Encyclopedia of Women in the American West
- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Publication Year: 2003 |
- Online Publication Date: September 15, 2007 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412950626 |
- Print ISBN: 9780761923565 |
- Online ISBN: 9781412950626 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: Women's Studies
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The Encyclopedia of Women in the American West captures the lives of more than 150 women who made their mark from the mid–1800s to the present, contextualizing their experiences and contributions to American society. Including many women biographied for the first time, the Encyclopedia offers immense value and interest to practicing historians as well as students and the lay public. The Encyclopedia covers nine diverse topical categories. Developed and priced to appeal to high school and public libraries as well as academic libraries.
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
- Arts and Letters: Artists, Poets, Writers
- Education: Teachers, Librarians, Professors, Researchers
- Law/Lawyers, Judges, Police, Incarceration, Crime, Legislators, Public Officials
- Public Performance
- Women's Organizations/Organizational Leadership
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of women in the American West / Gordon Morris Bakken and Brenda Farrington, editors.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2356-X (cloth)
1. Women-West (U.S.)—History-Encyclopedias. 2. Women-West (U.S.)—Biography.
I. Bakken, Gordon Morris. II. Farrington, Brenda.
Printed on acid-free paper
03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jerry Westby
Editorial Assistant: Vonessa Vondera
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Barbara Coster
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Michelle Lee
This encyclopedia was made possible by the willingness of many scholars to write, revise, edit, and ponder the meaning of women in the American West and to give so much of themselves to see this project into print. The professionals at Sage Reference made this volume possible with guidance, enthusiasm, and a critical eye. In particular, we thank Rolfe A. Janke, Jerry Westby, Claudia Hoffman, and Leticia Gutierrez for their support, professionalism, and prompt responses to so many questions over the past three years. Barbara Coster, our copy editor, brought consistency with good questions and professional touches to this volume.
We also thank all the librarians who have made much of this research possible. Bill Stein, the archivist at the Nesbitt Memorial Library in Columbus, Texas, made seemingly difficult research possible for a California researcher. Our author/ librarians Debra Gold Hansen at San Jose State, Danelle Moon at Yale, Judy Ruttenberg of the University of California, Irvine, and Jayne Sinegal at Irvine Valley College helped us in many ways and assisted many of our authors. We also thank the professional staff at the Huntington Library, San Marino, California, and the Pollock Library at California State University, Fullerton, for their assistance. We know that no meaningful research can be done without the assistance of professional librarians and we are deeply in their debt.
We remember the sacrifice of our authors in meeting deadlines and committing so much time to entries. Our colleague Clark Davis died at age 36 shortly after completing his entry. His loss is felt by so many and the loss to history and its students is incalculable. Some of our intended authors were prevented by severe illness from completing their promised work. We acknowledge the help of Willis E. McNelly, a World War II veteran and Professor Emeritus of English, California State University, Fullerton, who passed on April 6, 2003, unable to complete his entry. We also acknowledge the professionalism of so many who work outside of academia yet gave so much to their work. Taking time from 50- and 60-hour weeks to work in archival materials, oral histories, and secondary sources speaks loudly to us all. Yet we all heed the same call to bring life to the women who built the American West. It is our hope that this volume advances the cause.[Page viii]
List of Entries[Page ix]
- [Page x]
- [Page xi]
- [Page xii]
Reader's Guide[Page xiii]
To give the reader a quick sense of the topics contained in this work, we have arranged most of the entries in the following topical guide. Broad topical entries such as Kansas and Oklahoma (the study of the women of a state), Women of the Southwest (a regional perspective on women), and Cripple Creek (the women of a city) are included in this encyclopedia to give you an idea of how to structure a work on women in a place. Because of the scope considered by the authors transcending topics, you should consult them for their contents and concepts. The nine topical categories are Agriculture/Ranching, Arts and Letters, Education, Entrepreneurs, Law, Pioneers, Public Performance, Religion, and Women's Organizations. We hope you find this useful, but remind you to use the Index as a finding means.
