $199,99980,6403.3
      $200,000 or more84,4943.5
      Median household income (dollars)50,502(X)
      With earnings1,959,21180.1
      Mean earnings (dollars)68,437(X)
      With Social Security income640,56126.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,085(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income119,7434.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,632(X)
      With public assistance income70,1832.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,894(X)
      With retirement income403,76916.5
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,000(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)25,952(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers43,048(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers32,059(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families105,619(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      With related children under 18 years81,762(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.1
      With related children under 5 years38,672(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      Families with female householder, no husband present61,880(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.1
      With related children under 18 years55,625(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)31.2
      With related children under 5 years26,564(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)45.4
      Individuals573,421(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      18 years and over396,038(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      65 years and over71,435(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.9
      Related children under 18 years170,795(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.6
      Related children 5 to 17 years122,354(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over230,045(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.1
      Michigan
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households3,788,780100.0
      Less than $10,000313,9058.3
      $10,000 to $14,999219,1335.8
      $15,000 to $24,999469,10012.4
      $25,000 to $34,999470,41912.4
      $35,000 to $49,999624,32616.5
      $50,000 to $74,999778,75520.6
      $75,000 to $99,999432,68111.4
      $100,000 to $149,999324,9668.6
      $150,000 to $199,99979,2912.1
      $200,000 or more76,2042.0
      Median household income (dollars)44,667(X)
      With earnings3,037,31280.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)57,926(X)
      With Social Security income994,03526.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,943(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income160,7224.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,545(X)
      With public assistance income137,2243.6
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,672(X)
      With retirement income726,14219.2
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,725(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)22,168(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers41,897(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers28,159(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families192,376(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.4
      With related children under 18 years151,943(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.3
      With related children under 5 years76,449(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present110,549(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.0
      With related children under 18 years99,905(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)31.5
      With related children under 5 years50,393(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.2
      Individuals1,021,605(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.5
      18 years and over668,670(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      65 years and over96,116(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.2
      Related children under 18 years340,254(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.4
      Related children 5 to 17 years237,590(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.7
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over362,575(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.8
      Minnesota
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,896,209100.0
      Less than $10,000127,9556.7
      $10,000 to $14,999102,2055.4
      $15,000 to $24,999216,08911.4
      $25,000 to $34,999234,30012.4
      $35,000 to $49,999322,52917.0
      $50,000 to $74,999424,86722.4
      $75,000 to $99,999228,83412.1
      $100,000 to $149,999156,5658.3
      $150,000 to $199,99940,7342.1
      $200,000 or more42,1312.2
      Median household income (dollars)47,111(X)
      With earnings1,580,57383.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)59,189(X)
      With Social Security income453,44323.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,471(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income54,3482.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,501(X)
      With public assistance income65,1443.4
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,094(X)
      With retirement income260,16913.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,034(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,198(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers39,364(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers28,708(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families64,181(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)5.1
      With related children under 18 years49,818(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.6
      With related children under 5 years25,426(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.0
      Families with female householder, no husband present31,233(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.3
      With related children under 18 years28,878(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.0
      With related children under 5 years14,824(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.9
      Individuals380,476(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.9
      18 years and over258,785(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.3
      65 years and over45,405(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.2
      Related children under 18 years115,441(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years81,089(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.7
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over160,379(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.1
      Mississippi
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,047,555100.0
      Less than $10,000169,22716.2
      $10,000 to $14,99992,1298.8
      $15,000 to $24,999164,83015.7
      $25,000 to $34,999147,96614.1
      $35,000 to $49,999171,41016.4
      $50,000 to $74,999168,39316.1
      $75,000 to $99,99970,7186.8
      $100,000 to $149,99940,3393.9
      $150,000 to $199,9999,9040.9
      $200,000 or more12,6391.2
      Median household income (dollars)31,330(X)
      With earnings808,50277.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)43,399(X)
      With Social Security income292,08527.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)9,827(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income79,8437.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,671(X)
      With public assistance income37,1783.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)1,919(X)
      With retirement income163,92715.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,036(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)15,853(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers30,549(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers21,554(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families120,039(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.0
      With related children under 18 years92,224(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.2
      With related children under 5 years42,715(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.3
      Families with female householder, no husband present71,541(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)40.2
      With related children under 18 years62,113(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)48.1
      With related children under 5 years28,798(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)57.2
      Individuals548,079(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.9
      18 years and over341,629(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.2
      65 years and over61,239(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.8
      Related children under 18 years203,101(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years145,549(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.0
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over131,634(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)33.4
      Missouri
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,197,214100.0
      Less than $10,000221,24210.1
      $10,000 to $14,999154,3707.0
      $15,000 to $24,999319,98614.6
      $25,000 to $34,999314,61114.3
      $35,000 to $49,999385,31517.5
      $50,000 to $74,999415,77218.9
      $75,000 to $99,999193,5618.8
      $100,000 to $149,999125,5665.7
      $150,000 to $199,99931,7161.4
      $200,000 or more35,0751.6
      Median household income (dollars)37,934(X)
      With earnings1,745,88079.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)49,671(X)
      With Social Security income606,49327.6
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,211(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income90,1654.1
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,019(X)
      With public assistance income73,7363.4
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,292(X)
      With retirement income372,85217.0
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,739(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,936(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers34,357(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers24,705(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families127,317(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.6
      With related children under 18 years97,614(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.8
      With related children under 5 years48,233(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present64,805(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.1
      With related children under 18 years58,798(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)33.5
      With related children under 5 years28,393(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)46.6
      Individuals637,891(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.7
      18 years and over417,335(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.3
      65 years and over70,476(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      Related children under 18 years212,369(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.3
      Related children 5 to 17 years147,633(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over217,683(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.0
      Montana
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households359,070100.0
      Less than $10,00040,53511.3
      $10,000 to $14,99931,8648.9
      $15,000 to $24,99961,57317.1
      $25,000 to $34,99955,21715.4
      $35,000 to $49,99965,39318.2
      $50,000 to $74,99961,50517.1
      $75,000 to $99,99923,0076.4
      $100,000 to $149,99913,0713.6
      $150,000 to $199,9993,1820.9
      $200,000 or more3,7231.0
      Median household income (dollars)33,024(X)
      With earnings285,89779.6
      Mean earnings (dollars)40,290(X)
      With Social Security income99,43227.7
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,074(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income12,8443.6
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,120(X)
      With public assistance income11,8183.3
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,436(X)
      With retirement income58,63716.3
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,132(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,151(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers30,503(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers20,914(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families25,004(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.5
      With related children under 18 years19,427(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.4
      With related children under 5 years9,325(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.6
      Families with female householder, no husband present10,343(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)33.2
      With related children under 18 years9,509(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)41.6
      With related children under 5 years4,596(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)58.5
      Individuals128,355(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.6
      18 years and over85,443(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.1
      65 years and over10,369(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      Related children under 18 years41,247(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.4
      Related children 5 to 17 years29,073(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.1
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over44,615(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.0
      Nebraska
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households666,995100.0
      Less than $10,00055,3408.3
      $10,000 to $14,99943,9156.6
      $15,000 to $24,99998,66314.8
      $25,000 to $34,99997,93214.7
      $35,000 to $49,999122,65418.4
      $50,000 to $74,999136,14120.4
      $75,000 to $99,99958,3618.7
      $100,000 to $149,99936,5655.5
      $150,000 to $199,9998,5511.3
      $200,000 or more8,8731.3
      Median household income (dollars)39,250(X)
      With earnings550,07482.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)48,160(X)
      With Social Security income175,92526.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,447(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income19,7433.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,370(X)
      With public assistance income18,6402.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,324(X)
      With retirement income85,49312.8
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,163(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,613(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers31,965(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers23,598(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families29,977(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      With related children under 18 years23,367(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.2
      With related children under 5 years12,094(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.3
      Families with female householder, no husband present14,126(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.0
      With related children under 18 years13,078(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)31.0
      With related children under 5 years6,718(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)44.9
      Individuals161,269(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.7
      18 years and over106,792(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.8
      65 years and over17,385(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.0
      Related children under 18 years52,019(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years36,073(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.1
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over59,653(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.2
      Nevada
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households751,977100.0
      Less than $10,00053,9817.2
      $10,000 to $14,99939,2455.2
      $15,000 to $24,99992,71012.3
      $25,000 to $34,99998,36213.1
      $35,000 to $49,999136,10418.1
      $50,000 to $74,999163,41521.7
      $75,000 to $99,99983,30411.1
      $100,000 to $149,99955,4317.4
      $150,000 to $199,99913,5451.8
      $200,000 or more15,8802.1
      Median household income (dollars)44,581(X)
      With earnings628,23483.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)55,463(X)
      With Social Security income177,57123.6
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,390(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income22,9153.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,844(X)
      With public assistance income17,6472.3
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,809(X)
      With retirement income130,81617.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,656(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,989(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers35,794(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers27,089(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families37,877(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.5
      With related children under 18 years30,226(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.4
      With related children under 5 years16,964(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.8
      Families with female householder, no husband present16,598(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.5
      With related children under 18 years15,085(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.3
      With related children under 5 years7,842(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)36.5
      Individuals205,685(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.5
      18 years and over135,908(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      65 years and over15,284(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.1
      Related children under 18 years66,679(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years43,634(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.3
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over72,506(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.7
      New Hampshire
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households474,750100.0
      Less than $10,00028,8086.1
      $10,000 to $14,99922,6354.8
      $15,000 to $24,99951,22610.8
      $25,000 to $34,99955,30111.6
      $35,000 to $49,99981,87517.2
      $50,000 to $74,999109,44723.1
      $75,000 to $99,99960,00912.6
      $100,000 to $149,99943,0939.1
      $150,000 to $199,99912,1182.6
      $200,000 or more10,2382.2
      Median household income (dollars)49,467(X)
      With earnings397,94783.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)60,079(X)
      With Social Security income117,26624.7
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,518(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income14,1603.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,937(X)
      With public assistance income14,1483.0
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,609(X)
      With retirement income78,01716.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,610(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,844(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers39,689(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers27,488(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families13,948(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)4.3
      With related children under 18 years10,833(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.5
      With related children under 5 years5,332(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present7,237(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.6
      With related children under 18 years6,656(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.5
      With related children under 5 years3,342(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)41.0
      Individuals78,530(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.5
      18 years and over54,895(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.1
      65 years and over9,992(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.2
      Related children under 18 years22,028(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.3
      Related children 5 to 17 years15,234(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.7
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over35,034(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.4
      New Jersey
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households3,065,774100.0
      Less than $10,000213,9397.0
      $10,000 to $14,999143,7834.7
      $15,000 to $24,999288,6069.4
      $25,000 to $34,999305,44910.0
      $35,000 to $49,999437,37314.3
      $50,000 to $74,999608,24419.8
      $75,000 to $99,999413,92813.5
      $100,000 to $149,999391,12312.8
      $150,000 to $199,999130,4924.3
      $200,000 or more132,8374.3
      Median household income (dollars)55,146(X)
      With earnings2,495,57181.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)74,719(X)
      With Social Security income823,79626.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)12,274(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income108,5643.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,631(X)
      With public assistance income86,7042.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,162(X)
      With retirement income523,22317.1
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,406(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)27,006(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers46,368(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers33,081(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families135,549(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.3
      With related children under 18 years103,899(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.2
      With related children under 5 years48,730(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present72,261(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.4
      With related children under 18 years62,646(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.4
      With related children under 5 years27,787(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.2
      Individuals699,668(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      18 years and over471,914(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.6
      65 years and over83,336(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      Related children under 18 years220,991(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years157,947(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.5
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over233,015(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.4
      New Mexico
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households678,032100.0
      Less than $10,00084,52712.5
      $10,000 to $14,99956,7738.4
      $15,000 to $24,999107,28715.8
      $25,000 to $34,99997,44714.4
      $35,000 to $49,999115,31517.0
      $50,000 to $74,999111,91316.5
      $75,000 to $99,99953,0797.8
      $100,000 to $149,99934,0455.0
      $150,000 to $199,9998,7501.3
      $200,000 or more8,8961.3
      Median household income (dollars)34,133(X)
      With earnings539,27779.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)43,895(X)
      With Social Security income172,56525.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,590(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income33,1104.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,863(X)
      With public assistance income31,6644.7
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,871(X)
      With retirement income117,72617.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,539(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,261(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers31,310(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers23,658(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families68,178(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.5
      With related children under 18 years54,184(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.8
      With related children under 5 years27,271(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.4
      Families with female householder, no husband present29,891(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)34.1
      With related children under 18 years26,547(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)41.6
      With related children under 5 years12,844(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)54.3
      Individuals328,933(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.4
      18 years and over203,715(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.9
      65 years and over26,341(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.8
      Related children under 18 years122,488(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.6
      Related children 5 to 17 years87,293(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over81,339(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.6
      New York
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households7,060,595100.0
      Less than $10,000809,50711.5
      $10,000 to $14,999453,3206.4
      $15,000 to $24,999822,61111.7
      $25,000 to $34,999807,04311.4
      $35,000 to $49,9991,047,00114.8
      $50,000 to $74,9991,297,71218.4
      $75,000 to $99,999746,38410.6
      $100,000 to $149,999639,5259.1
      $150,000 to $199,999202,6402.9
      $200,000 or more234,8523.3
      Median household income (dollars)43,393(X)
      With earnings5,516,84178.1
      Mean earnings (dollars)64,102(X)
      With Social Security income1,837,42126.0
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,667(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income390,7795.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,568(X)
      With public assistance income344,1754.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,699(X)
      With retirement income1,196,63716.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,660(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,389(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers40,236(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers31,099(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families535,935(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.5
      With related children under 18 years418,591(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.9
      With related children under 5 years198,252(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.2
      Families with female householder, no husband present294,906(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.2
      With related children under 18 years257,263(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)38.8
      With related children under 5 years115,454(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)49.8
      Individuals2,692,202(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.6
      18 years and over1,776,492(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.8
      65 years and over264,336(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.3
      Related children under 18 years893,505(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.6
      Related children 5 to 17 years639,896(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.1
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over817,663(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.0
      North Carolina
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households3,133,282100.0
      Less than $10,000328,77010.5
      $10,000 to $14,999201,1236.4
      $15,000 to $24,999431,70113.8
      $25,000 to $34,999435,97513.9
      $35,000 to $49,999553,04117.7
      $50,000 to $74,999608,77719.4
      $75,000 to $99,999279,0208.9
      $100,000 to $149,999188,6216.0
      $150,000 to $199,99950,6501.6
      $200,000 or more55,6041.8
      Median household income (dollars)39,184(X)
      With earnings2,553,45281.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)50,814(X)
      With Social Security income791,60825.3
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,723(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income130,0664.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,747(X)
      With public assistance income86,3732.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,276(X)
      With retirement income514,99416.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,831(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,307(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,132(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers24,978(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families196,423(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.0
      With related children under 18 years146,753(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.3
      With related children under 5 years71,615(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present104,265(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.4
      With related children under 18 years90,584(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)34.3
      With related children under 5 years42,981(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)45.9
      Individuals958,667(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.3
      18 years and over647,614(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.0
      65 years and over122,248(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.2
      Related children under 18 years301,899(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years207,269(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over320,479(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.2
      North Dakota
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households257,234100.0
      Less than $10,00028,41711.0
      $10,000 to $14,99920,5758.0
      $15,000 to $24,99941,32416.1
      $25,000 to $34,99939,61815.4
      $35,000 to $49,99947,81018.6
      $50,000 to $74,99947,54918.5
      $75,000 to $99,99917,3896.8
      $100,000 to $149,9999,6983.8
      $150,000 to $199,9992,2290.9
      $200,000 or more2,6251.0
      Median household income (dollars)34,604(X)
      With earnings207,62580.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)42,510(X)
      With Social Security income70,82627.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,861(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income7,6763.0
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,164(X)
      With public assistance income7,3572.9
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,552(X)
      With retirement income27,88910.8
      Mean retirement income (dollars)14,625(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,769(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers30,488(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers20,893(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families13,890(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.3
      With related children under 18 years10,043(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      With related children under 5 years5,178(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.6
      Families with female householder, no husband present5,983(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.6
      With related children under 18 years5,402(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)38.7
      With related children under 5 years2,964(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)56.1
      Individuals73,457(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      18 years and over51,294(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.1
      65 years and over9,726(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.1
      Related children under 18 years21,352(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years14,568(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over28,891(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.4
      Ohio
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households4,446,621100.0
      Less than $10,000406,6989.1
      $10,000 to $14,999285,3726.4
      $15,000 to $24,999594,14313.4
      $25,000 to $34,999602,99613.6
      $35,000 to $49,999771,12917.3
      $50,000 to $74,999905,32320.4
      $75,000 to $99,999444,59910.0
      $100,000 to $149,999289,0496.5
      $150,000 to $199,99971,0621.6
      $200,000 or more76,2501.7
      Median household income (dollars)40,956(X)
      With earnings3,538,95779.6
      Mean earnings (dollars)52,998(X)
      With Social Security income1,175,55926.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,376(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income186,5794.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,373(X)
      With public assistance income143,1323.2
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,550(X)
      With retirement income841,45618.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,753(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,003(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,692(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,400(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families235,026(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      With related children under 18 years185,813(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      With related children under 5 years94,763(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.1
      Families with female householder, no husband present137,052(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.3
      With related children under 18 years124,213(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)34.6
      With related children under 5 years64,025(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)49.2
      Individuals1,170,698(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      18 years and over762,013(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      65 years and over115,742(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.1
      Related children under 18 years396,540(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years268,274(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over405,022(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.2
      Oklahoma
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,343,506100.0
      Less than $10,000163,93312.2
      $10,000 to $14,999113,5888.5
      $15,000 to $24,999219,39216.3
      $25,000 to $34,999201,13315.0
      $35,000 to $49,999230,28617.1
      $50,000 to $74,999228,45217.0
      $75,000 to $99,99997,3947.2
      $100,000 to $149,99958,0184.3
      $150,000 to $199,99914,6001.1
      $200,000 or more16,7101.2
      Median household income (dollars)33,400(X)
      With earnings1,055,52878.6
      Mean earnings (dollars)44,070(X)
      With Social Security income365,12027.2
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,741(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income59,8504.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,924(X)
      With public assistance income67,8665.1
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)1,504(X)
      With retirement income219,74216.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,704(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,646(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers31,123(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers22,473(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families103,757(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.2
      With related children under 18 years79,007(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.5
      With related children under 5 years39,845(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present46,981(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.0
      With related children under 18 years41,899(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)39.8
      With related children under 5 years20,090(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)54.0
      Individuals491,235(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.7
      18 years and over319,306(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.0
      65 years and over47,740(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.1
      Related children under 18 years166,213(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.1
      Related children 5 to 17 years113,012(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.7
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over146,906(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.2
      Oregon
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,335,109100.0
      Less than $10,000115,1298.6
      $10,000 to $14,99986,6956.5
      $15,000 to $24,999179,05313.4
      $25,000 to $34,999185,59513.9
      $35,000 to $49,999236,28217.7
      $50,000 to $74,999269,49220.2
      $75,000 to $99,999129,4889.7
      $100,000 to $149,99987,2186.5
      $150,000 to $199,99922,6501.7
      $200,000 or more23,5071.8
      Median household income (dollars)40,916(X)
      With earnings1,071,15880.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)51,450(X)
      With Social Security income344,68925.8
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,815(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income46,8783.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,534(X)
      With public assistance income47,4023.6
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,697(X)
      With retirement income229,12917.2
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,269(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,940(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers36,588(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,980(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families70,032(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.9
      With related children under 18 years54,931(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.4
      With related children under 5 years28,794(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.6
      Families with female householder, no husband present32,276(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.9
      With related children under 18 years29,589(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)33.3
      With related children under 5 years14,730(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)47.4
      Individuals388,740(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.6
      18 years and over267,280(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      65 years and over32,120(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.6
      Related children under 18 years114,777(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.0
      Related children 5 to 17 years76,985(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.8
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over155,661(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.1
      Pennsylvania
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households4,779,186100.0
      Less than $10,000465,8609.7
      $10,000 to $14,999333,3817.0
      $15,000 to $24,999657,26613.8
      $25,000 to $34,999633,95313.3
      $35,000 to $49,999809,16516.9
      $50,000 to $74,999929,86319.5
      $75,000 to $99,999457,4809.6
      $100,000 to $149,999317,1716.6
      $150,000 to $199,99984,1731.8
      $200,000 or more90,8741.9
      Median household income (dollars)40,106(X)
      With earnings3,667,23876.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)54,209(X)
      With Social Security income1,451,38630.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,717(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income203,8514.3
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,523(X)
      With public assistance income149,2033.1
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,848(X)
      With retirement income940,18419.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)14,663(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,880(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,051(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,687(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families250,296(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      With related children under 18 years188,366(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.1
      With related children under 5 years88,081(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.3
      Families with female householder, no husband present134,560(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.9
      With related children under 18 years118,782(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)34.9
      With related children under 5 years55,163(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)47.4
      Individuals1,304,117(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.0
      18 years and over882,372(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.8
      65 years and over164,095(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      Related children under 18 years408,079(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.3
      Related children 5 to 17 years291,913(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over473,182(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.8
      Rhode Island
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households408,412100.0
      Less than $10,00043,80010.7
      $10,000 to $14,99928,6047.0
      $15,000 to $24,99950,52412.4
      $25,000 to $34,99948,42811.9
      $35,000 to $49,99964,06815.7
      $50,000 to $74,99982,35020.2
      $75,000 to $99,99943,62310.7
      $100,000 to $149,99931,1627.6
      $150,000 to $199,9997,9141.9
      $200,000 or more7,9391.9
      Median household income (dollars)42,090(X)
      With earnings316,01677.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)55,924(X)
      With Social Security income113,93027.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,274(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income21,0905.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,518(X)
      With public assistance income18,5844.6
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)4,185(X)
      With retirement income71,15317.4
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,955(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,688(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,587(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers27,358(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families23,608(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.9
      With related children under 18 years19,142(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.2
      With related children under 5 years9,600(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.6
      Families with female householder, no husband present14,611(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.1
      With related children under 18 years13,515(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)40.1
      With related children under 5 years6,821(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)55.4
      Individuals120,548(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      18 years and over79,386(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.4
      65 years and over15,153(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      Related children under 18 years40,117(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years28,108(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over43,786(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.7
      South Carolina
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households1,534,334100.0
      Less than $10,000181,77711.8
      $10,000 to $14,999106,6937.0
      $15,000 to $24,999220,06514.3
      $25,000 to $34,999213,50413.9
      $35,000 to $49,999269,55917.6
      $50,000 to $74,999288,75718.8
      $75,000 to $99,999129,5188.4
      $100,000 to $149,99981,6245.3
      $150,000 to $199,99919,8731.3
      $200,000 or more22,9641.5
      Median household income (dollars)37,082(X)
      With earnings1,225,85979.9
      Mean earnings (dollars)47,936(X)
      With Social Security income406,77726.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,686(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income71,7204.7
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,726(X)
      With public assistance income37,8642.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,145(X)
      With retirement income274,21617.9
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,933(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)18,795(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,027(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers23,329(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families115,899(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.7
      With related children under 18 years87,631(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.7
      With related children under 5 years39,142(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.4
      Families with female householder, no husband present67,249(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.6
      With related children under 18 years58,503(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.7
      With related children under 5 years25,796(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)48.2
      Individuals547,869(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.1
      18 years and over360,594(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.5
      65 years and over64,688(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      Related children under 18 years182,757(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.5
      Related children 5 to 17 years130,304(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over164,484(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.5
      South Dakota
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households290,336100.0
      Less than $10,00030,88110.6
      $10,000 to $14,99922,4217.7
      $15,000 to $24,99946,82316.1
      $25,000 to $34,99943,88415.1
      $35,000 to $49,99955,16019.0
      $50,000 to $74,99953,81718.5
      $75,000 to $99,99920,1506.9
      $100,000 to $149,99911,0903.8
      $150,000 to $199,9992,8721.0
      $200,000 or more3,2381.1
      Median household income (dollars)35,282(X)
      With earnings236,30881.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)43,382(X)
      With Social Security income81,26728.0
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,460(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income9,7433.4
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,836(X)
      With public assistance income8,7873.0
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,189(X)
      With retirement income36,98112.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)13,972(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)17,562(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers29,677(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers21,520(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families18,172(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.3
      With related children under 18 years13,955(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      With related children under 5 years7,401(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.0
      Families with female householder, no husband present7,696(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.4
      With related children under 18 years7,174(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.9
      With related children under 5 years4,041(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)53.5
      Individuals95,900(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.2
      18 years and over61,935(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.7
      65 years and over11,199(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.1
      Related children under 18 years32,900(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years22,698(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.5
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over30,624(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.9
      Tennessee
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,234,229100.0
      Less than $10,000267,40512.0
      $10,000 to $14,999161,7737.2
      $15,000 to $24,999326,13414.6
      $25,000 to $34,999319,92114.3
      $35,000 to $49,999388,09517.4
      $50,000 to $74,999405,36418.1
      $75,000 to $99,999179,5598.0
      $100,000 to $149,999116,7795.2
      $150,000 to $199,99931,0951.4
      $200,000 or more38,1041.7
      Median household income (dollars)36,360(X)
      With earnings1,781,45779.7
      Mean earnings (dollars)49,056(X)
      With Social Security income592,98326.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,655(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income116,3175.2
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,823(X)
      With public assistance income77,1533.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)1,984(X)
      With retirement income361,53516.2
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,360(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,393(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,313(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers23,978(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families160,717(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.3
      With related children under 18 years117,726(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.0
      With related children under 5 years55,819(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)18.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present82,655(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.5
      With related children under 18 years72,272(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)37.6
      With related children under 5 years34,539(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)50.2
      Individuals746,789(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      18 years and over499,392(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      65 years and over89,985(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.5
      Related children under 18 years240,796(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.6
      Related children 5 to 17 years165,613(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.6
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over232,456(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)26.1
      Texas
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households7,397,294100.0
      Less than $10,000767,50510.4
      $10,000 to $14,999491,1546.6
      $15,000 to $24,9991,004,12313.6
      $25,000 to $34,999996,14113.5
      $35,000 to $49,9991,219,35816.5
      $50,000 to $74,9991,359,43718.4
      $75,000 to $99,999705,6849.5
      $100,000 to $149,999536,0187.2
      $150,000 to $199,999153,4922.1
      $200,000 or more164,3822.2
      Median household income (dollars)39,927(X)
      With earnings6,202,95483.9
      Mean earnings (dollars)53,870(X)
      With Social Security income1,595,86121.6
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,719(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income286,0923.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,837(X)
      With public assistance income234,0813.2
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,285(X)
      With retirement income973,71813.2
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,437(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,617(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers34,925(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers26,168(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families632,676(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.0
      With related children under 18 years503,911(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.6
      With related children under 5 years263,002(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present266,954(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.5
      With related children under 18 years235,353(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)36.2
      With related children under 5 years111,163(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)47.2
      Individuals3,117,609(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)15.4
      18 years and over1,927,674(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.3
      65 years and over251,172(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.8
      Related children under 18 years1,162,141(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years806,427(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.3
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over730,618(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.6
      Utah
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households701,933100.0
      Less than $10,00041,9596.0
      $10,000 to $14,99933,9524.8
      $15,000 to $24,99983,12111.8
      $25,000 to $34,99993,11913.3
      $35,000 to $49,999133,42119.0
      $50,000 to $74,999158,40522.6
      $75,000 to $99,99979,65911.3
      $100,000 to $149,99952,6417.5
      $150,000 to $199,99912,9241.8
      $200,000 or more12,7321.8
      Median household income (dollars)45,726(X)
      With earnings604,56786.1
      Mean earnings (dollars)54,973(X)
      With Social Security income144,81520.6
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,829(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income19,8902.8
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,580(X)
      With public assistance income21,8963.1
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,878(X)
      With retirement income110,47615.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)17,682(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)18,185(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers36,935(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers24,872(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families34,969(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.5
      With related children under 18 years28,038(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.7
      With related children under 5 years16,535(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present13,849(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.1
      With related children under 18 years12,557(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.0
      With related children under 5 years6,429(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)41.9
      Individuals206,328(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.4
      18 years and over134,563(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.1
      65 years and over10,695(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)5.8
      Related children under 18 years68,280(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years44,194(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over74,860(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)27.6
      Vermont
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households240,744100.0
      Less than $10,00019,5528.1
      $10,000 to $14,99915,2406.3
      $15,000 to $24,99933,76814.0
      $25,000 to $34,99933,42213.9
      $35,000 to $49,99944,87118.6
      $50,000 to $74,99949,82420.7
      $75,000 to $99,99923,0519.6
      $100,000 to $149,99913,7755.7
      $150,000 to $199,9993,6791.5
      $200,000 or more3,5621.5
      Median household income (dollars)40,856(X)
      With earnings197,89782.2
      Mean earnings (dollars)48,871(X)
      With Social Security income63,72626.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,173(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income9,9544.1
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,239(X)
      With public assistance income11,6104.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,780(X)
      With retirement income37,43415.5
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,449(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)20,625(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers32,457(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers25,322(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families9,925(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)6.3
      With related children under 18 years7,788(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.7
      With related children under 5 years3,444(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present5,107(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.1
      With related children under 18 years4,778(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)31.0
      With related children under 5 years2,163(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)49.4
      Individuals55,506(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.4
      18 years and over38,911(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.8
      65 years and over6,217(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.5
      Related children under 18 years15,442(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.7
      Related children 5 to 17 years10,966(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over24,924(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.1
      Virginia
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,700,335100.0
      Less than $10,000214,0767.9
      $10,000 to $14,999141,9485.3
      $15,000 to $24,999308,53211.4
      $25,000 to $34,999326,82112.1
      $35,000 to $49,999444,68216.5
      $50,000 to $74,999549,41220.3
      $75,000 to $99,999307,10711.4
      $100,000 to $149,999254,9489.4
      $150,000 to $199,99980,0463.0
      $200,000 or more72,7632.7
      Median household income (dollars)46,677(X)
      With earnings2,252,77783.4
      Mean earnings (dollars)59,822(X)
      With Social Security income631,53023.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,868(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income95,7163.5
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,770(X)
      With public assistance income66,4922.5
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,242(X)
      With retirement income507,87918.8
      Mean retirement income (dollars)20,920(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)23,975(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,764(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers28,035(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families129,890(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.0
      With related children under 18 years98,963(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.2
      With related children under 5 years45,898(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.3
      Families with female householder, no husband present71,397(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.0
      With related children under 18 years63,280(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)29.8
      With related children under 5 years28,548(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)40.7
      Individuals656,641(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.6
      18 years and over447,109(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.7
      65 years and over71,545(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.5
      Related children under 18 years202,174(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      Related children 5 to 17 years142,391(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.4
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over235,697(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.9
      Washington
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,272,261100.0
      Less than $10,000171,8637.6
      $10,000 to $14,999124,8485.5
      $15,000 to $24,999265,13111.7
      $25,000 to $34,999284,63012.5
      $35,000 to $49,999389,43417.1
      $50,000 to $74,999486,39221.4
      $75,000 to $99,999264,49811.6
      $100,000 to $149,999188,5138.3
      $150,000 to $199,99947,6152.1
      $200,000 or more49,3372.2
      Median household income (dollars)45,776(X)
      With earnings1,862,10281.9
      Mean earnings (dollars)57,172(X)
      With Social Security income521,17622.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,914(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income84,7503.7
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,466(X)
      With public assistance income86,7413.8
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)3,579(X)
      With retirement income389,58717.1
      Mean retirement income (dollars)18,241(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)22,973(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers40,687(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers30,021(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families110,663(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.3
      With related children under 18 years88,838(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.2
      With related children under 5 years46,276(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)14.9
      Families with female householder, no husband present52,290(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)24.1
      With related children under 18 years48,358(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.8
      With related children under 5 years24,089(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)45.6
      Individuals612,370(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.6
      18 years and over409,479(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)9.6
      65 years and over47,967(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.5
      Related children under 18 years193,569(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.2
      Related children 5 to 17 years132,344(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over232,590(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)20.6
      West Virginia
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households737,360100.0
      Less than $10,000113,93115.5
      $10,000 to $14,99973,51410.0
      $15,000 to $24,999128,44817.4
      $25,000 to $34,999107,19214.5
      $35,000 to $49,999121,08916.4
      $50,000 to $74,999111,44615.1
      $75,000 to $99,99944,6436.1
      $100,000 to $149,99924,1853.3
      $150,000 to $199,9995,6320.8
      $200,000 or more7,2801.0
      Median household income (dollars)29,696(X)
      With earnings520,24670.6
      Mean earnings (dollars)41,287(X)
      With Social Security income249,89533.9
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)10,931(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income50,6196.9
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)5,974(X)
      With public assistance income29,6934.0
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,019(X)
      With retirement income162,00822.0
      Mean retirement income (dollars)14,826(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)16,477(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers31,299(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers21,154(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families70,448(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.9
      With related children under 18 years49,937(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.4
      With related children under 5 years21,219(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)25.7
      Families with female householder, no husband present27,193(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)35.5
      With related children under 18 years22,892(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)48.8
      With related children under 5 years9,355(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)62.8
      Individuals315,794(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)17.9
      18 years and over219,698(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.0
      65 years and over31,555(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.9
      Related children under 18 years93,848(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.9
      Related children 5 to 17 years66,857(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)22.9
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over95,757(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)32.5
      Wisconsin
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households2,086,304100.0
      Less than $10,000148,9647.1
      $10,000 to $14,999121,3665.8
      $15,000 to $24,999264,89712.7
      $25,000 to $34,999276,03313.2
      $35,000 to $49,999377,74918.1
      $50,000 to $74,999474,29922.7
      $75,000 to $99,999226,37410.9
      $100,000 to $149,999133,7196.4
      $150,000 to $199,99930,5981.5
      $200,000 or more32,3051.5
      Median household income (dollars)43,791(X)
      With earnings1,706,80381.8
      Mean earnings (dollars)53,084(X)
      With Social Security income550,04426.4
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,811(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income71,3593.4
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,330(X)
      With public assistance income35,6951.7
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,533(X)
      With retirement income327,57015.7
      Mean retirement income (dollars)15,759(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)21,271(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers37,062(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers25,865(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families78,188(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)5.6
      With related children under 18 years61,837(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.8
      With related children under 5 years32,367(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.2
      Families with female householder, no husband present41,608(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)21.7
      With related children under 18 years38,464(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)28.4
      With related children under 5 years20,118(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)42.5
      Individuals451,538(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.7
      18 years and over301,372(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.8
      65 years and over49,245(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)7.4
      Related children under 18 years143,963(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years100,127(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.0
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over181,580(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)19.0
      Wyoming
      INCOME IN 1999NumberPercent
      Households193,959100.0
      Less than $10,00017,7669.2
      $10,000 to $14,99914,5867.5
      $15,000 to $24,99928,98414.9
      $25,000 to $34,99927,72714.3
      $35,000 to $49,99935,41718.3
      $50,000 to $74,99939,12620.2
      $75,000 to $99,99917,3929.0
      $100,000 to $149,9998,6364.5
      $150,000 to $199,9991,8801.0
      $200,000 or more2,4451.3
      Median household income (dollars)37,892(X)
      With earnings160,06682.5
      Mean earnings (dollars)45,363(X)
      With Social Security income47,60824.5
      Mean Social Security income (dollars)11,391(X)
      With Supplemental Security Income5,3812.8
      Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars)6,592(X)
      With public assistance income5,0772.6
      Mean public assistance income (dollars)2,403(X)
      With retirement income28,27914.6
      Mean retirement income (dollars)16,270(X)
      Per capita income (dollars)19,134(X)
      Median earnings (dollars):
      Male full-time, year-round workers34,442(X)
      Female full-time, year-round workers21,735(X)
      POVERTY STATUS IN 1999 (below poverty level)
      Families10,585(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.0
      With related children under 18 years8,303(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.4
      With related children under 5 years4,041(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)16.5
      Families with female householder, no husband present5,077(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)30.9
      With related children under 18 years4,682(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)38.1
      With related children under 5 years2,215(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)53.4
      Individuals54,777(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)11.4
      18 years and over36,562(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)10.3
      65 years and over4,853(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)8.9
      Related children under 18 years17,284(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)13.8
      Related children 5 to 17 years11,835(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)12.5
      Unrelated individuals 15 years and over20,101(X)
      Percent below poverty level(X)23.5