- Rindge, Rhoda May Knight
- Veterinary Medicine
- “Wine, Women, and Song”
- Arts and Letters: Artists, Poets, Writers
- Anzaldua, Gloria E.
- Bird, Gloria
- Bower, B. M.
- Butler, Octavia
- Callahan, Sophia Alice
- Cather, Willa
- Cleaveland, Agnes Morley
- Coel, Margaret
- Crow Dog, Mary
- Darden, Fannie Baker
- Davis, Mollie Evelyn Moore
- Farnham, Eliza Wood Burhans
- Flanner, Hildegarde
- Foote, Mary Hallock
- Hale, Janet Campbell
- Hasselstrom, Linda M.
- Hogan, Linda
- Hubble, Grace Lillian Burke
- Ivins, Molly
- Jackson, Helen Hunt
- Jaramillo, Cleofas Martínez
- Kingston, Maxine Hong
- Naranjo-Morse, Nora
- Red Shirt, Delphine
- Sandoz, Mari (Marie Susette)
- Sewell, Helen Moore
- Silko, Leslie Marmon
- Sinclair, Bertha Muzzy
- St. Johns, Adela Rogers
- Stewart, Elinore Pruitt
- Tan, Amy
- Underhill, Ruth Murray
- Wiggin, Kate Douglas Smith
- Williams, Jeanne
- Winnemucca, Sarah
- Woody, Elizabeth
- Education: Teachers, Librarians, Professors, Researchers
- Brown, Ruth Winifred
- Bunzel, Ruth Leah
- Burnstad, Hattie
- Collins, Audrey B.
- Deloria, Ella Cara
- Hearst, Phoebe Apperson
- Librarianship in California
- McGlandrey, Donna Joy
- Parsons, Elsie Clews
- Reichard, Gladys Amanda
- U.S. Air Force Academy
- Callender, Marie
- Clark, Georgie White
- Eagle Woman
- Ehmann, Freda
- Handler, Ruth
- Pleasant, Mary Ellen
- Scudder, Laura
- Summers, Emma A. McCutcheon
- Terasawa, Kuniko
- Law/Lawyers, Judges, Police, Incarceration, Crime, Legislators, Public Officials
- Adams, Annette Abbott
- Arizona Political Women
- Baird, Lourdes G.
- Berzon, Marsha L.
- Bird, Rose Elizabeth [Page xiv]
- Blanton, Annie Webb
- Boxer, Barbara
- Brown, Janice Rogers
- Bullock, Georgia
- Caulfield, Barbara A.
- Chesney, Maxine M.
- Farenthold, Frances “Sissy” Tarlton
- Ferguson, Miriam “Ma” Amanda Wallace
- Gonzalez, Irma Elsa
- Gordon, Laura de Force
- Hall, Cynthia Holcomb
- Hamilton, Phyllis J.
- Huff, Marilyn M.
- Hufstedler, Shirley Ann Mount
- Hughes, Sarah Tilghman
- Illston, Susan Yvonne
- In Penitentiaries
- Jail Matrons in Los Angeles
- Jordan, Barbara
- Keep, Judith N.
- Kennard, Joyce
- King, Charlotte Winter
- Laporte, Elizabeth D.
- Manella, Nora Margaret
- Marshall, Consuelo Bland
- McDonald, Juanita Millender
- McLaughlin, Linda Hodge
- Meharg, Emma Grigsby
- Neal, Margie Elizabeth
- Nelson, Dorothy Wright
- O'Leary, Kathleen E.
- Patel, Marilyn Hall
- Pfaelzer, Mariana R.
- Phillips, Virginia A.
- Priest, Ivy Baker
- Prostitution in 19th-Century Texas
- Prostitution in Salt Lake City
- Rankin, Jeannette
- Richards, Ann
- Rymer, Pamela Ann
- Smith, Fern M.
- Snyder, Christina A.