      Appendix B: Country Economic Profiles

      Source: CIA World Factbook 2005

      Afghanistan

      Gross Domestic Product (GDP): purchasing power parity: $21.5 billion (2003 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 7.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $800 (2003 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 60%

      industry: 20%

      services: 20% (1990 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 53% (2003)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share:

      lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.3% (2003)

      Labor force: 11.8 million (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Budget:

      revenues: $300 million

      expenditures: $609 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY04–05 budget)

      Agriculture: products: opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

      Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

      Exports: $446 million (not including illicit exports or reexports) (FY03–04)

      Exports: commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semiprecious gems

      Exports: partners: India 23.1%, Pakistan 20.5%, US 12.9%, Germany 6% (2004)

      Imports: $3.759 billion (FY03–04)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: Pakistan 25.2%, US 8.7%, South Korea 7.7%, India 7.6%, Germany 6.5%, Turkmenistan 4.5%, Turkey 4.1% (2004)

      Debt: external: $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia; Afghanistan has $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)

      Economic aid: recipient: international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in March 2004 reached $8.9 billion for 2004–09

      Albania

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $17.46 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 46.2%

      industry: 25.4%

      services: 28.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 57%, non-agricultural private sector 20%, public sector 23% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 14.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.05 billion

      expenditures: $2.46 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

      Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $32.16 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

      Exports: partners: US 22.5%, Italy 17.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 10.2%, Canada 7.8%, Belgium 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $15.25 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: France 31.6%, Italy 8.5%, Germany 6.3%, Spain 5.6%, China 5.3%, US 4.9%, Turkey 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $43.55 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $21.9 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $122.8 million (2002 est.)

      Andorra

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.9 billion (2003 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2% (2003 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $26,800 (2003 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

      industry: NA%

      services: NA%

      Labor force: 33,000 (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 0% (1996 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2000)

      Budget: revenues: $385 million

      expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1997)

      Agriculture: products: small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

      Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

      Industrial production growth rate: NA%

      Exports: $12.76 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

      Exports: partners: US 39.8%, China 30.3%, Taiwan 8.1%, France 7.1% (2004)

      Imports: $4.896 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

      Imports: partners: Portugal 18.4%, US 13.1%, South Africa 10.7%, Japan 6.9%, France 6.3%, Brazil 5.6%, UK 4.9%, China 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $800 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $10.45 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $383.5 million (1999)

      Argentina

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $483.5 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 8.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $12,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 10.6%

      industry: 35.9%

      services: 53.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 15.04 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

      Unemployment rate: 14.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 44.3% (June 2004)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $29.15 billion

      expenditures: $26.84 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 118% of GDP (June 2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

      Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

      Industrial production growth rate: 12% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $33.78 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

      Exports: partners: Brazil 16.5%, Chile 10.9%, US 10.2%, China 8.5%, Spain 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $22.06 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics

      Imports: partners: Brazil 27%, US 20%, Germany 6.6%, China 4.6%, France 4.2%, Italy 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $19.47 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $157.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $10 billion (2001 est.)

      Armenia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $13.65 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 22.9%

      industry: 36.1%

      services: 41.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.4 million (2001)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 25%, services 30% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 30% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%

      highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 44.4 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $428.1 million

      expenditures: $491.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

      Industries: diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

      Industrial production growth rate: 15% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $850 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

      Exports: partners: Belgium 16.8%, Israel 14.3%, Russia 14.2%, Germany 11.4%, Iran 9.9%, US 7.8%, Netherlands 5.8% (2004)

      Imports: $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

      Imports: partners: Belgium 10.3%, Iran 10.2%, Russia 9.8%, Israel 8.6%, US 7.7%, UAE 6.2%, Italy 5.4%, Germany 5%, France 4.6%, Ukraine 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $555 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $905 million (June 2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $170 million (2000)

      Australia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $611.7 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $30,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.4%

      industry: 28.2%

      services: 68.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 10.35 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 3.6%, industry 26.4%, services 70% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 5.1% (December 2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.2 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $222.7 billion

      expenditures: $221.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 17.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

      Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $86.89 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment

      Exports: partners: Japan 18.6%, China 9.2%, US 8.1%, South Korea 7.7%, New Zealand 7.4%, India 4.6%, UK 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $98.1 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products

      Imports: partners: US 14.8%, China 12.7%, Japan 11.8%, Germany 5.8%, Singapore 4.4%, UK 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $35.14 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $308.7 billion (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

      Austria

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $255.9 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $31,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.3%

      industry: 30.8%

      services: 66.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.45 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and forestry 4%, industry and crafts 29%, services 67% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 4.4% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 3.9% (1999)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%

      highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 31 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $142.5 billion

      expenditures: $146.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 64.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

      Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $102.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: Germany 31.4%, Italy 9%, US 6%, Switzerland 4.8%, UK 4.4%, France 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $101.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Germany 45.9%, Italy 6.7%, Switzerland 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $12.73 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $15.5 billion (2003 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $520 million (2002)

      Azerbaijan

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 14.1%

      industry: 45.7%

      services: 40.2% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 5.09 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)

      Unemployment rate: 1.2% (official rate) (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 49% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 36 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 65.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.715 billion

      expenditures: $2.801 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 18.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

      Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $3.168 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: Italy 31.1%, Czech Republic 14.5%, Germany 9.4%, Turkey 6.1%, Russia 6%, Georgia 5.3%, France 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $3.622 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

      Imports: partners: UK 13.9%, Russia 13.1%, Turkey 11.5%, Germany 8%, Netherlands 5.3%, China 5%, US 4.7%, Italy 4.5%, Ukraine 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $875 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.832 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

      Bahamas

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $5.295 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $17,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

      industry: 7%

      services: 90% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 156,000 (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 5%, tourism 50%, other services 40% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: 27% (2000)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (year ending September 2004)

      Budget: revenues: $1 billion

      expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $106.7 million (FY03/04)

      Agriculture: products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

      Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $636 million (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: mineral products and salt, animal products, rum, chemicals; fruit and vegetables

      Exports: partners: US 42.1%, Spain 10.3%, Poland 6.1%, Germany 6.1%, Switzerland 4.9%, Paraguay 4.8%, France 4.5%, Mexico 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $1.63 billion (2003)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral fuels; food and live animals

      Imports: partners: US 22.3%, South Korea 19%, Japan 8.2%, Brazil 8.2%, Italy 8.1%, Venezuela 6.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $308.5 million (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: $9.8 million (1995)

      Bahrain

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $13.01 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $19,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 0.7%

      industry: 41%

      services: 58.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 370,000

      note: 44% of the population in the 15–64 age group is non-national (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry, commerce, and services 79%, government 20% (1997 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 15% (1998 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 12.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.825 billion

      expenditures: $3.262 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 63.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

      Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $8.205 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

      Exports: partners: US 3.1%, South Korea 2.3%, Japan 2% (2004)

      Imports: $5.87 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: crude oil, machinery, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 33.1%, Japan 7.6%, Germany 6.1%, US 5.7%, UK 5.6%, France 4.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.141 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $6.215 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $150 million; note: $50 million annually since 1992 from each of Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)

      Bangladesh

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 21.2%

      industry: 27.1%

      services: 51.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 65.49 million

      note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers’ remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998–99 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 63%, industry 11%, services 26% (FY95/96)

      Unemployment rate: 40% (includes underemployment) (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 45% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%

      highest 10%: 28.6% (1995–96 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 33.6 (FY95/96)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $5.921 billion

      expenditures: $8.262 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 43% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

      Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

      Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $7.478 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)

      Exports: partners: US 22.7%, Germany 14.5%, UK 10.8%, France 6.7% (2004)

      Imports: $10.03 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

      Imports: partners: India 14.6%, China 11.7%, Singapore 7.8%, Japan 5.8%,

      Hong Kong 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $19.97 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

      Barbados

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $16,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 6%

      industry: 16%

      services: 78% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 128,500 (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 15%, services 75% (1996 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10.7% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): –0.5% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $847 million (including grants)

      expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

      Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

      Industrial production growth rate: –3.2% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $206 million (2002)

      Exports: commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components

      Exports: partners: Trinidad and Tobago 14.2%, US 13.9%, UK 13%, Jamaica 7.7%, Saint Lucia 5.8%, Spain 5.8%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $1.039 billion (2002)

      Imports: commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

      Imports: partners: US 31.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 21.6%, UK 7.9%, Japan 5.3% (2004)

      Debt: external: $668 million (2003)

      Economic aid: recipient: $9.1 million (1995)

      Belarus

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $70.5 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11%

      industry: 36.4%

      services: 52.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.305 million (31 December 2003)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 34.7%, services 51.3% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 2% officially registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers (2004)

      Population below poverty line: 27.1% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1%

      highest 10%: 20% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 21.7 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 21.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.326 billion

      expenditures: $3.564 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

      Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators

      Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $11.47 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals; textiles, foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: Russia 38.7%, Poland 6.5%, Latvia 5.1%, Germany 5.1%, Ukraine 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $13.57 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals

      Imports: partners: Russia 50%, Germany 13.3%, Ukraine 4.3%, Poland 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $770.2 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $600 million (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $194.3 million (1995)

      Belgium

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $316.2 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $30,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 1.3%

      industry: 25.7%

      services: 73% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.75 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1.3%, industry 24.5%, services 74.2% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12% (first half, 2004)

      Population below poverty line: 4% (1989 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

      highest 10%: 23% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 28.7 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $173.7 billion

      expenditures: $174.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.56 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 96.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

      Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $255.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: Germany 19.9%, France 17.2%, Netherlands 11.8%, UK 8.6%, US 6.5%, Italy 5.2% (2004)

      Imports: $235 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products

      Imports: partners: Germany 18.4%, Netherlands 17%, France 12.5%, UK 6.8%, Ireland 6.3%, US 5.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.45 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)

      Belize

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.778 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 17.7%

      industry: 15%

      services: 67.3% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 90,000

      note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12.9% (2003)

      Population below poverty line: 33% (1999 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 33.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $244.5 million

      expenditures: $300 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments

      Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (1999)

      Exports: $401.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

      Exports: partners: US 36.8%, UK 28.5%, Thailand 3.6% (2004)

      Imports: $579.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

      Imports: partners: US 32.7%, Mexico 14.4%, Cuba 6.5%, Japan 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $111.1 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.362 billion (June 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Benin

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $8.338 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 36.3%

      industry: 14.3%

      services: 49.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA (1996)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 33% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $869.4 million

      expenditures: $720.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)

      Industries: textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement (2001)

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.3% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $720.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

      Exports: partners: China 30.2%, India 15.6%, Thailand 6%, Ghana 5.9%, Niger 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $934.5 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: China 29.7%, France 13.8%, Thailand 7.2%, Cote d’Ivoire 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $839.3 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.6 billion (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $342.6 million (2000)

      Bhutan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.9 billion (2003 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.3% (2003 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,400 (2003 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 45%

      industry: 10%

      services: 45% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      note: massive lack of skilled labor

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 93%, industry and commerce 2%, services 5%

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $146 million

      expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA

      note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan’s budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

      Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide

      Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

      Exports: $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

      Exports: commodities: electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

      Exports: partners: India 87.9%, Bangladesh 4.6%, Philippines 2% (2004)

      Imports: $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

      Imports: partners: India 71.3%, Japan 7.8%, Austria 3% (2004)

      Debt: external: $245 million (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: substantial aid from India and other nations

      Bolivia

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13%

      industry: 28%

      services: 59% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.8 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

      Unemployment rate: 9.2% in urban areas

      note: widespread underemployment (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 64% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%

      highest 10%: 32% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 44.7 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 10.4% of GDP (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.264 billion

      expenditures: $2.769 billion, including capital expenditures of $741 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

      Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $1.986 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin

      Exports: partners: Brazil 33.9%, US 12.7%, Colombia 11.8%, Venezuela 11.6%, Peru 5.1%, Japan 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $1.595 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans

      Imports: partners: Brazil 25.3%, Argentina 17%, US 13.1%, Chile 9.2%, Peru 7.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.214 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5.439 billion (June 2004 est.)

      Bosnia and Herzegovina

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $26.21 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 14.2%

      industry: 30.8%

      services: 55% (2002)

      Labor force: 1.026 million (2001)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 44% officially; however, grey economy may reduce actual unemployment to near 20% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.618 billion

      expenditures: $3.642 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

      Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2003 est.)

      Exports: $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: metals, clothing, wood products

      Exports: partners: Italy 22.9%, Croatia 22.1%, Germany 20.3%, Austria 7.5%, Slovenia 6.9%, Hungary 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $5.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Croatia 26.4%, Germany 14.9%, Slovenia 13.4%, Italy 12%, Austria 6.9%, Hungary 6.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3 billion (2004 est.)

      Botswana

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $15.05 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $9,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

      industry: 44% (including 36% mining)

      services: 52% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: 23.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 47% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.735 billion

      expenditures: $3.743 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 8.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

      Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $2.94 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

      Exports: partners: European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

      Imports: $2.255 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products

      Imports: partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $531 million (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $73 million (1995)

      Brazil

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.492 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $8,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 10.1%

      industry: 38.6%

      services: 51.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 89 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 14%, services 66% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 11.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%, highest 10%: 48% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 60.7 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $140.6 billion

      expenditures: $172.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004)

      Public debt: 52% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

      Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

      Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $95 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

      Exports: partners: US 21.2%, China 7.8%, Argentina 6%, Germany 5.1%, Netherlands 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $61 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil

      Imports: partners: US 22.4%, Germany 9.2%, Argentina 8.1%, China 5.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $52.94 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $219.8 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $30 billion (2002)

      Brunei

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

      industry: 45%

      services: 50% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 158,000 note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (2002 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 3.2% (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $4.9 billion

      expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (2003 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

      Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

      Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil, natural gas, refined products

      Exports: partners: Japan 37.8%, South Korea 13.6%, Australia 11.1%, US 9%, Thailand 7.9%, China 5.9% (2004)

      Imports: $5.2 billion c.i.f. (2003)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Singapore 33.1%, Malaysia 21.5%, Japan 7.3%, UK 6.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $0

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Bulgaria

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $61.63 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $8,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11.5%

      industry: 30.1%

      services: 58.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.398 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 11%, industry 32.7%, services 56.3% (3rd quarter 2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12.7% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 13.4% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.5%

      highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 26.4 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $9.67 billion

      expenditures: $9.619 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 41.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

      Industries: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $9.134 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

      Exports: partners: Italy 13.2%, Germany 11.5%, Turkey 9.7%, Belgium 6.4%, Greece 6.1%, US 5.6%, France 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $12.23 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials

      Imports: partners: Germany 15.7%, Italy 10.9%, Russia 9%, Greece 8%, Turkey 7.5%, France 4.7%, Austria 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.526 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $16.1 billion (November 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $300 million (2000 est.)

      Burkina Faso

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $15.74 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 39.5%

      industry: 19.3%

      services: 41.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 5 million

      note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Population below poverty line: 45% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 48.2 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 29.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $695.2 million

      expenditures: $876.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

      Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

      Industrial production growth rate: 14% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $418.6 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cotton, livestock, gold

      Exports: partners: China 32.3%, Singapore 10.7%, Bangladesh 4.5%, Ghana 4.4%, Colombia 4.4% (2004)

      Imports: $866.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

      Imports: partners: France 31.5%, Cote d’Ivoire 13.9%, Togo 8.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $474.9 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.3 billion (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Burma

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $74.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: –1.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 56.6%

      industry: 8.8%

      services: 34.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 27.01 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 10.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $474.9 million

      expenditures: $955.5 million, including capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products

      Industries: agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $2.137 billion f.o.b.

      note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

      Exports: partners: Thailand 37%, India 14%, China 6.2%, Japan 5.1%, UK 4% (2004)

      Imports: $1.754 billion f.o.b.

      note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products

      Imports: partners: China 28.3%, Singapore 20.6%, Thailand 19.1%, South Korea 6.2%, Malaysia 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $590 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $6.752 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $127 million (2001 est.)

      Burundi

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $4.001 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 48.1%

      industry: 19%

      services: 32.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.99 million (2002)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 68% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

      highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 42.5 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 10.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $152.5 million

      expenditures: $187.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk

      Industries: blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

      Industrial production growth rate: 18% (2001)

      Exports: $31.84 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

      Exports: partners: Switzerland 25.8%, Germany 12.2%, Belgium 7.9%, US 5.5%, Thailand 5.3% (2004)

      Imports: $138.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Kenya 11.7%, Tanzania 9.6%, US 9.1%, Belgium 9%, France 8.8%, Italy 5.4%, Japan 4.8%, Uganda 4.8%, Zambia 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $76.89 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.133 billion (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: $92.7 million (2000)

      Cambodia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $26.99 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 35%

      industry: 30%

      services: 35% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 7 million (2003 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 75% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

      highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 40 (2004 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 20.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $548.2 million

      expenditures: $836.7 million, including capital expenditures of $291 million of which 75% was financed by external assistance (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca

      Industries: tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 22% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $2.311 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: Clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

      Exports: partners: US 56.2%, Germany 11.5%, UK 7%, Canada 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $3.129 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles

      Imports: partners: Thailand 23.9%, Hong Kong 15%, China 13.5%, Singapore 11.5%, Vietnam 7.6%, Taiwan 7.3%

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $997.5 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $2.4 billion (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $504 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2005 by international donors

      Cameroon

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $30.17 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 43.7%

      industry: 20.1%, services: 36.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 6.68 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

      Unemployment rate: 30% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 48% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%, highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 47.7 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.493 billion

      expenditures: $2.248 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 69.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

      Industries: petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

      Exports: $2.445 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

      Exports: partners: Spain 16.2%, Italy 14.1%, France 10.2%, UK 9.9%, US 9.6%, Netherlands 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $1.979 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

      Imports: partners: France 28.2%, Nigeria 9.4%, Belgium 7.6%, US 4.8%, Germany 4.6%, China 4.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $687.5 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $8.46 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon’s debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion

      Canada

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.023 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $31,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.3%

      industry: 26.4%

      services: 71.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 17.37 million (2004)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 3%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, services 74%, other 3% (2000)

      Unemployment rate: 7% (2004)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 31.5 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $151 billion

      expenditures: $144 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

      Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas

      Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2004 est

      Exports: $315.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

      Exports: partners: US 85.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.6% (2004)

      Imports: $256.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

      Imports: partners: US 58.9%, China 6.8%, Mexico 3.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $36.27 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $570 billion (2004)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $2 billion (2004)

      Central African Republic

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $4.248 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 0.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 55%

      industry: 20%

      services: 25% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Unemployment rate: 8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA (1993)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%

      highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 61.3 (1993)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: NA

      expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

      Agriculture: products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

      Industries: gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

      Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2002)

      Exports: $172 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

      Exports: partners: Belgium 41%, Italy 8.9%, Spain 8.5%, Indonesia 7.6%, France 6.3%, US 5.3% (2004)

      Imports: $136 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

      Imports: partners: France 19.4%, US 16.3%, Cameroon 8.3%, Belgium 5.6% (2004)

      Debt: external: $881.4 million (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $73 million; note: traditional budget subsidies from France (2000 est.)

      Chad

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $15.66 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 38% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 22.6%

      industry: 35.6%

      services: 41.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 24.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.131 billion

      expenditures: $957.7 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

      Industries: oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

      Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

      Exports: $365 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cotton, cattle, gum arabic

      Exports: partners: US 74.2%, China 14.8%, Portugal 5.2% (2004)

      Imports: $500.7 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

      Imports: partners: France 22.9%, Cameroon 13.7%, US 11.8%, Portugal 10.9%, Germany 7.7%, Belgium 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $652.7 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $238.3 million received; note: $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank;

      ODA $150 million (2001 est.)