- Stotler, Alicemarie Huber
- Ulfig, Cynthia
- Wardlaw, Kim McLane
- Waters, Maxine
- Weddington, Sarah Ragle
- Wells, Alice Stebbins
- Werdegar, Kathryn M.
- Wilken, Claudia Ann
- Wilmans, Edith Eunice Therrel
- Donner, Tamsen
- Hecox, Margaret M.
- Kelsey, Nancy
- Magoffin, Susan Shelby
- Stewart, Elinore Pruitt
- Women in Western Mining
- Women's Experiences on the Western Emigrant Trails
- Public Performance
- All-Girl Rodeo
- Barnes, Florence “Pancho” Lowe
- Cheung, Katherine
- Drivers, Women
- Marion, Frances
- Oakley, Annie
- Cabrini, Saint Frances Xavier
- Drexel, Katharine
- Gates, Susa Young
- McPherson, Aimee Semple
- Severance, Caroline M.
- Women Religious
- Women's Organizations/Organizational Leadership
- Arizona Political Women
- Buffalo Calf Road
- Cleghorn, Mildred Imach
- Clubs (Women's) in the West
- Clubwomen of Boise
- Clubwomen of Denver
- Clubwomen of Huntington Beach
- Clubwomen of Los Angeles
- Clubwomen of Salt Lake City
- Conservation Movement, 1870–1940
- Doheny, Estelle
- Duniway, Abigail Scott
- Mission Indian Federation
- Moreno, Luisa
- Native American Protest Movements in the 20th Century
- Philanthropy in the American West
- Woman Suffrage in the West
In 1983 the first Western Women's Conference convened in Sun Valley, Idaho, to address the omissions and absence of women in traditional western history. This conference marked the first national meeting devoted to western women's history and launched the publication of The Women's West, edited by Susan Armitage and Elizabeth Jameson (1987). These pioneering scholars provided a springboard for future histories focused on western women and laid the foundation for future studies navigating the spectrum and diversity of women's experiences in the West. As noted by Armitage and Jameson, the influence of Frederick Jackson Turner's “frontier thesis” in 1893 portrayed western history as “one-dimensional and historically inaccurate and incomplete” (3–6). The histories of American Indians, Hispanics, Asians, individual families, and all ethnic and social classes of women were left out of Turner's rough-and-tumble “wild West.”
The success of western women's history as a separate yet integral part of western history and U.S. history is a testament to the scholarship of these early pioneers. The articles in this encyclopedia contribute to the growing body of literature documenting the diverse lives of women in the West and the nation. Some of the topics explored include the clubwomen's movement, politics, prostitution, women homesteaders, suffrage, mining, agriculture, rodeo women, literary women, conservation, emigrant experiences, librarians, and research strategies locating primary and secondary resources.
Through these articles, the Encyclopedia of Women in the American West brings together an array of experiences, and like its predecessor publications, hopes to advance continued scholarship in western women's history, to develop new methodologies for analysis, and to locate new materials that will allow for inclusiveness and a broader, more accurate understanding of women's contributions to western and American history.[Page xvi]Yale University
About the Editors[Page xvii]
Gordon Morris Bakken, coeditor of this volume, is Professor of History at California State University, Fullerton, Past President of Phi Alpha Theta, and Founding Vice President and Director of the California Supreme Court Historical Society. He is the author/editor of 15 books and 43 articles and law reviews.
Brenda Farrington, coeditor of this volume, teaches at Fullerton College, Chapman University, Long Beach City College, and Rancho Santiago Canyon College. She is the author/editor of seven books, two book chapters, and numerous reviews.[Page xviii]
About the Contributors[Page xix]
Mary Adams is President and cofounder of ISIM University, an online graduate school based in Denver, Colorado. She holds degrees in History and Business.
Elwood Bakken is an independent scholar in Bozeman, Montana, and shipping manager for Action Lighting. He has published in Montana: The Magazine of Western History and Carve.