      Chile

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $169.1 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $10,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 6.3%

      industry: 38.2%

      services: 55.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 6.2 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 13.6%, industry 23.4%, services 63% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 20.6% (2000)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

      highest 10%: 47% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 57.1 (2000)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $21.53 billion

      expenditures: $19.95 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.33 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 12.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

      Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 7.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $29.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine

      Exports: partners: US 14%, Japan 11.4%, China 9.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Netherlands 5.1%, Brazil 4.3%, Italy 4.1%, Mexico 4% (2004)

      Imports: $22.53 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas

      Imports: partners: Argentina 17%, US 14.1%, Brazil 11.1%, China 7.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.02 billion (2004)

      Debt: external: $44.6 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $0 (2002)

      China

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $7.262 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 9.1% (official data) (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13.8%

      industry and construction: 52.9%

      services: 33.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 760.8 million (2003)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 10% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%

      highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 44 (2002)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 46% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $317.9 billion

      expenditures: $348.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 31.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish

      Industries: mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals; coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles and satellites

      Industrial production growth rate: 17.1% (2004 est.) Exports: $583.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel

      Exports: partners: US 22.8%, Hong Kong 16.2%, Japan 12.4%, South Korea 4.4%, Germany 4% (2004)

      Imports: $552.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel

      Imports: partners: Japan 16.1%, Taiwan 10.9%, South Korea 10.4%, US 7.7%, Hong Kong 7.4%, Germany 5.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $609.9 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $233.3 billion (3rd quarter 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Colombia

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13.4%

      industry: 32.1%

      services: 54.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 20.7 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 24%, services 46% (1990)

      Unemployment rate: 13.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 55% (2001)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1%, highest 10%: 44% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 57.1 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 15.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $15.33 billion

      expenditures: $21.03 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 51.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

      Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

      Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $15.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers

      Exports: partners: US 40.9%, Ecuador 5.8%, Venezuela 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $15.34 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

      Imports: partners: US 30.6%, Venezuela 5.8%, Brazil 5.2%, Japan 5.2%, Germany 5.1%, Mexico 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.94 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $38.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Congo, Democratic Republic of the

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $42.74 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 7.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 55%

      industry: 11%

      services: 34% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 14.51 million (1993 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: NA (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $269 million

      expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

      Industries: mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement, commercial ship repair

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $1.417 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, copper, crude oil, coffee, cobalt

      Exports: partners: Belgium 42.5%, Finland 17.8%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, US 9.2%, China 6.5% (2004)

      Imports: $933 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

      Imports: partners: South Africa 18.5%, Belgium 15.6%, France 10.9%, US 6.2%, Germany 5.9%, Kenya 4.9% (2004)

      Debt: external: $11.6 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $195.3 million (1995)

      Congo, Republic of the

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.324 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.4%

      industry: 52%

      services: 40.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Unemployment rate: NA (2003)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $870.1 million

      expenditures: $1.102 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

      Industries: petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes

      Industrial production growth rate: 0% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $2.224 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds

      Exports: partners: China 30.8%, US 18.2%, Taiwan 16.8%, South Korea 11.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 5.6% (2004)

      Imports: $749.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: France 20.2%, China 6.6%, Italy 6.5%, India 4.8%, Belgium 4.7%, US 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $40.42 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $159.1 million

      Costa Rica

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $9,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 8.5%

      industry: 29.7%

      services: 61.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.81 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services 58% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 18% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.1%

      highest 10%: 36.8% (2002)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 45.9 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.497 billion

      expenditures: $3.094 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 58% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber

      Industries: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $6.184 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles, electronic components, medical equipment

      Exports: partners: US 23.7%, Netherlands 7.7%, UK 6.6% (2004)

      Imports: $7.842 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum

      Imports: partners: US 35.5%, Japan 4.8%, Mexico 3.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.736 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5.962 billion (2004 est.)

      Cote D'Ivoire

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $24.78 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: –1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 27.8%

      industry: 19.4%

      services: 52.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 6.7 million (68% agricultural) (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 13% in urban areas (1998)

      Population below poverty line: 37% (1995)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

      highest 10%: 28.8% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 36.7 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 11.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.412 billion

      expenditures: $2.767 billion, including capital expenditures of $420 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 74.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

      Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 15% (1998 est.)

      Exports: $5.124 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish

      Exports: partners: US 11.3%, Netherlands 10.1%, France 9.4%, Italy 5.3%, Belgium 4.7%, Germany 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $3.36 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: France 24.7%, Nigeria 18.5%, Italy 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.95 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $11.81 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

      Croatia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $50.33 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $11,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 8.2%

      industry: 30.1%

      services: 61.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.71 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 2.7%, industry 32.8%, services 64.5% (2004)

      Unemployment rate: 13.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 11% (2003)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%

      highest 10%: 24.5% (2003 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 29 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 28.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $14.14 billion

      expenditures: $15.65 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 41.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

      Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $7.845 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

      Exports: partners: Italy 23.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.7%, Germany 11.5%, Austria 9.6%, (2004)

      Imports: $16.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Italy 17.3%, Germany 15.7%, Slovenia 7.1%, Austria 7.1%, Russia 7%, France 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.563 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $26.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $166.5 million (2002)

      Cuba

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $33.92 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 6.6%

      industry: 25.5%

      services: 67.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.55 million

      note: state sector 78%, non-state sector 22% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51% (1999)

      Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 11.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $18.01 billion

      expenditures: $19.06 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock

      Industries: sugar, petroleum, tobacco, construction, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $2.104 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee

      Exports: partners: Netherlands 23.5%, Canada 21.9%, China 8.3%, Russia 7.8%, Spain 6.6% (2004)

      Imports: $5.296 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Spain 15.4%, Venezuela 13.7%, US 11.5%, China 8%, Canada 6.6%, Italy 6.5%, Mexico 4.9%, Germany 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $738.6 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $12.09 billion (convertible currency); another $15–20 billion owed to Russia (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $68.2 million (1997 est.)

      Cyprus

      GDP: Republic of Cyprus: purchasing power parity: $15.71 billion north Cyprus: purchasing power parity: $4.54 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: Republic of Cyprus: 3.2% north Cyprus: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: Republic of Cyprus: purchasing power parity: $20,300 (2004 est.); north Cyprus: purchasing power parity: $7,135 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: Republic of Cyprus: agriculture 4.1%; industry 19.9%; services 76% north Cyprus: agriculture 10.6%; industry 20.5%; services 68.9% (2004)

      Labor force: Republic of Cyprus: 330,000, north Cyprus: 95,025 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: Republic of Cyprus: agriculture 4.9%, industry 19.4%, services 75.6%

      north Cyprus: agriculture 15.1%, industry 27%, services 57.9% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: Republic of Cyprus: 3.2%; north Cyprus: 5.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): Republic of Cyprus: 2.4% (2003 est.); north Cyprus: 12.6% (2003 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): Republic of Cyprus: 17.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: Republic of Cyprus: $5.616 billion (2004 est.), north Cyprus: $404.3 million (2003 est.)

      expenditures: Republic of Cyprus: $685.7 million, including capital expenditures of $685.7 million, north Cyprus: $775.7 million, including capital expenditures of $91.4 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: Republic of Cyprus: 74.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables, poultry, pork, lamb, kids, dairy, cheese

      Industries: tourism, food and beverage processing; cement and gypsum production; ship repair and refurbishment; textiles; light chemicals; metal products; wood, paper, stone, and clay products

      Industrial production growth rate: Republic of Cyprus: 0.4% (2002); north Cyprus: –0.3% (2002)

      Exports: Republic of Cyprus: $1.094 billion f.o.b. north Cyprus: $49.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: Republic of Cyprus: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing and cigarettes; north Cyprus: citrus, potatoes, textiles

      Exports: partners: UK 20.2%, Greece 13.1%, Israel 7.4%, Germany 7%, Belgium 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: Republic of Cyprus: $5.258 billion f.o.b. north Cyprus: $415.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: Republic of Cyprus: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment; north Cyprus: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

      Imports: partners: Russia 30.2%, Italy 8%, Greece 7.5%, Germany 6.4%, UK 6.1%, Japan 5.8%, France 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: Republic of Cyprus: $3.385 billion

      north Cyprus: $941.6 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: Republic of Cyprus: $7.327 billion; north Cyprus: $NA (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: Republic of Cyprus: $17 million (1998); north Cyprus: $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans, which are usually forgiven (2003)

      Czech Republic

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $172.2 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $16,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.4%

      industry: 39.3%

      services: 57.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 5.25 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 4%, industry 38%, services 58% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.3%

      highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 25.4 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 29% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $39.31 billion

      expenditures: $45.8 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 33.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry

      Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $66.51 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment 52%, chemicals 5%, raw materials and fuel 9% (2003)

      Exports: partners: Germany 36.2%, Slovakia 9.1%, Austria 6.1%, Poland 5.5% (2004)

      Imports: $68.19 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment 46%, raw materials and fuels 15%, chemicals 10% (2003)

      Imports: partners: Germany 36.2%, Austria 5.6%, Italy 5.4%, France 4.8%, Netherlands 4.7%, Slovakia 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $32.78 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $36.28 billion (2004 est.)

      Denmark

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $174.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $32,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2%

      industry: 25.5%

      services: 72.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.87 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 4%, industry 17%, services 79% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share:

      lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 24.7 (1992)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $136.1 billion

      expenditures: $133.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 42.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish

      Industries: iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $73.06 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships, windmills

      Exports: partners: Germany 16.9%, Sweden 14%, UK 6.9%, US 5.4%, France 5.2%, Netherlands 5.1%, Norway 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $63.45 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: Germany 22.9%, Sweden 12.4%, Netherlands 7.6%, France 5.6%, UK 5.4%, Norway 5%, Italy 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $37.98 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $21.7 billion (2000)

      Djibouti

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $619 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,300 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5%

      industry: 15.8%

      services: 80.7% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 282,000 (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: 50% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $135 million

      expenditures: $182 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1999 est.)

      Agriculture: products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides

      Industries: construction, agricultural processing, salt

      Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

      Exports: $155 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)

      Exports: partners: Somalia 63.9%, Yemen 22.6%, Ethiopia 5% (2004)

      Imports: $665 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 21%, Ethiopia 9.9%, India 8.2%, China 7.8%, US 6.1%, France 6% (2004)

      Debt: external: $366 million (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $36 million (2001)

      Dominica

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $384 million (2003 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: –1% (2003 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,500 (2003 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 18%

      industry: 24%

      services: 58% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 25,000 (1999 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28%

      Unemployment rate: 23% (2000 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 30% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $73.9 million

      expenditures: $84.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

      Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes

      Industrial production growth rate: –10% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $39 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges

      Exports: partners: UK 21.5%, Jamaica 20%, Antigua and Barbuda 8.3%, Guyana 7%, Japan 5.3%, US 4.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.5%, Poland 4% (2004)

      Imports: $98.2 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Imports: commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals

      Imports: partners: China 20.1%, US 18.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.2%, UK 7.2%, South Korea 5.3%, Japan 4.5% (2004)

      Debt: external: $161.5 million (2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: $22.8 million (2003 est.)

      Dominican Republic

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $55.68 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 10.7%

      industry: 31.5%

      services: 57.8% (2003)

      Labor force: 2.3 million: 2.6 million (2000 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 17%, industry 24.3%, services and government 58.7% (1998 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 17% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%

      highest 10%: 37.9% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 47.4 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.625 billion

      expenditures: $3.382 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.1 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 61.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs

      Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

      Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $5.446 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats, consumer goods

      Exports: partners: US 79.7%, Canada 1.8%, Haiti 1.7% (2004)

      Imports: $8.093 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals

      Imports: partners: US 49%, Venezuela 13.8%, Mexico 4.6%, Colombia 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $426 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $7.745 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

      East Timor

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $370 million (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 25.4%

      industry: 17.2%

      services: 57.4% (2001)

      Labor force: NA

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: 50% (including underemployment) (1992 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 42% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 38 (2002 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $107.7 million

      expenditures: $73 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla

      Industries: printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.5%

      Exports: $8 million (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, sandalwood, marble; note: the potential for oil and vanilla exports

      Exports: partners: Portugal, Taiwan, Germany, US, Indonesia, Australia

      Imports: $167 million (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, gasoline, kerosene, machinery

      Imports: partners: Indonesia, Australia, Singapore, Vietnam, Portugal, Malaysia, China

      Debt: external: none

      Economic aid: recipient: $2.2 billion (1999–2002 est.)

      Ecuador

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $49.51 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 8.7%

      industry: 30.5%

      services: 60.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.53 million (urban) (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 24%, services 68% (2001)

      Unemployment rate: 11.1%; note: underemployment of 47% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 45% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 32%

      note: data for urban households only (October 2003)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 42

      note: data are for urban households (2003)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 20.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $7.9 billion

      expenditures: planned $7.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 49.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

      Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals

      Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $7.56 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp

      Exports: partners: US 48.3%, Colombia 5.5%, Germany 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $7.65 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: vehicles, medicinal products, telecommunications equipment, electricity

      Imports: partners: US 24.5%, Colombia 12.7%, Venezuela 8.3%, Brazil 5.8%, Chile 4.9%, China 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.436 billion (December 2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $16.81 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $216 million (2002)

      Egypt

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $316.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 17.2%

      industry: 33%

      services: 49.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 20.71 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 32%, industry 17%, services 51% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10.9% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 16.7% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4%

      highest 10%: 25% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 34.4 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 15.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $15.42 billion

      expenditures: $20.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 102.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

      Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $11 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals

      Exports: partners: Italy 13.1%, US 11.6%, UK 7.5%, Germany 5.1%, Spain 4.5%, France 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $19.21 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

      Imports: partners: US 13.2%, Germany 7.2%, Italy 7.1%, France 6.1%, China 5.5%, UK 4.9%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.03 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $33.75 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.12 billion (2002)

      El Salvador

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $32.35 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 9.2%

      industry: 31.1%

      services: 59.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.75 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 17.1%, industry 17.1%, services 65.8% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6.3%: but the economy has much underemployment (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%

      highest 10%: 39.3% (2001)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 52.5 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.491 billion

      expenditures: $2.782 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 41.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products

      Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

      Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $3.249 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity

      Exports: partners: US 57.9%, Guatemala 13.6%, Honduras 7% (2004)

      Imports: $5.968 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

      Imports: partners: US 37.3%, Guatemala 9%, Mexico 6.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.888 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4.792 billion (September 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $125 million of which, $53 million from US (2003)

      Equatorial Guinea

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.27 billion (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 20% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,700 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

      industry: 95.7%

      services: 1.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 50.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $813.2 million

      expenditures: $375.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber

      Industries: petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

      Industrial production growth rate: 30% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $2.771 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, methanol, timber, cocoa

      Exports: partners: US 34%, China 23.7%, Spain 21.1%, Canada 8.6% (2004)

      Imports: $1.167 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum sector equipment, other equipment

      Imports: partners: US 32.1%, Cote d’Ivoire 16.9%, Spain 13.7%, France 8.6%, UK 7.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $235.2 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $248 million (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $33.8 million (1995)

      Eritrea

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $4.154 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 12.4%

      industry: 25.9%

      services: 61.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%

      Unemployment rate: NA (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 26.3% of GDP (2002)

      Budget: revenues: $235.2 million

      expenditures: $373.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

      Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, salt, cement, commercial ship repair

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Electricity: production: 246.6 million kWh (2002)

      Electricity: production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

      hydro: 0%

      nuclear: 0%

      other: 0% (2001)

      Exports: $64.44 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures (2000)

      Exports: partners: Malaysia 54.7%, Italy 8.8%, France 3.7% (2004)

      Imports: $622 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods (2000)

      Imports: partners: US 32.3%, Italy 15.5%, Turkey 5.5%, UK 4.6%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 6.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $30.87 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $311 million (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $77 million (1999)

      Estonia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $19.23 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $14,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4.1%

      industry: 28.9%

      services: 67% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 660,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 9.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA (2000)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

      highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 28.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $4.622 billion

      expenditures: $4.601 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 5.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

      Industries: engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications

      Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $5.701 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)

      Exports: partners: Finland 16.6%, Sweden 11.1%, UK 8.6%, Latvia 7.4%, Germany 7.2%, Russia 6.9%, US 5.5%, Lithuania 4% (2004)

      Imports: $7.318 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)

      Imports: partners: Finland 19.9%, Russia 13.2%, Germany 11.6%, Sweden 7.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.503 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $8.373 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Ethiopia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $54.89 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 11.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 47%

      industry: 12.4%

      services: 40.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, industry and construction 8%, government and services 12% (1985)

      Unemployment rate: NA (2002)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

      highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 40 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.887 billion

      expenditures: $2.388 billion, including capital expenditures of $788 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

      Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

      Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $562.8 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds

      Exports: partners: Djibouti 13.6%, Germany 9.7%, Japan 9%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, US 5.4%, Italy 4.9%, UK 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $2.104 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 25%, US 15.9%, China 6.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $923.1 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $2.9 billion (2001 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $308 million (FY00/01)

      FIJI

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $5.173 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 16.6%

      industry: 22.4%

      services: 61% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 137,000 (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture, including subsistence agriculture 70% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 7.6% (1999)

      Population below poverty line: 25.5% (1990–91)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $427.9 million

      expenditures: $531.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

      Industries: tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $609 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Exports: commodities: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil

      Exports: partners: US 23.6%, Australia 19.2%, UK 12.8%, Samoa 6.2%, Japan 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $835 million c.i.f. (2002)

      Imports: commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Australia 27.7%, Singapore 24.8%, New Zealand 17.8%, Japan 4.2% (2004)

      Debt: external: $188.1 million (2001 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $40.3 million (1995)

      Finland

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.3%

      industry: 30.2%

      services: 66.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.66 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and forestry 8%, industry 22%, construction 6%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, transport and communications 8%, public services 32%

      Unemployment rate: 8.9% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.2%

      highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 25.6 (1991)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $96.43 billion

      expenditures: $91.95 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 46.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

      Industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

      Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $61.04 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)

      Exports: partners: Sweden 11%, Germany 10.6%, Russia 8.9%, UK 7%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 5.2%, China 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $45.17 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains (1999)

      Imports: partners: Germany 16.2%, Sweden 14.1%, Russia 12.8%, Netherlands 6.3%, Denmark 5.3%, UK 4.6%, France 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.17 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $30 billion (December 1993)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $379 million (2001)

      France

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.737 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $28,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.7%

      industry: 24.3%

      services: 73% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 27.7 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 4.1%, industry 24.4%, services 71.5% (1999)

      Unemployment rate: 10.1% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 6.5% (2000)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 25.1% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 32.7 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.005 trillion

      expenditures: $1.08 trillion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 67.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish

      Industries: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $419 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages

      Exports: partners: Germany 15%, Spain 9.4%, UK 9.3%, Italy 9%, Belgium 7.2%, US 6.7% (2004)

      Imports: $419.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Germany 19.2%, Belgium 9.8%, Italy 8.8%, Spain 7.3%, UK 7%, Netherlands 6.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $70.76 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $NA

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $5.4 billion (2002)

      Gabon

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $7.966 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.4%

      industry: 46.7%

      services: 45.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 650,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25%

      Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 21.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.129 billion

      expenditures: $1.64 billion, including capital expenditures of $310 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 29.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish

      Industries: petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, and gold mining; chemicals; ship repair; food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil 77%, timber, manganese, uranium (2001)

      Exports: partners: US 51.9%, China 9.1%, France 7.7% (2004)

      Imports: $1.225 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, construction materials

      Imports: partners: France 46.1%, US 6.8%, UK 6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $268.6 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3.804 billion (2004 est.)

      Gambia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.799 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 26.8%

      industry: 14.5%

      services: 58.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 400,000 (1996)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 6%

      Unemployment rate: NA (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $44.85 million

      expenditures: $59.94 million, including capital expenditures of $4.1 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, millet, sorghum, peanuts, corn, sesame, cassava (tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats

      Industries: processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages; agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $114.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels, re-exports

      Exports: partners: Thailand 16.6%, UK 15.5%, France 14.2%, India 12.3%, Germany 9.2%, Italy 8.3%, Malaysia 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $180.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment

      Imports: partners: China 25.1%, Senegal 9.2%, UK 6.3%, Brazil 6%, Netherlands 4.9%, US 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $113.1 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $476 million (2001 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $45.4 million (1995)

      Georgia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $14.45 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 9.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 20.5%, industry: 22.6%, services: 56.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.1 million (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 20%, services 40% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 17% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%, highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37.1 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $671.7 million

      expenditures: $804.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock

      Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining, chemicals, wood products, wine

      Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000)

      Exports: $909.4 million (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea, wine

      Exports: partners: Turkey 28.1%, Russia 9.7%, Spain 7.9%, Turkmenistan 7.5%, US 7.1%, Armenia 5.3%, Greece 5% (2004)

      Imports: $1.806 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals

      Imports: partners: US 14.8%, Turkey 13.6%, Russia 11%, Germany 7.5%, UK 6.5%, Azerbaijan 6.2%, Ukraine 5.3%, Italy 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $231.4 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.8 billion (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $150 million (2000 est.)

      Germany

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.362 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $28,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

      industry: 31%

      services: 68% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 42.63 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 2.8%, industry 33.4%, services 63.8% (1999)

      Unemployment rate: 10.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%

      highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 30 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.6% of GDP (2004)

      Budget: revenues: $1.2 trillion

      expenditures: $1.3 trillion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 65.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry

      Industries: among the world’s largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $893.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles

      Exports: partners: France 10.2%, US 8.8%, UK 8.2%, Italy 7.2%, Netherlands 6.3%, Belgium 5.7%, Austria 5.4%, Spain 5% (2004)

      Imports: $716.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals

      Imports: partners: France 9.2%, Netherlands 8.7%, US 6.5%, Italy 6.1%, UK 5.8%, Belgium 5.8%, China 5.3%, Austria 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $96.84 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: NA

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)

      Ghana

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $48.27 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 34.3%

      industry: 24.2%

      services: 41.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 10.24 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 20% (1997 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 31.4% (1992 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%

      highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 40.7 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.17 billion

      expenditures: $2.56 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

      Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $3.01 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds

      Exports: partners: Netherlands 11.1%, UK 10.9%, France 6.9%, US 6%, Belgium 4.8%, Germany 4.4%, Japan 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $3.699 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Nigeria 12.8%, China 10.1%, UK 7%, US 6.7%, France 5.3%, South Africa 4.2%, Netherlands 4.2%, Germany 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.267 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $7.396 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $6.9 billion (1999)

      Greece

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $226.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $21,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7%

      industry: 22%

      services: 71% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.4 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 20%, services 68% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

      highest 10%: 28.3% (1998 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.4 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 27% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $54.39 billion

      expenditures: $64.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 112% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products

      Industries: tourism; food and tobacco processing, textiles; chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $15.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles

      Exports: partners: Germany 13.3%, Italy 10.2%, UK 7.6%, Bulgaria 6.5%, US 5.2%, Cyprus 4.6%, Turkey 4.6%, France 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $54.28 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Germany 13.3%, Italy 12.6%, France 6.6%, Russia 5.4%, Netherlands 5.4%, South Korea 4.6%, US 4.4%, UK 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.3 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $67.23 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $8 billion from EU (2000–06)

      Grenada

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $440 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.5% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,000 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.7%

      industry: 23.9%

      services: 68.4% (2000)

      Labor force: 42,300 (1996)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 24%, industry 14%, services 62% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12.5% (2000)

      Population below poverty line: 32% (2000)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $85.8 million

      expenditures: $102.1 million, including capital expenditures of $28 million (1997)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables

      Industries: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

      Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $46 million (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace

      Exports: partners: Saint Lucia 11.8%, US 11.6%, Netherlands 8.1%, Antigua and Barbuda 8%, Germany 7.7%, Saint Kitts and Nevis 7.2%, Dominica 7.2%, France 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $208 million (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel

      Imports: partners: US 27.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 25.4%, UK 5.2% (2004)

      Debt: external: $196 million (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $8.3 million (1995)

      Guatemala

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $59.47 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 22.7%

      industry: 19.5%

      services: 57.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.68 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 15%, services 35% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 7.5% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 75% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

      highest 10%: 46% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 55.8 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 14.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.878 billion

      expenditures: $3.411 billion, including capital expenditures of $750 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 32% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens

      Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1999)

      Exports: $2.911 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom

      Exports: partners: US 55.6%, El Salvador 9.7%, Mexico 3.5% (2004)

      Imports: $7.77 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity

      Imports: partners: US 33.3%, Mexico 8.5%, South Korea 7.5%, El Salvador 5.2%, China 5%, Venezuela 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.084 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5.969 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $250 million (2003 est.)

      Guinea

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $19.5 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

      industry: 38.2%

      services: 36.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3 million (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%

      highest 10%: 32% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 40.3 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 21% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $382.7 million

      expenditures: $711.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber

      Industries: bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1994)

      Exports: $709.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products

      Exports: partners: South Korea 15.6%, Russia 13.1%, Spain 12.3%, Ireland 9.1%, US 7.5%, Germany 6.2%, France 5.9%, Ukraine 5.6%, Belgium 5.2% (2004)

      Imports: $641.5 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: France 14.6%, China 9.6%, Netherlands 6.8%, Belgium 6%, US 5.9%, Italy 5%, South Africa 4.6%, Cote d’Ivoire 4.3%, India 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $201.7 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3.25 billion (2001 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $359.2 million (1998)

      Guinea-Bissau

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.008 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 62%

      industry: 12%, services: 26% (1999 est.)

      Labor force: 480,000 (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 82% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA (1998)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.5%

      highest 10%: 42.4% (1991)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: NA

      expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

      Agriculture: products: rice, corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish

      Industries: agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $54 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cashew nuts, shrimp, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber

      Exports: partners: India 54.9%, US 24.2%, Nigeria 12.7%, Italy 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $104 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: Senegal 23.4%, Portugal 20.4%, China 8.2%, Netherlands 5.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $941.5 million (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $115.4 million (1995)

      Guyana

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.899 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 38.3%

      industry: 19.9%

      services: 41.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 418,000 (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

      Unemployment rate: 9.1% (understated) (2000)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 34.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $287.6 million

      expenditures: $371.6 million, including capital expenditures of $93.4 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish, shrimp

      Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining

      Industrial production growth rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $570.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber

      Exports: partners: Canada 22.8%, US 19%, UK 12.1%, Portugal 8.2%, Jamaica 6.6%, Belgium 6.3% (2004)

      Imports: $650.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food

      Imports: partners: US 26.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 21.6%, UK 6.4%, Cuba 5.9%, China 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $280.6 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.2 billion (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Haiti

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 30%

      industry: 20%

      services: 50% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 3.6 million

      note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1995)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 66%, industry 9%, services 25%

      Unemployment rate: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 80% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $330.2 million

      expenditures: $529.6 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, wood

      Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $338.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa, mangoes

      Exports: partners: US 81.8%, Dominican Republic 7.2%, Canada 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $1.085 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

      Imports: partners: US 52.9%, Dominican Republic 6%, Japan 2.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $80.64 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.2 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $150 million (FY04 est.)

      Honduras

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $18.79 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 12.7%

      industry: 32.1%

      services: 55.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.47 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 34%, industry 21%, services 45% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 28.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 53% (1993 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.6%

      highest 10%: 42.7% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 56.3 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 24.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.467 billion

      expenditures: $1.722 billion, including capital expenditures of $106 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 74.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp

      Industries: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products

      Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (2003 est.)

      Exports: $1.457 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, shrimp, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber

      Exports: partners: US 63.3%, El Salvador 2.8%, Guatemala 2.6% (2004)

      Imports: $3.332 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs (2000)

      Imports: partners: US 51.3%, El Salvador 3.3%, Mexico 2.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.464 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5.365 billion (September 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $557.8 million (1999)

      Hungary

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $149.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $14,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.3%

      industry: 31.4%

      services: 65.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.17 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 6.2%, industry 27.1%, services 66.7% (2002)

      Unemployment rate: 5.9% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 8.6% (1993 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

      highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 24.4 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $46.07 billion

      expenditures: $51.36 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 58.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

      Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

      Industrial production growth rate: 9.6% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $54.62 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)

      Exports: partners: Germany 31.4%, Austria 6.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 5.6%, UK 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $58.68 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)

      Imports: partners: Germany 29.2%, Austria 8.3%, Russia 5.7%, Italy 5.5%, Netherlands 4.9%, China 4.8%, France 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.8 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $57 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $4.2 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004–06)

      Iceland

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $9.373 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $31,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11.2%

      industry: 9.6%

      services: 79.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 158,100 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture, fishing and fish processing 10.3%, industry 18.3%, services 71.4% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 3.1% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $4.154 billion

      expenditures: $4.058 billion, including capital expenditures of $467 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 35.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, green vegetables, mutton, dairy products, fish

      Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $2.902 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: fish and fish products 70%, aluminum, animal products, ferrosilicon, diatomite

      Exports: partners: UK 19.1%, Germany 17.1%, Netherlands 11%, US 10.2%, Spain 6.9%, Denmark 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $3.307 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products; foodstuffs, textiles

      Imports: partners: Germany 12.3%, US 10%, Norway 9.8%, Denmark 7.6%, UK 6.9%, Sweden 6.4%, Netherlands 5.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $935 million (2004)

      Debt: external: $3.073 billion (2002)

      Economic aid: donor: $NA

      India

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $3.319 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 23.6%

      industry: 28.4%

      services: 48% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 482.2 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry 17%, services 23% (1999)

      Unemployment rate: 9.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%

      highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37.8 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $67.3 billion

      expenditures: $104 billion, including capital expenditures of $13.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 59.7% of GDP (federal debt only; state debt not included) (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

      Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, machinery, software

      Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $69.18 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures

      Exports: partners: US 18.4%, China 7.8%, UAE 6.7%, UK 4.8%, Hong Kong 4.3%, Germany 4% (2004)

      Imports: $89.33 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals

      Imports: partners: US 7%, Belgium 6.1%, China 5.9%, Singapore 4.8%, Australia 4.6%, UK 4.6%, Germany 4.5%

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $126 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $117.2 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $2.9 billion (FY98/99)

      Indonesia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $827.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 14.6%, industry: 45%, services: 40.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 111.5 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 9.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 27% (1999)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%

      highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $52.13 billion

      expenditures: $55.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 56.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs

      Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $69.86 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

      Exports: partners: Japan 21.8%, US 13.5%, China 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, South Korea 5.9%, Malaysia 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $45.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Japan 19.3%, China 11%, Singapore 9.2%, Thailand 6.8%, Malaysia 6.5%, US 5.7%, Australia 5%, Germany 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $35.82 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $141.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $43 billion

      note: Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004 and again in 2005; nearly $4 billion in aid money pledged by a variety of foreign governments and other groups following the 2004 tsunami; money is slated for use in relief and rebuilding efforts in Aceh.

      Iran

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $516.7 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11.2%

      industry: 40.9%

      services: 48.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 23 million

      note: shortage of skilled labor (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 11.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 31.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $43.34 billion

      expenditures: $47.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.6 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 27% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

      Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% excluding oil (2004 est.)

      Exports: $38.79 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets

      Exports: partners: Japan 20%, China 9.9%, Italy 6.3%, South Africa 6.3%, Taiwan 4.8%, Turkey 4.7%, South Korea 4.7%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $31.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies

      Imports: partners: Germany 13%, France 8.9%, Italy 8%, China 7.7%, UAE 6.4%, South Korea 6.3%, Russia 4.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $29.87 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $13.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Iraq

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $54.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 52.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13.6%

      industry: 58.6%

      services: 27.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 6.7 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 25% to 30% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.4% (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $17.1 billion

      expenditures: $28.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2004 budget)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry

      Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $10.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil (83.9%), crude materials excluding fuels (8.0%), food and live animals (5.0%)

      Exports: partners: US 55.8%, Spain 8%, Japan 7.3%, Italy 6.5%, Canada 5.8% (2004)

      Imports: $9.9 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, medicine, manufactures

      Imports: partners: Turkey 25%, US 11.1%, Jordan 10%, Vietnam 7.7%, Germany 5.6%, Australia 4.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $125 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: more than $33 billion in foreign aid pledged for 2004–07 (2004)

      Ireland

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $126.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $31,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

      industry: 46%

      services: 49% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 1.92 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 29%, services 63% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 4.3% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 10% (1997 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 27.3% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.9 (1987)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $62.51 billion

      expenditures: $63.52 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 31.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products

      Industries: steel, lead, zinc, silver, aluminum, barite, and gypsum mining processing; food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals; machinery, rail transportation equipment, passenger and commercial vehicles, ship construction and refurbishment; glass and crystal; software, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $103.8 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products

      Exports: partners: US 20.2%, UK 17.5%, Belgium 14.8%, Germany 7.5%, France 5.9%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.4% (2004)

      Imports: $60.65 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: data processing equipment, other machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing

      Imports: partners: UK 35.2%, US 13.5%, Germany 8.9%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.152 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $11 billion (1998)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $283 million (2001)

      Israel

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $129 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $20,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.8%, industry: 37.7%, services: 59.5% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 2.68 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.6%, manufacturing 20.2%, construction 7.5%, commerce 12.8%, transport, storage, and communications 6.2%, finance and business 13.1%, personal and other services 6.4%, public services 31.2% (1996)

      Unemployment rate: 10.7% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 18% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%

      highest 10%: 28.3% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.5 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $48.09 billion

      expenditures: $52.11 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 104.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products

      Industries: high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, construction, metals products, chemical products, plastics, diamond cutting, textiles and footwear

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $34.41 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel

      Exports: partners: US 36.8%, Belgium 7.5%, Hong Kong 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $36.84 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: US 15%, Belgium 10.1%, Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 6.5%, UK 6.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $28.48 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $74.46 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $662 million from US (2003 est.)

      Italy

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.609 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $27,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.3%

      industry: 28.8%

      services: 68.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 24.27 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 32%, services 63% (2001)

      Unemployment rate: 8.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%

      highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 27.3 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $768.9 billion

      expenditures: $820.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 105.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish

      Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

      Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $336.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals and nonferrous metals

      Exports: partners: Germany 13.7%, France 12.1%, US 8%, Spain 7.3%, UK 6.9%, Switzerland 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $329.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco

      Imports: partners: Germany 18.1%, France 10.7%, Netherlands 5.8%, Spain 4.7%, Belgium 4.4%, UK 4.3%, China 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $61.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $913.9 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1 billion (2002 est.)

      Jamaica

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $11.13 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 6.1%

      industry: 32.7%

      services: 61.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.14 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20.1%, industry 16.6%, services 63.4% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 15% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 19.7% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%

      highest 10%: 30.3% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37.9 (2000)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 32% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.793 billion

      expenditures: $3.157 billion, including capital expenditures of $236 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 146.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, vegetables, poultry, goats, milk, crustaceans, and mollusks

      Industries: tourism, bauxite/alumina, textiles, agro processing, wearing apparel, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications

      Industrial production growth rate: –2% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $1.679 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel, mineral fuels

      Exports: partners: US 17.2%, Canada 14.3%, France 12.6%, China 11.4%, UK 8.6%, Netherlands 7%, Norway 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2004)

      Imports: $3.624 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials

      Imports: partners: US 38.3%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.3%, Venezuela 5.6%, France 5.5%, Japan 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $5.964 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $16 million (2003)

      Japan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $3.745 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $29,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 1.3%

      industry: 24.7%

      services: 74.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 66.97 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 25%, services 70% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 4.7% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.8%

      highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 24.9 (1993)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): –0.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 24% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.401 trillion

      expenditures: $1.748 trillion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $71 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 164.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish

      Industries: among world’s largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods

      Industrial production growth rate: 6.6% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $538.8 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: transport equipment, motor vehicles, semiconductors, electrical machinery, chemicals

      Exports: partners: US 22.7%, China 13.1%, South Korea 7.8%, Taiwan 7.4%, Hong Kong 6.3% (2004)

      Imports: $401.8 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, raw materials (2001)

      Imports: partners: China 20.7%, US 14%, South Korea 4.9%, Australia 4.3%, Indonesia 4.1%, Saudi Arabia 4.1%, UAE 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $664.6 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: NA (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $7.9 billion (FY03/04)

      Jordan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $25.5 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.4%

      industry: 26%

      services: 71.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.41 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 12.5%, services 82.5% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 15% official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 30% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%

      highest 10%: 29.8% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 36.4 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 11.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.483 billion

      expenditures: $3.616 billion, including capital expenditures of $782 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 85.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry

      Industries: phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $3.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing, phosphates, fertilizers, potash, vegetables, manufactures, pharmaceuticals

      Exports: partners: US 25.8%, Iraq 18.4%, India 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 5.2% (2004)

      Imports: $7.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: crude oil, textile fabrics, machinery, transport equipment, manufactured goods

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 19.9%, China 8.4%, Germany 6.8%, US 6.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.457 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $7.32 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $500 million (2004 est.)