Michelle Bean is a California native. In 1991 she graduated from the University of California, Irvine, with a bachelor's degree in Political Science and a minor in History. Currently, she is finishing her secondary school teaching credential at California State University, Fullerton.
Brenda Bitgood is an independent scholar and graduate of California State University, Fullerton, with a B.A. in History and a B.A. in American Studies. She currently resides in Anaheim, California, with her husband and her daughter.
Renae Moore Bredin currently teaches in the Women's Studies Program at California State University, Fullerton. Her publications include essays on Native American women writers, Elsie Clews Parsons, and gender and technology.
Anne M. Butler is the editor of The Western Historical Quarterly and Professor of History at Utah State University, Logan. She is the author of Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865–90 (1985), Gendered Justice in the American West: Women Prisoners in Men's Penitentiaries (1997), Uncommon Common Women (1996) with Ona Siporin, and The Frontiers and Catholic Identities (1999) with Michael Engh.
Sharon Snow Carver is Adjunct Professor at Utah State University, Tooele, and holds a Ph.D. from Brigham Young University in American History. She has done extensive research on women's clubs in the Intermountain West and contributed to the Utah Historical Quarterly as well as other publications.
Henry Fay Cheung is a doctoral student in history at the University of California, Riverside.
Kevin Christy teaches history in a Christian school in Orange County, California.
Tiffany E. Dalpe is a doctoral student in ethics and the history of philosophy at the University of Memphis.
Maureen Woodard Dana teaches at Sacramento City College and holds a Ph.D. in American Literature from the Claremont Graduate School. Her research includes work on captivity narratives of the 17th and 18th centuries, female short story writers of the 1930s, and late 20th-century feminist fiction and theory.
Clark Davis was Associate Professor of History at California State University, Fullerton, author of Company Men: White Collar Life and Corporate Cultures in Los Angeles, 1892–1941 (2000), and coeditor of The Human Tradition in California (2002). Clark passed on February 4, 2003, at the age of 36.
Susan Badger Doyle is an independent scholar in Pendleton, Oregon, and the author of Journeys to the Land of Gold: Emigrant Diaries from the Bozeman Trail, 1863–1866 (2000).
Randal Fulkerson is Adjunct Professor of History and Humanities at California Baptist University-High Desert Campus. His graduate education focused on late 19th-century to early 20th-century American and church history.
Victor W. Geraci is Associate Professor of History at Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, and the author of a forthcoming book, Salud.
Joan V. Greenwood is Professor Emerita of English and Comparative Literatures at California State University, Fullerton.
[Page xx]Vanessa Anne Gunther teaches history at a variety of institutions in Southern California and holds a Ph.D. in Native American History from the University of California, Riverside. She also works in the medical arts field.
Debra L. Gold Hansen is Associate Professor at San Jose State University's School of Library and Information Science and has a Ph.D. in American History from the University of California, Irvine.
Mary Hardy teaches history in Thailand at Assumption University. She continues to engage in historical research projects and is currently awaiting a publication coauthored with Dr. William Haddad in the journal Israeli Affair. She also is working with Dr. B. Carmon Hardy editing a new edition of a world civilizations primary sourcebook.
Angela E. Henderson is Professor of Reading at Fullerton College and author of “Fiction as Reality: ‘Lonesome Dove,’ the Law, and a Property-Holder's Society,” Journal of the West (Fall 2000).
Craig Hendricks teaches at Long Beach City College. He received both an M.A. and Ph.D. from the State University of New York, Stony Brook, focusing on modern Latin American history, and has published articles and edited four essay collections.
Lori S. Iacovelli is Lead Archives and Exhibits Assistant at the Whittier, California, Historical Society Museum.
Elizabeth Jameson holds the Imperial Oil & Lincoln McKay Chair in American Studies at the University of Calgary. Her publications include All That Glitters: Class, Conflict and Community in Cripple Creek, and two coedited books, The Women's West and Writing the Range: Race, Class and Culture in the Women's West.