      Kazakhstan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $118.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 9.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.4%

      industry: 37.8%

      services: 54.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 7.95 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 30%, services 50% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 19% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%

      highest 10%: 26.5% (2004 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 31.5 (2003)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $8.67 billion

      expenditures: $8.968 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 13.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock

      Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

      Industrial production growth rate: 10.6% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $18.47 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil and oil products 58%, ferrous metals 24%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal (2001)

      Exports: partners: Russia 13.5%, Bermuda 13.4%, China 10.4%, Germany 9.2%, Switzerland 9.1%, France 6.7% (2004)

      Imports: $13.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment 41%, metal products 28%, foodstuffs 8% (2001)

      Imports: partners: Russia 33.9%, China 13.6%, Germany 9.6%, France 6.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.35 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $26.03 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $74.2 million in US assistance programs, 1992–2000 (FY2004)

      Kenya

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $34.68 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 19.3%

      industry: 18.5%

      services: 62.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 11.4 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 75% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 40% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

      highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 44.9 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 14.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.89 billion

      expenditures: $3.443 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 74.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

      Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products; oil refining, aluminum, steel, lead, cement; commercial ship repair, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $2.589 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement

      Exports: partners: Uganda 12.8%, UK 11.6%, US 10.4%, Netherlands 8.3%, Pakistan 5.1%, Egypt 4.7%, Tanzania 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $4.19 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics

      Imports: partners: UAE 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.6%, South Africa 9.3%, US 8%, UK 7.2%, China 6.7%, Japan 5.4%, India 4.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $6.792 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $453 million (1997)

      Korea, North

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $40 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 30.2%

      industry: 33.8%

      services: 36% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 9.6 million

      Labor force: by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%

      Unemployment rate: NA (2003)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: NA

      expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

      Agriculture: products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs

      Industries: military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $1.2 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments); textiles

      Exports: partners: China 29.9%, South Korea 24.1%, Japan 13.2% (2004)

      Imports: $2.1 billion c.i.f. (2003)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment; textiles, grain

      Imports: partners: China 32.9%, Thailand 10.7%, Japan 4.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $12 billion (1996 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA; note: over $117 million in food aid through the World Food Program in 2003 plus additional aid from bilateral donors and non-governmental organizations

      Korea, South

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $925.1 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $19,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.2%

      industry: 40.4%

      services: 56.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 22.9 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 19%, services 73% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 3.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 4% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

      highest 10%: 22.5% (1999 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.8 (2000)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 28.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $150.5 billion

      expenditures: $155.8 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 21.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish

      Industries: electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel

      Industrial production growth rate: 10.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $250.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: semiconductors, telecommunications equipment, vehicles, computers, ships, petrochemicals

      Exports: partners: China 22.4%, US 17.8%, Japan 8.3%, Hong Kong 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $214.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, electronics, oil, steel, transport equipment, organic chemicals, plastics

      Imports: partners: Japan 21.6%, US 12.7%, China 12.3%, Saudi Arabia 5.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $199.1 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $160 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA $334 million (2003)

      Kuwait

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $48 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $21,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 0.4%

      industry: 60.5%

      services: 39.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.42 million

      note: non-Kuwaitis represent about 80% of the labor force (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industries NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 2.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $35.82 billion

      expenditures: $19.53 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 29.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: practically no crops; fish

      Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, cement, shipbuilding and repair, desalination, food processing, construction materials

      Industrial production growth rate: –5% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $27.42 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil and refined products, fertilizers

      Exports: partners: Japan 22.6%, US 13.4%, South Korea 13.4%, Singapore 12.4%, Taiwan 8.4%, Netherlands 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $11.12 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing

      Imports: partners: US 13.1%, Germany 12.7%, Japan 8.2%, China 5.9%, Italy 5.4%, UK 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, France 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.333 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $15.02 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA (2001)

      Kyrgyzstan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $8.495 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 38.5%

      industry: 22.8%

      services: 38.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.7 million (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 18% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%

      highest 10%: 23.3% (2001)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 29 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $431.3 million

      expenditures: $445.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool

      Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

      Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $646.7 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery

      Exports: partners: UAE 23.8%, Switzerland 16.9%, Russia 16.9%, Kazakhstan 10.1%, China 9.8% (2004)

      Imports: $775.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Russia 23.1%, China 22.9%, Kazakhstan 19.3%, Turkey 7.2%, Germany 4.5%, Uzbekistan 4.4%, US 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $498.7 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.97 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $50 million from the US (2001)

      Laos

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $11.28 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 49.5%

      industry: 27.5%

      services: 23% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.6 million (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1997 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

      highest 10%: 30.6% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.3% (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $284.3 million

      expenditures: $416.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, rice, water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry

      Industries: tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 9.7% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $365.5 million (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: garments, wood products, coffee, electricity, tin

      Exports: partners: Thailand 19%, Vietnam 16.4%, France 7.9%, Germany 5.6%, UK 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $579.5 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: Thailand 60.5%, China 9.2%, Vietnam 8.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $193.1 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $2.49 billion (2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: $243 million (2001 est.)

      Latvia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $26.53 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 7.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $11,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4.4%

      industry: 24.8%

      services: 70.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.17 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 25%, services 60% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 8.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

      highest 10%: 25.9% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 32 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 26.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $4.231 billion

      expenditures: $4.504 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 11.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish

      Industries: buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note: dependent on imports for energy and raw materials

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $3.569 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: UK 22.1%, Germany 9.9%, US 8.2%, Sweden 7.3%, France 6.6%, Lithuania 6.4%, Estonia 5.2%, Denmark 4.2%, Russia 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $5.97 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles

      Imports: partners: Germany 16.1%, Russia 14.4%, Lithuania 7.6%, Finland 6.5%, Sweden 5.6%, Estonia 5.1%, Italy 4.2%, Poland 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.65 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $7.368 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient:

      Lebanon

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $18.83 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 12%

      industry: 21%

      services: 67% (2000)

      Labor force: 2.6 million

      note: in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 18% (1997 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 26% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $4.895 billion

      expenditures: $6.642 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 177.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats

      Industries: banking, food processing, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $1.783 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper

      Exports: partners: Switzerland 10%, UAE 9.5%, Turkey 9.3%, Saudi Arabia 7.1%, France 5.1%, US 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $8.162 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco

      Imports: partners: Italy 12.2%, France 11.2%, Germany 8.9%, China 6.3%, US 6%, Syria 5.1%, UK 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.3 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $15.84 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $2.2 billion received (2003), out of the $4.2 billion in soft loans pledged at the November 2002 Paris II Aid Conference

      Lesotho

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $5.892 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 15.2%

      industry: 43.9%

      services: 40.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 838,000 (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: 86% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South Africa

      Unemployment rate: 45% (2002)

      Population below poverty line: 49% (1999)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.9%

      highest 10%: 43.4%

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 56 (1986–87)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 39.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $698.5 million

      expenditures: $697.6 million, including capital expenditures of $15 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock

      Industries: food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts; construction; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 15.5% (1999)

      Exports: $484.5 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: manufactures 75% (clothing, footwear, road vehicles), wool and mohair, food and live animals (2000)

      Exports: partners: US 96%, Canada 1.5%, Belgium/Luxembourg 1.1% (2004)

      Imports: $730.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food; building materials, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum products (2000)

      Imports: partners: Hong Kong 34.2%, Taiwan 33.9%, China 11.2%, Germany 9.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $402.2 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $735 million (2002)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA $4.4 million

      Liberia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $2.903 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 21.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 76.9%

      industry: 5.4%

      services: 17.7% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 8%, services 22% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 85% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 80%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $85.4 million

      expenditures: $90.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), palm oil,

      sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timber

      Industries: rubber processing, palm oil processing, timber, diamonds

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $1.079 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: rubber, timber, iron, diamonds, cocoa, coffee

      Exports: partners: Germany 36.9%, Poland 18.6%, US 11.4%, Greece 10.6% (2004)

      Imports: $5.051 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: South Korea 38.1%, Japan 21.9%, Singapore 12.6%, Croatia 4.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $2.1 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $94 million (1999)

      Libya

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $37.48 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 8.7%

      industry: 45.7%

      services: 45.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.59 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 17%, industry 29%, services 54% (1997 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 30% (2004)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 9.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $13.52 billion

      expenditures: $12.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 8.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle

      Industries: petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $18.65 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas

      Exports: partners: Italy 37.7%, Germany 16.7%, Spain 11.6%, Turkey 7.5%, France 6.5% (2004)

      Imports: $7.224 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, transport equipment, semi-finished goods, food, consumer products (1999)

      Imports: partners: Italy 28.2%, Germany 11.1%, Tunisia 6%, UK 5.8%, Turkey 5%, France 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $24.18 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4.069 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $4.4 million ODA (2002)

      Liechtenstein

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $825 million (1999 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 11% (1999 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $25,000 (1999 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

      industry: 40%

      services: NA% (1999)

      Labor force: 29,000 of whom 19,000 are foreigners; 13,000 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2001)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1.3%, industry 47.4%, services 51.3% (31 December 2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 1.3% (September 2002)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2001)

      Budget: revenues: $424.2 million

      expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1998 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

      Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments

      Industrial production growth rate: NA%

      Exports: $2.47 billion (1996)

      Exports: commodities: small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products

      Exports: partners: EU 62.6% (Germany 24.3%, Austria 9.5%, France 8.9%, Italy 6.6%, UK 4.6%), US 18.9%, Switzerland 15.7%

      Imports: $917.3 million (1996)

      Imports: commodities: agricultural products, raw materials, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: EU, Switzerland

      Debt: external: $0 (2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: none

      Lithuania

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $45.23 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $12,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 6.1%

      industry: 33.4%

      services: 60.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.63 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 30%, services 50% (1997 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

      highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 34 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 21.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $6.542 billion

      expenditures: $7.121 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 25.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

      Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber

      Industrial production growth rate: 12% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $8.88 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)

      Exports: partners: Switzerland 10.7%, Latvia 10%, Germany 9.5%, Russia 7.9%, France 7.5%, US 5.2%, UK 5.1%, Estonia 4.5%, Denmark 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $11.02 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: mineral products 21%, machinery and equipment 17%, transport equipment 11%, chemicals 9%, textiles and clothing 9%, metals 5% (2001)

      Imports: partners: Russia 23.1%, Germany 18.1%, Poland 4.7%, Italy 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.61 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $10.01 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $228.5 million (1995)

      Luxembourg

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $27.27 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $58,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 0.5%

      industry: 16.3%

      services: 83.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 293,700 (of whom 105,000 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 13%, services 86% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 4.5% (December, 2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $13.74 billion

      expenditures: $14.49 billion, including capital expenditures of $760 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products

      Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, information technology, tourism and banking

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $13.4 billion f.o.b. (2003)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

      Exports: partners: Germany 21.8%, France 20.1%, Belgium 10.5%, UK 9.3%, Italy 7.1%, Spain 5.6%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $16.3 billion c.i.f. (2003)

      Imports: commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

      Imports: partners: Belgium 30%, Germany 21.8%, France 12.5%, China 11.9%, Netherlands 4.5% (2004)

      Debt: external: $NA

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $147 million (2002)

      Macedonia (Fyrom)

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $14.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11.2%

      industry: 26%

      services: 62.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 855,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

      Unemployment rate: 37.7% (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 30.2% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.198 billion

      expenditures: $1.245 billion, including capital expenditures of $114 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 20% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, grapes, rice, tobacco, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

      Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses, steel

      Industrial production growth rate: 0% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $1.629 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

      Exports: partners: Serbia and Montenegro 30.8%, Germany 20.1%, Greece 9%, Croatia 7%, US 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $2.677 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products, automobiles

      Imports: partners: Greece 18%, Germany 14.4%, Serbia and Montenegro 9.3%, Slovenia 8.1%, Bulgaria 7.6%, Turkey 7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $928 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.863 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $250 million (2003 est.)

      Madagascar

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $14.56 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 29.3%

      industry: 16.7%

      services: 54% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 7.3 million (2000)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

      highest 10%: 29% (1999)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 38.1 (1999)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 14.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $783.7 million

      expenditures: $1.079 billion, including capital expenditures of $331 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

      Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $868.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products

      Exports: partners: US 35.7%, France 30.7%, Germany 7.1%, Mauritius 4.4% (2004)

      Imports: $1.147 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food

      Imports: partners: France 17.6%, China 11.1%, Hong Kong 6.7%, Iran 6.2%, South Africa 5.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $500.3 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4.6 billion (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: $354 million (2001)

      Malawi

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $7.41 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 54.8%

      industry: 19.2%

      services: 26% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.5 million (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 90% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 55% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 10.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $536 million

      expenditures: $635.6 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 228.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats

      Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $503.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: tobacco 60%, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel

      Exports: partners: South Africa 13.8%, US 12.3%, Germany 11.8%, Egypt 8.2%, UK 6.8% (2004)

      Imports: $521.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment

      Imports: partners: South Africa 43.5%, India 6.8%, Tanzania 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $160.5 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3.129 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $540 million (1999)

      Malaysia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $229.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 7.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $9,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.2%

      industry: 33.6%

      services: 59.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 10.49 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 14.5%, industry 36%, services 49.5% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 8% (1998 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%

      highest 10%: 39.2% (2003 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 49.2 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 21.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $25.33 billion

      expenditures: $29.33 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 45.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: Peninsular Malaysia: rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah: subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak: rubber, pepper, timber

      Industries: Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah: logging, petroleum production; Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

      Industrial production growth rate: 10.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $123.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood, palm oil, rubber, textiles Exports: partners: US 18.8%, Singapore 15%, Japan 10.1%, China 6.7%, Hong Kong 6%, Thailand 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $99.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, steel products, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Japan 16.1%, US 14.6%, Singapore 11.2%, China 9.9%, Thailand 5.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, South Korea 5%, Germany 4.5%, Indonesia 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $55.27 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $53.36 billion (2004 est.)

      Maldives

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.25 billion (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.3% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,900 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 20%

      industry: 18%

      services: 62% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 88,000 (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 22%, industry 18%, services 60% (1995)

      Unemployment rate: NEGL% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $224 million (excluding foreign grants)

      expenditures: $282 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (2002 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish

      Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, sand mining

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (1996 est.)

      Exports: $90 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: fish, clothing

      Exports: partners: US 40.4%, Thailand 14.6%, Sri Lanka 9.5%, Japan 8.6%, UK 8.2% (2004)

      Imports: $392 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum products, ships, foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, intermediate and capital goods

      Imports: partners: Singapore 32.9%, Sri Lanka 11%, India 8.2%, UAE 7.2%, Malaysia 6.4%, Thailand 5.2% (2004)

      Debt: external: $281 million (2003 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA (1995)

      Mali

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $11 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 45%

      industry: 17%

      services: 38% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 3.93 million (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 70% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

      highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 50.5 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $764 million

      expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2002 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

      Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

      Industrial production growth rate: NA (FY96/97)

      Exports: $915 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cotton, gold, livestock

      Exports: partners: China 32%, India 10.3%, Italy 7.6%, Bangladesh 6.8%, Thailand 5.9%, Germany 5.2%, Taiwan 4% (2004)

      Imports: $927 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment,

      construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles

      Imports: partners: France 15.4%, Senegal 7.2%, Cote d’Ivoire 6.6%, Germany 4.1% (2004)

      Debt: external: $3.3 billion (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $596.4 million (2001)

      Malta

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $7.223 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $18,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

      industry: 23%

      services: 74% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 160,000 (2002 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 24%, services 71% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 7% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 26.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $2.27 billion

      expenditures: $2.549 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry, eggs

      Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair, construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing, tobacco

      Industrial production growth rate: NA%

      lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA Electricity: production: 2.15 billion kWh (2002)

      Exports: $2.625 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures

      Exports: partners: Singapore 15.5%, US 12%, France 10.5%, UK 10.1%, Germany 9%, China 5.8% (2004)

      Imports: $3.407 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured and semi-manufactured goods; food, drink, and tobacco

      Imports: partners: Italy 18.2%, France 17.9%, UK 9.7%, Germany 9.2%, Singapore 6.9%, China 5.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.865 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $130 million (1997)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Marshall Islands

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $115 million (2001 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2001 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,600 (2001 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 14%

      industry: 16%

      services: 70% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 28,700 (1996 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 21.4%, industry 20.9%, services 57.7%

      Unemployment rate: 30.9% (1999 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $42 million

      expenditures: $40 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1999)

      Agriculture: products: coconuts, tomatoes, melons, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens

      Industries: copra, tuna processing, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $9 million f.o.b. (2000)

      Exports: commodities: copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts, fish

      Exports: partners: US, Japan, Australia, China (2000)

      Imports: $54 million f.o.b. (2000)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco

      Imports: partners: US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Singapore, Fiji, China, Philippines (2000)

      Debt: external: $86.5 million (FY99/00 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: more than $1 billion from the US, 1986–2002

      Mauritania

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $5.534 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

      industry: 29%

      services: 46% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 786,000 (2001)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 10%, services 40% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 20% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%

      highest 10%: 30.2% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37.3 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $421 million

      expenditures: $378 million, including capital expenditures of $154 million (2002 est.)

      Agriculture: products: dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, dates; cattle, sheep

      Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

      Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $541 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Exports: commodities: iron ore, fish and fish products, gold

      Exports: partners: Japan 13%, France 10.9%, Spain 9.6%, Italy 9.5%, Germany 8.7%, Belgium 7.4%, China 5.8%, Russia 4.8% (2004)

      Imports: $860 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: France 14.5%, US 7.7%, China 7.4%, Spain 5.9%, Belgium 4.3%, UK 4.3% (2004)

      Debt: external: $2.5 billion (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $220 million (2000)

      Mauritius

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $15.68 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $12,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.6%

      industry: 30%

      services: 62.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 560,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture and fishing 14%, construction and industry 36%, transportation and communication 7%, trade, restaurants, hotels 16%, finance 3%, other services 24% (1995)

      Unemployment rate: 10.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 10% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 37 (1987 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.231 billion

      expenditures: $1.582 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 29.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses; cattle, goats; fish

      Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, clothing; chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $2.012 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing and textiles, sugar, cut flowers, molasses

      Exports: partners: UK 30.6%, France 22.7%, US 13.7%, Madagascar 7.7% (2004)

      Imports: $2.245 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: manufactured goods, capital equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

      Imports: partners: France 13.1%, South Africa 10.8%, India 7.6%, China 5.9%, Germany 4.5%, Singapore 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.676 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.78 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $42 million (1997)

      Mexico

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.006 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $9,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

      industry: 27.2%

      services: 68.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 34.73 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 18%, industry 24%, services 58% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 3.2% plus underemployment of perhaps 25% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

      highest 10%: 35.6% (2002)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 53.1 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $160 billion

      expenditures: $158 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 23.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

      Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $182.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

      Exports: partners: US 81%, Canada 5.9%, Japan 1.1% (2004)

      Imports: $190.8 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

      Imports: partners: US 65.8%, Germany 3.8%, China 3.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $60.67 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $149.9 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $1.166 billion (1995)

      Micronesia, Federated States of

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $277 million

      note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million annually (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,000 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 50%

      industry: 4%

      services: 46% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Labor force: by occupation: two-thirds are government employees

      Unemployment rate: 16% (1999 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 26.7%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $161 million ($69 million less grants)

      expenditures: $160 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1998 est.)

      Agriculture: products: black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), betel nuts, sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens

      Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, specialized aquaculture, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $22 million (f.o.b.) (FY99/00 est.)

      Exports: commodities: fish, garments, bananas, black pepper

      Exports: partners: Japan, US, Guam (2000)

      Imports: $149 million f.o.b. (FY99/00 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, beverages

      Imports: partners: US, Australia, Japan (2000)

      Debt: external: $53.1 million (FY02/03 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US pledged $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986–2001; the level of aid has been subsequently reduced

      Moldova

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $8.581 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 22.4%, industry: 24.8%, services: 52.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.36 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46% (1998)

      Unemployment rate: 8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%

      highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 40.6 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $648.1 million

      expenditures: $634.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 63.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk

      Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

      Industrial production growth rate: 17% (2003 est.)

      Exports: $1.03 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery

      Exports: partners: Russia 31.4%, Italy 10.7%, Germany 9.5%, Romania 9.4%, France 6.9%, Ukraine 5.8% (2004)

      Imports: $1.83 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)

      Imports: partners: Ukraine 16.8%, Russia 14.7%, Germany 12.5%, France 9.9%, Italy 8%, Romania 5.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $390 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $100 million (2000)

      Monaco

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $870 million (2000 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 0.9% (2000 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $27,000 (2000 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 17%

      industry: NA%

      services: NA% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 30,540 (January 1994)

      Unemployment rate: 22% (1999)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2000)

      Budget: revenues: $518 million

      expenditures: $531 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1995)

      Agriculture: products: none

      Industries: tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

      Industrial production growth rate: NA%

      Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

      Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

      Debt: external: $18 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Mongolia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $5.332 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 10.6% according to official estimate (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 20.6%

      industry: 21.4%

      services: 58% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 1.488 million (2003)

      Labor force: by occupation: herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%, other 3.7% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2003)

      Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%

      highest 10%: 37% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 44 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $582 million

      expenditures: $602 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

      Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $853 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

      Exports: partners: China 50.7%, US 26.3%, Canada 5.3%, UK 4.3%, Russia 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $1 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

      Imports: partners: Russia 31%, China 23.1%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 6.7% (2004)

      Debt: external: $1.191 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $215 million (2003)

      Morocco

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $134.6 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 21.2%

      industry: 35.8%

      services: 43% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 11.02 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 15%, services 45% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12.1% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 19% (1999 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%

      highest 10%: 30.9% (1998–99)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 39.5 (1998–99)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $12.86 billion

      expenditures: $15.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.19 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 70.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock

      Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $9.754 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing, fish, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers, fruits, vegetables

      Exports: partners: France 25.3%, Spain 18.4%, UK 8%, Italy 4.9%, Germany 4.6%, US 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $15.63 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics

      Imports: partners: France 21.2%, Spain 14.9%, Germany 7.3%, Italy 6.9%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, China 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15.14 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $17.07 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $218 million (2002)

      Mozambique

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $23.38 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 8.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 21.1%

      industry: 32.1%

      services: 46.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 9.2 million (2000 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%

      highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 39.6 (1996–97)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 47% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.186 billion

      expenditures: $1.398 billion, including capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry

      Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (2000)

      Exports: $689.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

      Exports: partners: Belgium 32%, Italy 13.9%, Spain 12.6%, Germany 9.8%, Zimbabwe 4.7% (2004)

      Imports: $972.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles

      Imports: partners: South Africa 35.7%, Australia 10.9%, US 3.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.206 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $966 million (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $632.8 million (2001)

      Namibia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $14.76 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 11.3%

      industry: 30.8%

      services: 57.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 840,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 47%, industry 20%, services 33% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 35% (1998)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 70 (2003)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.788 billion

      expenditures: $1.956 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 38.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish

      Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $1.356 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins

      Exports: partners: EU 79%, US 4% (2001)

      Imports: $1.473 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals

      Imports: partners: US 50%, EU 31% (2001)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $360 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.136 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA $160 million (2000 est.)

      Nepal

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $39.53 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

      industry: 20%

      services: 40% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 10 million

      note: severe lack of skilled labor (1996 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 81%, industry 3%, services 16%

      Unemployment rate: 47% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 42% (1995–96)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

      highest 10%: 29.8% (1995–96)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 36.7 (FY95/96)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $665 million

      expenditures: $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY99/00 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat

      Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (FY99/00)

      Exports: $568 million f.o.b., but does not include unrecorded border trade with India (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain

      Exports: partners: India 48.8%, US 22.3%, Germany 8.5% (2004)

      Imports: $1.419 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer

      Imports: partners: India 43%, UAE 10%, China 10%, Saudi Arabia 4.4%, Singapore 4% (2004)

      Debt: external: $2.7 billion (2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: $424 million (FY00/01)

      Netherlands

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $481.1 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $29,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.4%

      industry: 24.5%

      services: 73.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 7.53 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 4%, industry 23%, services 73% (1998 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 25.1% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 32.6 (1994)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $256.9 billion

      expenditures: $274.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 55.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock

      Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

      Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $293.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs

      Exports: partners: Germany 25%, Belgium 12.6%, UK 10.1%, France 9.8%, Italy 6%, US 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $252.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs, clothing

      Imports: partners: Germany 17.7%, Belgium 10.2%, US 7.8%, China 7.1%, UK 6.6%, France 4.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $21.44 billion (2003)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $4 billion (2003 est.)

      New Zealand

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $92.51 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $23,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4.6%

      industry: 27.4%

      services: 68% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.05 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 25%, services 65% (1995)

      Unemployment rate: 4.2% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.3%

      highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $38.29 billion

      expenditures: $36.12 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 22.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, lamb and mutton, dairy products; fish

      Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $19.85 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery

      Exports: partners: Australia 19.6%, US 14.3%, Japan 11.4%, China 6.3%, UK 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $19.77 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics

      Imports: partners: Australia 28.6%, Japan 10.7%, US 10%, China 6.6%, Germany 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.805 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $47.34 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor:

      Nicaragua

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $12.34 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 20.7%

      industry: 24.7%

      services: 54.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.93 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 30.5%, industry 17.3%, services 52.2% (2003 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 7.8% plus underemployment of 46.5% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%, highest 10%: 45% (2001)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 55.1 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 28% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $725.5 million

      expenditures: $1.039 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 69.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork

      Industries: food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $750 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts

      Exports: partners: US 63.5%, El Salvador 9%, Costa Rica 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $2.02 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: US 26.3%, Venezuela 9.6%, Costa Rica 7.5%, Mexico 7.1%, Guatemala 6.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $670 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4.573 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $541.8 million (2003)

      Niger

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $9.716 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 39%

      industry: 17%

      services: 44% (2001)

      Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries (2002 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%

      Unemployment rate: NA (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%

      highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 50.5 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $320 million: including $134 million from foreign sources

      expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

      Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses

      Industrial production growth rate: NA (2001 est.)

      Exports: $280 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions

      Exports: partners: France 47.1%, Nigeria 22.7%, Japan 8.6%, US 5.4% (2004)

      Imports: $400 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

      Imports: partners: France 17.4%, Cote d’Ivoire 11.3%, Italy 8.4%, Nigeria 7.3%, Germany 6.5%, US 5.5%, China 4.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $1.6 billion (1999 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $341 million (1997)

      Nigeria

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $125.7 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 36.3%

      industry: 30.5%

      services: 33.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 55.67 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 60% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

      highest 10%: 40.8% (1996–97)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 50.6 (1996–97)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $11.78 billion

      expenditures: $11.47 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 20% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish

      Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $33.99 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber

      Exports: partners: US 48.2%, India 8.1%, Spain 7.4%, Brazil 5.5%, Japan 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $17.14 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

      Imports: partners: US 9.1%, China 8.8%, UK 8.7%, Netherlands 6.3%, France 6.1%, Germany 5.7%, Italy 4.7% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.71 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $30.55 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient:

      Norway

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $183 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $40,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2%

      industry: 36.3%

      services: 61.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.38 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, industry 22%, services 74% (1995)

      Unemployment rate: 4.3% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

      highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 25.8 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $134 billion

      expenditures: $116.8 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 33.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish

      Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $76.64 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

      Exports: partners: UK 22.4%, Germany 12.9%, Netherlands 9.9%, France 9.6%, US 8.4%, Sweden 6.7% (2004)

      Imports: $45.96 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Sweden 15.7%, Germany 13.6%, Denmark 7.3%, UK 6.5%, China 5%, US 4.9%, Netherlands 4.4%, France 4.3%, Finland 4.1% (2004)

      Debt: external: $0 (Norway is a net external creditor) (2003 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)

      Oman

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $38.09 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $13,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.1%

      industry: 41.1%

      services: 55.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 920,000 (2002 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 15% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 13.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $9.291 billion

      expenditures: $8.747 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 10.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish

      Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production, construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber

      Industrial production growth rate: –1.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $13.14 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles

      Exports: partners: China 27.6%, South Korea 17.8%, Japan 12.7%, Thailand 11.7%, UAE 6.6% (2004)

      Imports: $6.373 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants

      Imports: partners: UAE 17.5%, Japan 16.6%, UK 8.5%, Italy 6.4%, Germany 5.2%, US 4.7%, India 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.144 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4.814 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $76.4 million (1995)

      Pakistan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $347.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 22.6%

      industry: 24.1%

      services: 53.3% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 45.43 million

      note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 42%, industry 20%, services 38% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 8.3% plus substantial underemployment (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 32% (FY00/01 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

      highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 41 (FY98/99)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (FY03/04 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.4% of GDP (FY03/04 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $13.45 billion

      expenditures: $16.51 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 71.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

      Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

      Industrial production growth rate: 13.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $15.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

      Exports: partners: US 21.3%, UAE 9.8%, UK 7.1%, Germany 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $14.01 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

      Imports: partners: China 10.8%, US 10.2%, UAE 9.3%, Saudi Arabia 9%, Japan 7%, Kuwait 5.3%, Germany 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $12.58 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $33.97 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $2.4 billion (FY01/02)

      Panama

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $20.57 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $6,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 7.2%

      industry: 13%

      services: 79.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 1.32 million

      note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 20.8%, industry 18%, services 61.2% (1995 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 12.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 37% (1999 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

      highest 10%: 35.7% (1997)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 48.5 (1997)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.095 billion

      expenditures: $3.737 billion, including capital expenditures of $471 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 69.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp

      Industries: construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $5.699 billion f.o.b. (includes the Colon Free Zone) (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing (1999)

      Exports: partners: US 12.2%, Nigeria 9.4%, Germany 8.4%, South Korea 8.2%, El Salvador 5.7%, Peru 5.1%, Costa Rica 5.1%, Japan 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $7.164 billion f.o.b. (includes the Colon Free Zone) (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Japan 32.9%, China 10.6%, US 9.8%, South Korea 7.2%, Singapore 7.1%, Italy 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.076 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $8.78 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Papua New Guinea

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $11.99 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 0.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 34.5%

      industry: 34.7%

      services: 30.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.32 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 37% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%

      highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 50.9 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 13.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.174 billion

      expenditures: $1.232 billion, including capital expenditures of $344 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 59.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork

      Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $2.437 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns

      Exports: partners: Australia 27.7%, China 5.8%, Japan 5.7%, Germany 5% (2004)

      Imports: $1.353 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Australia 45.2%, Singapore 21.1%, New Zealand 7.5%, Japan 4.2%, China 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $635.8 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $2.463 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $400 million (1999 est.)

      Paraguay

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $29.93 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 25.3%

      industry: 24.9%

      services: 49.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.66 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 45%

      Unemployment rate: 15.1% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 36% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.5%

      highest 10%: 43.8% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 57.7 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.123 billion

      expenditures: $1.129 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 39.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber

      Industries: sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, metallurgic, electric power

      Industrial production growth rate: 0% (2000 est.)

      Exports: $2.936 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, electricity, wood, leather

      Exports: partners: Brazil 27.8%, Uruguay 15.9%, Italy 7.1%, Switzerland 5.6%, Argentina 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $3.33 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery

      Imports: partners: Brazil 24.3%, US 22.3%, Argentina 16.2%, China 9.9%, Hong Kong 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.164 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3.239 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Peru

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $155.3 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 8%

      industry: 27%

      services: 65% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 11 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 9%, industry 18%, services 73% (2001)

      Unemployment rate: 9.6% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 54% (2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%

      highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 49.8 (2000)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $13.6 billion

      expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion, for general government, excluding private enterprises (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 44.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish

      Industries: mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $12.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee

      Exports: partners: US 29.5%, China 9.8%, UK 8%, Chile 5.3%, Japan 4.7%, Switzerland 4.4% (2004)

      Imports: $9.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper

      Imports: partners: US 29.2%, Spain 8.5%, Chile 6.9%, Brazil 5.6%, Colombia 5.2%, China 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $12.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $29.79 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $491 million (2002)

      Philippines

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $430.6 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 14.8%

      industry: 31.9%

      services: 53.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 35.86 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 36%, industry 16%, services 48% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 11.7% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%

      highest 10%: 31.9% (2003)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 46.6 (2003)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $12.22 billion

      expenditures: $15.84 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 74.2% of GDP (September 2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, casavas, pineapples, fish, mangoes, pork, eggs, beef

      Industries: electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

      Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $38.63 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, optical instruments, coconut products, fruits and nuts, copper products, chemicals

      Exports: partners: US 17.5%, Japan 15.8%, China 11.4%, Hong Kong 8.3%, Singapore 7.7%, Taiwan 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, Malaysia 5.5%, Germany 4.2% (2004)

      Imports: $37.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: raw materials, machinery and equipment, fuels, vehicles and vehicle parts, plastic, chemicals, grains

      Imports: partners: Japan 20.6%, US 16%, Singapore 8.4%, China 7.4%, Hong Kong 5.3%, South Korea 5.2%, Taiwan 4.5%, Malaysia 4.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.05 billion (2004)

      Debt: external: $55.6 billion (September 2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA commitments, $2 billion (2004)

      Poland

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $463 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $12,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.9%

      industry: 31.3%

      services: 65.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 17.02 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 16.1%, industry 29%, services 54.9% (2002)

      Unemployment rate: 19.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 18.4% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

      highest 10%: 24.7% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 31.6 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $44.52 billion

      expenditures: $54.93 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 49.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork

      Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages

      Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $75.98 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2003)

      Exports: partners: Germany 29.8%, Italy 6.3%, France 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Czech Republic 4.4% (2004)

      Imports: $81.61 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 14.8%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9.1% (2003)

      Imports: partners: Germany 29.8%, Italy 8%, France 7%, Russia 6.9%, Netherlands 5.3%, Belgium 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $41.88 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $99.15 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $17 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004–06)

      Portugal

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $188.7 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $17,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 5.9%

      industry: 30.2%

      services: 63.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 5.48 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 30%, services 60% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

      highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 35.6 (1994–95)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $74.38 billion

      expenditures: $79.86 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 61.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products

      Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $37.68 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides

      Exports: partners: Spain 24.8%, France 14%, Germany 13.5%, UK 9.6%, US 6%, Italy 4.3%, Belgium 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $52.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products

      Imports: partners: Spain 29.3%, Germany 14.4%, France 9.7%, Italy 6.1%, Netherlands 4.6%, UK 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $12.3 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $274.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $271 million (1995)

      Qatar

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $19.49 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 8.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $23,200 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 0.3%

      industry: 58.2%

      services: 41.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 140,000 (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 2.7% (2001)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $10.17 billion

      expenditures: $7.61 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: NA

      Agriculture: products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish

      Industries: crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2003 est.)

      Exports: $15 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel

      Exports: partners: Japan 43.8%, South Korea 16.1%, Singapore 10.8% (2004)

      Imports: $6.15 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals

      Imports: partners: France 24.4%, UK 8.9%, Germany 8.8%, Japan 8.7%, US 6.2%, Italy 5.5%, UAE 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.351 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $18.62 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Romania

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $171.5 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 8.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13.1%

      industry: 33.7%

      services: 53.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 9.66 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 31.6%, industry 30.7%, services 37.7% (2004)

      Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 28.9% (2002)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%

      highest 10%: 27.6% (2003)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 28.8 (2003)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $22.1 billion

      expenditures: $23.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 23.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep

      Industries: textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining

      Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $23.54 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products

      Exports: partners: Italy 20.9%, Germany 15.4%, France 7.3%, Turkey 7%, UK 6.1%, Austria 5% (2004)

      Imports: $28.43 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textiles, agricultural products

      Imports: partners: Italy 18.3%, Germany 17.9%, France 7.2%, Hungary 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Austria 5.5%,

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.21 billion (2004)

      Debt: external: $24.59 billion (2004 est.)

      Russia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.408 trillion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.7% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $9,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4.9%

      industry: 33.9%

      services: 61.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 71.83 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 12.3%, industry 22.7%, services 65% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 8.3% plus considerable underemployment (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 25% (January 2003 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.9%

      highest 10%: 47% (2001)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 39.9 (2001)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 19.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $106.4 billion

      expenditures: $93.33 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 28.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

      Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

      Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $162.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

      Exports: partners: Germany 8.4%, Netherlands 6.7%, China 6.4%, US 5.8%, Ukraine 5.7%, Italy 5.4%, Turkey 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $92.91 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products

      Imports: partners: Germany 16.7%, China 7.1%, Ukraine 6.7%, Italy 5.9%, Finland 5%, France 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $124.5 billion (3 December 2004 e)

      Debt: external: $169.6 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: in FY01 from US, $979 million (including $750 million in non-proliferation subsidies); in 2001 from EU, $200 million (2000 est.)

      Rwanda

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $10.43 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 0.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 41.1%

      industry: 21.2%

      services: 37.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.6 million (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 90%

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 60% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share:

      lowest 10%: 4.2%

      highest 10%: 24.2% (1985)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 28.9 (1985)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 20% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $354.5 million

      expenditures: $385 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock

      Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

      Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)

      Exports: $69.78 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore

      Exports: partners: Indonesia 35.4%, China 7.1%, Germany 3.4% (2004)

      Imports: $260 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material

      Imports: partners: Kenya 21.9%, Germany 7.8%, Belgium 7.7%, Uganda 5.9%, France 5.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $210.9 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $372.9 million (1999)

      Saint Kitts and Nevis

      GDP (purchasing power parity): $339 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: –1.9% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $8,800 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 3.5%

      industry: 25.8%

      services: 70.7% (2001)

      Labor force: 18,170 (June 1995)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $89.7 million

      expenditures: $128.2 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5 million (2003 est.)

      Exports: $70 million (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages, tobacco

      Exports: partners: US 57.5%, Canada 9%, Portugal 8.3%, UK 6.7% (2004)

      Imports: $195 million (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels

      Imports: partners: Ukraine 44.7%, US 22.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 8.8%, UK 6.2% (2004)

      Debt: external: $171 million (2001)

      Economic aid: recipient: $8 million (2001)

      Saint Lucia

      GDP (purchasing power parity): $866 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.3% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,400 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 7%

      industry: 20%

      services: 73% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: 43,800 (2001 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 21.7%, industry, commerce, and manufacturing 24.7%, services 53.6% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 20% (2003 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $141.2 million

      expenditures: $146.7 million, including capital expenditures of $25.1 million (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa

      Industries: clothing, assembly of electronics, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing

      Industrial production growth rate: –8.9% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $66 million (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bananas 41%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil

      Exports: partners: UK 41.4%, US 16.5%, Brazil 11.6%, Barbados 5.8%, Antigua and Barbuda 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $267 million (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food 23%, manufactured goods 21%, machinery equipment 19%, chemicals, fuels

      Imports: partners: US 27.8%, Trinidad and Tobago 20.4%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7.6%, Finland 7% (2004)

      Debt: external: $214 million (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $51.8 million (1995)

      Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

      GDP (purchasing power parity): $342 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 0.7% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,900 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 10%

      industry: 26%

      services: 64% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 17%, services 57% (1980 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 15% (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): –0.4% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $94.6 million

      expenditures: $85.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices, small numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, fish

      Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

      Industrial production growth rate: –0.9% (1997 est.)