Patricia Jimenez holds B.A.s from the University of California, Riverside, in History and Political Science. She is currently taking time off from graduate work in history. Her areas of interest include the Vietnam War, the antiwar movement, and protest music.
Mary L. Kelley is Assistant Professor of History at Lamar University. Her areas of specialization are modern United States, women, and Texas. She is currently working on a forthcoming book, Private Wealth, Public Good.
Scott Kesilis recently graduated with honors from California State University, Fullerton, with bachelor's degrees in Political Science and History. At present, he is taking a sabbatical from his studies.
Alexandra Kindell is a doctoral candidate at Iowa State University. She is interested in women's roles in rural life and agriculture, which she has explored in her teaching and during her tenure as assistant editor of Agricultural History.
Renee M. Laegreid teaches at Hastings College in Hastings, Nebraska, specializing in American western and cultural history. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska in 2002. Her recent publications focus on the evolution of the rodeo queen phenomena, and she is currently preparing a book for publication on that subject.
Neal Lynch is the Technical Services Manager at Cemex Concrete Division in Ontario, California, a graduate student in history at California State University, Fullerton, a member of Toastmasters International, a volunteer docent at the Lincoln Shrine Museum, and a teacher of U.S. citizenship at a local community center.
Sandra K. Mathews-Lamb teaches at Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln. She finished her Ph.D. in 1998 at the University of New Mexico in History (American West and Latin America). Currently, she is completing a biography of Donna Joy McGladrey and a manuscript on Pueblo Indian land grants (1600 to 1870).
Mary M. McCulloch teaches in the undergraduate Religious Studies Department at Mount St. Mary's College, Los Angeles. Prior to receiving her graduate degree, she spent 15 years working for Allstate Insurance Company as an underwriter and marketing manager.
Becky Jo (Gesteland) McShane is Assistant Professor at Weber State University, where she teaches classes in technical communication, literature, and composition. Her publications include articles on women's southwestern autobiographies and case studies of business writing. Her current research explores the professional writing of anthropologists Gladys Reichard and Fanny Bandelier.
Melissa L. Miller is currently pursuing a graduate degree in history from California State University, [Page xxi]Fullerton, while working as a food server at Alcatraz Brewing Company. She received her bachelor's degree from CSUF in 2001.
Linda Frances Mollno is a Lecturer in U.S. History and California History at both California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, and California State University, Los Angeles, and is a doctoral candidate in history at the Claremont Graduate University. She is writing her dissertation on the Pasadena Community Playhouse.
Danelle Moon is Adjunct Professor in the History Department at Central Connecticut State University, teaching U.S. and Women's History, and is Archivist in Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library. She is a trained Public Historian, independent researcher and scholar, and most recently published chapters in Law in the Western United States (2000) and California History: A Topical Approach (2003).
William Allan Myers holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Riverside, and is the author of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks of Southern California (1974), Iron Men and Copper Wires: A Centennial History of the Southern California Edison Company (1983), Nuclear Pioneer: The Story of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station's Unit One (1993), Ranchos to Residences: The Story of Sunny Slope Water Company (1994), and numerous articles and reviews.
Jeffrey Nichols is Assistant Professor of History at Westminster College in Salt Lake City, Utah, and a former officer in the U.S. Navy. His research interests include the social and environmental history of Utah and the rest of the American West.
Michelle L. Oropeza, a graduate of California State University, Fullerton, is a student at Whittier Law School.
Shannon Orr holds a B.A. from Humboldt State University (1997) and continues her graduate work while working at the Crown Plaza Irvine Hotel.
Heidi J. Osselaer teaches part time at Arizona State University and the Maricopa County Community College District. She received her Ph.D. in History from ASU in 2001.
Alonso Quezada received his B.A. in History at California State University, Fullerton, and is an M.A. candidate at CSUF.
Jamie Rasmussen was a cadet at the U.S. Air Force Academy.