      Exports: $38 million (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: bananas 39%, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch; tennis racquets

      Exports: partners: UK 33.5%, Barbados 13.1%, Saint Lucia 11.5%, US 5.3%, Grenada 5.3% (2004)

      Imports: $174 million (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels

      Imports: partners: US 37.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 21.3%, UK 10.5% (2004)

      Debt: external: $167.2 million (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $47.5 million (1995); note: EU $34.5 million (1998)

      Samoa

      GDP (purchasing power parity): $1 billion (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5% (2002 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,600 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 14%

      industry: 23%

      services: 63% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 90,000 (2000 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: NA; note: substantial underemployment

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2001 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $105 million

      expenditures: $119 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001–02)

      Agriculture: products: coconuts, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa

      Industries: food processing, building materials, auto parts

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (2000)

      Exports: $14 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Exports: commodities: fish, coconut oil and cream, copra, taro, automotive parts, garments, beer

      Exports: partners: Australia 67.2%, US 5.7%, Indonesia 5.3% (2004)

      Imports: $113 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: New Zealand 25.1%, Fiji 21.5%, Taiwan 9.1%, Australia 8.9%, Singapore 8.5%, Japan 7.5%, US 4.7% (2004)

      Debt: external: $197 million (2000)

      Economic aid: recipient: $42.9 million (1995)

      San Marino

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $940 million (2001 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 7.5% (2001 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $34,600 (2001 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

      industry: NA%

      services: NA%

      Labor force: 18,500 (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 42%, services 57% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 2.6% (2001)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2001)

      Budget: revenues: $400 million

      expenditures: $400 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

      Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

      Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

      Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

      Exports: commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

      Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

      Imports: commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

      Debt: external: NA; Economic aid: recipient: NA

      SÃo TOMÉ and Principe

      GDP (purchasing power parity): $214 million (2003 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,200 (2003 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector:

      agriculture: 16.5%

      industry: 15.4%

      services: 68.1% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: NA

      Labor force: by occupation: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing

      note: shortages of skilled workers

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 54% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 31.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $27.94 million

      expenditures: $43.91 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish

      Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $6.7 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil

      Exports: partners: Netherlands 35.9%, China 12.3%, Belgium 7.4%, Germany 6.3%, Poland 5.1%, France 4.8%, Thailand 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $41 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products

      Imports: partners: Portugal 52.3%, Germany 9.5%, US 6%, Netherlands 4.8%, South Africa 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $29.78 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $318 million (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: $200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program

      Saudi Arabia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $310.2 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $12,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 4.2%

      industry: 67.2%

      services: 28.6% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 6.62 million

      note: more than 35% of the population in the 15–64 age group is non-national (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 25%, services 63% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 25% (unofficial estimate) (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 17.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $104.8 billion

      expenditures: $78.66 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 75% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

      Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $113 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%

      Exports: partners: US 19.3%, Japan 16.4%, South Korea 8.7%, China 5.8%, Singapore 4.5% (2004)

      Imports: $36.21 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles

      Imports: partners: US 9.3%, Germany 6.8%, Japan 6.7%, UK 5.4%, China 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $23.62 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $34.35 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 2000, Saudi Arabia has committed $307 million for assistance to the Palestinians; pledged $240 million to development in Afghanistan; pledged $1 billion in export guarantees and soft loans to Iraq.

      Senegal

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $18.36 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,700 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 15.9%

      industry: 21.4%

      services: 62.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 4.65 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 70%

      Unemployment rate: 48% (urban youth 40%) (2001 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%

      highest 10%: 33.5% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 41.3 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 20.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $1.572 billion

      expenditures: $1.627 billion, including capital expenditures of $357 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 55.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

      Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $1.374 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

      Exports: partners: India 13.8%, France 10.6%, Mali 10%, Italy 6%, Cote d’Ivoire 5.7%, Spain 4% (2004)

      Imports: $2.128 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: food and beverages, capital goods, fuels

      Imports: partners: France 26.2%, Nigeria 12.1%, Thailand 5.3%, Belgium 5%, Spain 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $820 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $3.476 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $362.6 million (2002 est.)

      Serbia and Montenegro

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $26.27 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $2,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 15.5%

      industry: 27.6%

      services: 56.8% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 3.2 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: 30%

      note: unemployment is approximately 50% in Kosovo (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 30% (1999 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 14.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $9.773 billion

      expenditures: $10.46 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 80% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

      Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

      Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $3.245 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials

      Exports: partners: Italy 30.1%, Germany 16.6%, Austria 7.4%, Greece 7.1%, France 5.3%, Slovenia 4.2%, US 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $9.538 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials

      Imports: partners: Germany 20.2%, Italy 18.1%, Austria 9%, Slovenia 6.1%, France 5.1%, Netherlands 4.4%, Bulgaria 4.3%, Greece 4.2% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.55 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $12.97 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)

      Seychelles

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $626 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $7,800 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2.8%

      industry: 28.7%

      services: 68.9% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 30,900 (1996)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 19%, services 71% (1989)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 39.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $318.3 million

      expenditures: $298.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 122.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna

      Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $256.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)

      Exports: partners: UK 29.1%, France 17.1%, Spain 11.8%, Japan 9.2%, Italy 8.1%, Germany 6.2% (2004)

      Imports: $393.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 15.6%, Spain 14.1%, France 11%, Singapore 7.5%, Italy 7.3%, UK 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $70.94 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $218.1 million (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $16.4 million (1995)

      Sierra Leone

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $3.335 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 49%

      industry: 30%

      services: 21% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: 68% (1989 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.5%

      highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 62.9 (1989)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2002 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $96 million

      expenditures: $351 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

      Industries: diamonds mining; small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $49 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish (1999)

      Exports: partners: Belgium 63.1%, Germany 11.9%, US 5.8% (2004)

      Imports: $264 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals (1995)

      Imports: partners: Germany 17.3%, UK 9.2%, Cote d’Ivoire 8%, US 8%, Ukraine 4.9%, Netherlands 4.7%, China 4.5%, Denmark 4.2% (2004)

      Debt: external: $1.5 billion (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $103 million (2001 est.)

      Singapore

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $120.9 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 8.1% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $27,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 0% negligible

      industry: 32.6%

      services: 67.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.18 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: manufacturing 18%, construction 6%, transportation and communication 11%, financial, business, and other services 49%, other 16% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 3.4% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 27.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $17.05 billion

      expenditures: $18.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 102.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish

      Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade

      Industrial production growth rate: 11.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $174 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels

      Exports: partners: Malaysia 15.2%, US 13%, Hong Kong 9.8%, China 8.6%, Japan 6.4%, Taiwan 4.6%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $155.2 billion (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs

      Imports: partners: Malaysia 15.3%, US 12.7%, Japan 11.7%, China 9.9%, Taiwan 5.7%, South Korea 4.3%, Thailand 4.1% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $112.8 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $19.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: NA

      Slovakia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $78.89 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $14,500 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5%

      industry: 30.1%

      services: 66.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 2.2 million (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5.8%, industry 29.3%, construction 9%, services 55.9% (2003)

      Unemployment rate: 13.1% (31 December 2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1%

      highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 26.3 (1996)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 24% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $15.44 billion

      expenditures: $16.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 46.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

      Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $29.24 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4%% (2004 est.)

      Exports: partners: Germany 35.7%, Czech Republic 13.4%, Austria 8.6%, Italy 5.6%, US 4.8%, Poland 4.8%, Hungary 4.3% (2004)

      Imports: $29.67 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)

      Imports: partners: Germany 29.6%, Czech Republic 17.1%, Russia 9.5%, Austria 7.1%, Italy 5.4%, Hungary 4.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.91 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $19.54 billion (2004 est.)

      Slovenia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $39.41 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.9% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $19,600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

      industry: 36%

      services: 60% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 870,000 (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 6%, industry 40%, services 55% (2002)

      Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%

      highest 10%: 23% (1998)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 28.4 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 24.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $13.36 billion

      expenditures: $13.99 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 31.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

      Industries: ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

      Exports: partners: Germany 18.4%, Austria 11.4%, Italy 11.1%, Croatia 7.6%, France 7.5%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $16.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

      Imports: partners: Germany 20.1%, Italy 17%, Austria 14.1%, France 10.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.493 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $14.65 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $62 million (2000 est.)

      Solomon Islands

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $800 million (2002 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.8% (2003 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,700 (2002 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 42%

      industry: 11%

      services: 47% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 26,840 (1999)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 5%, services 20% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $49.7 million

      expenditures: $75.1 million, including capital expenditures of $0 (2003)

      Agriculture: products: cocoa beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

      Industries: fish (tuna), mining, timber

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $74 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

      Exports: commodities: timber, fish, copra, palm oil, cocoa

      Exports: partners: China 28.2%, Thailand 15.7%, South Korea 15.7%, Japan 9.7%, Philippines 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $67 million f.o.b. (2003)

      Imports: commodities: food, plant and equipment, manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals

      Imports: partners: Australia 25.3%, Singapore 23.8%, New Zealand 5.3%, India 4.8% (2004)

      Debt: external: $180.4 million (2002)

      Economic aid: recipient: $28 million annually, mainly from Australia (2003 est.)

      Somalia

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $4.597 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $600 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 65%

      industry: 10%

      services: 25% (2000 est.)

      Labor force: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): note: businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be sensibly determined (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: NA

      expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

      Agriculture: products: cattle, sheep, goats; bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; fish

      Industries: a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication

      Industrial production growth rate: NA

      Exports: $79 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Exports: commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal

      Exports: partners: Thailand 31.3%, UAE 22.8%, Yemen 14.9%, India 8.5%, Oman 5.4%, China 4.1% (2004)

      Imports: $344 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

      Imports: commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat

      Imports: partners: Djibouti 28.8%, Kenya 13.1%, India 9.3%, Brazil 5.4%, Oman 5.2%, UAE 5.1% (2004)

      Debt: external: $3 billion (2001 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $60 million (1999 est.)

      South Africa

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $491.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $11,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.6%, industry: 31.2%, services: 65.2% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 16.63 million economically active (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 26.2% (includes workers no longer looking for employment) (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.1%, highest 10%: 45.9% (1994)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 59.3 (1993–94)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $47.43 billion, expenditures: $52.54 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 45.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

      Industries: mining (world’s largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $41.97 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment (1998 est.)

      Exports: partners: US 10.2%, UK 9.2%, Japan 9%, Germany 7.1%, Netherlands 4% (2004)

      Imports: $39.42 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs (2000 est.)

      Imports: partners: Germany 14.2%, US 8.5%, China 7.5%, Japan 6.9%, UK 6.9%, France 6%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, Iran 5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.68 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $27.01 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $487.5 million (2000)

      Spain

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $937.6 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $23,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5%

      industry: 28.5%

      services: 68% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 19.33 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 5.3%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 30.1%, services 64.6% (2004 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 10.4% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

      highest 10%: 25.2% (1990)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 32.5 (1990)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 25.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $383.7 billion

      expenditures: $386.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.8 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 53.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

      Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

      Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $172.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods

      Exports: partners: France 19.3%, Germany 11.7%, Portugal 9.6%, UK 9.1%, Italy 9.1% (2004)

      Imports: $222 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods; measuring and medical control instruments

      Imports: partners: Germany 16.5%, France 15.7%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.3%, Netherlands 4.8% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $19.7 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $771.1 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.33 billion (1999)

      Sri Lanka

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $80.58 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 5.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,000 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 19.1%

      industry: 26.2%

      services: 54.7% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 7.26 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 38%, industry 17%, services 45% (1998 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 7.8% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 22% (1997 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%

      highest 10%: 28% (1995)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 34.4 (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 22.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.34 billion

      expenditures: $4.686 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 104.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef

      Industries: rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, and banking; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco

      Exports: $5.306 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: textiles and apparel; tea and spices; diamonds, emeralds, rubies; coconut products; rubber manufactures, fish

      Exports: partners: US 31%, UK 12.9%, India 5.1%, Belgium 4.9%, Germany 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $7.265 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: textile fabrics, mineral products, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and transportation equipment

      Imports: partners: India 14%, Singapore 8%, China 7.6%, Hong Kong 5.9%, Malaysia 4.6%, Japan 4.6% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.475 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $10.85 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $577 million (1998)

      Sudan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $76.19 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6.4% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 38.7%

      industry: 20.3%

      services: 41% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 11 million (1996 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 18.7% (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA

      highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $3.057 billion

      expenditures: $2.965 billion, including capital expenditures of $304 million (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 79.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock

      Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

      Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.)

      Electricity: production: 2.581 billion kWh (2002)

      Electricity: production by source: fossil fuel: 52.1%

      hydro: 47.9%

      nuclear: 0%

      other: 0% (2001)

      Exports: $3.395 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

      Exports: partners: China 64.3%, Japan 13.8%, Saudi Arabia 3.7% (2004)

      Imports: $3.496 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

      Imports: partners: Saudi Arabia 11.7%, China 10.7%, UAE 6.2%, Egypt 5.2%, Germany 4.9%, India 4.6%, Australia 4.1%, UK 4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.652 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $21 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $172 million (2001)

      Suriname

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $1.885 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 4.2% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $4,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 13%

      industry: 22%

      services: 65% (2001 est.)

      Labor force: 104,000 (2003)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

      Unemployment rate: 17% (2000)

      Population below poverty line: 70% (2002 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (2003 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $400 million

      expenditures: $440 million, including capital expenditures of $34 million (2003)

      Agriculture: products: paddy rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; forest products; shrimp

      Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina production, oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing

      Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

      Exports: $495 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Exports: commodities: alumina, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas

      Exports: partners: Norway 31.1%, US 16%, Canada 13.2%, Belgium 10.8%, France 8.8%, Iceland 4.6% (2004)

      Imports: $604 million f.o.b. (2002)

      Imports: commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods

      Imports: partners: US 28.2%, Netherlands 21.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 11.4%, Japan 7.2%, China 4.3% (2004)

      Debt: external: $321 million (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient:

      Netherlands provided $37 million for project and program assistance, European Development Fund $4 million, Belgium $2 million (1998)

      Swaziland

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $6.018 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.5% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $5,100 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 16.1%

      industry: 43.4%

      services: 40.5% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 383,200 (2000)

      Labor force: by occupation: NA

      Unemployment rate: 34% (2000 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 40% (1995)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1%

      highest 10%: 50.2% (1995)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 23.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $494.6 million

      expenditures: $552.7 million, including capital expenditures of $147 million (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

      Industries: mining (coal, raw asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel

      Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (FY95/96)

      Exports: $900.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit

      Exports: partners: South Africa 59.7%, EU 8.8%, US 8.8%, Mozambique 6.2% (2004)

      Imports: $1.14 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

      Imports: partners: South Africa 95.6%, EU 0.9%, Japan 0.9%, Singapore 0.3% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $320.5 million (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $320 million (2002 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $104 million (2001)

      Sweden

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $255.4 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 3.6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $28,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 2%

      industry: 29%

      services: 69% (2001)

      Labor force: 4.46 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 5.6% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%

      highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 25 (1992)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 15.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $201.3 billion

      expenditures: $199.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 51.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

      Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

      Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $121.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, steel products, chemicals

      Exports: partners: US 10.7%, Germany 10.3%, UK 7.2%, Denmark 6.6%, Norway 6.2%, Finland 5.9%, Belgium 5.1%, Netherlands 4.8%, France 4.7% (2004)

      Imports: $97.97 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

      Imports: partners: Germany 20.2%, Denmark 8.2%, UK 7.9%, Netherlands 7.2%, Finland 7%, France 6.1%, Norway 5.9%, Belgium 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $19.99 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: $66.5 billion (1994)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)

      Switzerland

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $251.9 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 1.8% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $33,800 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 1.5%

      industry: 34%

      services: 64.5% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 3.77 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 4.6%, industry 26.3%, services 69.1% (1998)

      Unemployment rate: 3.4% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%

      highest 10%: 25.2% (1992)

      Distribution of family income: Gini index: 33.1 (1992)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 20.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $131.5 billion

      expenditures: $140.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 57.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs

      Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

      Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $130.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products

      Exports: partners: Germany 20%, US 9.1%, France 9.1%, Italy 8.8%, UK 4.9% (2004)

      Imports: $121.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles

      Imports: partners: Germany 29%, Italy 11.8%, France 11.1%, US 7.6%, Austria 4.5%, UK 4.5% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $69.58 billion (2003)

      Debt: external: NA (2000)

      Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.1 billion (1995)

      Syria

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $60.44 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 2.3% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $3,400 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

      industry: 31%

      services: 44% (2003 est.)

      Labor force: 5.12 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 27%, services 43% (2002 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 20% (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 20% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA, highest 10%: NA

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 16.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $6.58 billion

      expenditures: $9.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.67 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 32% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk

      Industries: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining

      Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2002 est.)

      Exports: $6.086 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: crude oil, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, clothing

      Exports: partners: Germany 16.5%, Italy 13.5%, UAE 8.6%, Lebanon 7.7%, France 6.3%, Turkey 5.1% (2004)

      Imports: $5.042 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and transport equipment, metal and metal products, chemicals, paper

      Imports: partners: Italy 7.7%, China 7.6%, Germany 7.4%, Turkey 4.5%, France 4.4% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $4 billion (excludes military debt and debt to Russia) (2004 est.)

      Economic aid: recipient: $180 million (2002 est.)

      Taiwan

      GDP: purchasing power parity: $576.2 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP: real growth rate: 6% (2004 est.)

      GDP: per capita: purchasing power parity: $25,300 (2004 est.)

      GDP: composition by sector: agriculture: 1.7%

      industry: 30.9%

      services: 67.4% (2004 est.)

      Labor force: 10.22 million (2004 est.)

      Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 35%, services 57% (2001 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2004 est.)

      Population below poverty line: 1% (2000 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 6.7%

      highest 10%: 41.1% (2002 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2004 est.)

      Investment (gross fixed): 18% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Budget: revenues: $67.41 billion

      expenditures: $76.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.4 billion (2004 est.)

      Public debt: 32.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

      Agriculture: products: rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish

      Industries: electronics, petroleum refining, armaments, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals

      Industrial production growth rate: 12.2% (2004 est.)

      Exports: $170.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports: commodities: computer products and electrical equipment, metals, textiles, plastics and rubber products, chemicals (2002)

      Exports: partners: China, including Hong Kong 37%, US 16%, Japan 7.7% (2004)

      Imports: $165.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Imports: commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 44.5%, minerals, precision instruments (2002)

      Imports: partners: Japan 26%, US 13%, China, including Hong Kong 11%, South Korea 6.9% (2004)

      Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $246.5 billion (2004 est.)

      Debt: external: $55.5 billion (2004 est.)