Glenda L. Riley is Alexander M. Bracken Professor of History at Ball State University and the author of Inventing the American Woman (1987, 1995, 2001), The Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley (1994), A Place To Grow: Women in the American West (1992), and five other books.
Judy Ruttenberg is a librarian at the University of California, Irvine, libraries. Her M.A. in American History is from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and her M.L.S. is from the University of Maryland, College Park.
Dale H. Sawyers teaches high school government, economics, and U.S. history, and is pursuing a law degree at Western State University School of Law. He served 8 years on active duty in the U.S. Navy, completed his B.A. in History at the University of California, Riverside, and an M.A. in History from California State University, Fullerton.
Marcus J. Schwoerer is an independent scholar living in Southern California. He has published three articles in the Welebaethan: Journal of History and continues work on the American Civil War.
Charles Joseph Sedey is currently finalizing his master's degree in Military History at California State University, Fullerton. He has taught political science and U.S. history at Don Lugo High School for the past 8 years.
Jayne Sinegal is a librarian at Irvine Valley College and a graduate student in History at California State University, Fullerton. She received her A.B. in History in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley, her M.L.S. in Library Science in 1976, and an M.P.A. in 1978 from Golden Gate University. Her interests include Africa, slavery, women, and World War II.
Christopher Small is an avid reader and collector of Louis L'Amour, married, and a full-time graduate student. His interests are primarily 19th- and 20th-century American history, including the American West and World War II.
Sherry L. Smith is Professor of History at Southern Methodist University. Her research interests include American cultural, Native American, and western history. She is the author of several books, including [Page xxii]Reimagining Indians: Native Americans Through Anglo-Eyes, 1880–1940 (2002).
John Joseph Stanley is a Los Angeles County Deputy Sheriff who has written extensively on the history of Los Angeles County jails. His recent publications on this subject appeared in Law in the Western United States (2001) and California History: A Topical Approach (2003).
Michelle A. Stretch is an independent researcher living in Yorba Linda, California.
Carolyn Stull joined the U.S. Navy to see the world and saw Norfolk, Virginia, from 1991 to 1995. She is working toward a teaching certificate to teach social sciences to junior high school students.
Trangdai Tranguyen is the Director of the Vietnamese American Project, Center for Oral & Public History, at California State University, Fullerton.
Philip R. VanderMeer is Associate Professor of History at Arizona State University. His areas of expertise include political, legal, and western history. His recent publications include Phoenix Rising: The Making of a Desert Metropolis (2002) and “The Historical Patterns of Arizona Leadership” in Building Leadership in Arizona, Arizona Town Hall 80 (Spring 2002).
Debra A. Viles is a Ph.D. candidate at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Her dissertation examines the constructions of citizenship in the American antebellum state constitutions and the meaning of this hierarchy of rights and liberties for foreigners, women, and African Americans.
Kelly A. Woestman is Associate Professor of History at Pittsburg (Kansas) State University. She has authored history, a CD-ROM published by Houghton Mifflin, along with several other instructor and student ancillaries. She is a coeditor of H-Teach and serves on the Kansas Territorial Sesquicentennial Advisory Committee.
Michael G. Woods is a graduate student at California State University, Fullerton. He edits the Welebaethan: Journal of History, has taught history in private education for the last 11 years, and is currently a California Historical Society Whitsett Student Fellow.
We are pleased to offer this Encyclopedia of Women in the American West as part of the Sage family of reference books. We intend this volume to be used by the reading public in conjunction with other Sage publications, particularly Angela M. Howard & Frances M. Kavenik's Handbook of American Women's History (second edition) published in 2000. Because our focus is regional and follows this Sage reference work of greater breadth, we strongly advise our readers to consult both works in terms of fully informing research and knowledge in the growing field of women's studies.
For us the West is west of the 100th meridian. This is where explorers, pioneers, and present-day environmentalists confronted the fact of aridity. We know this is a contested definition, and in our book Where is the West? (2001) we set out the scholarly debate regarding the changing definition of what constitutes the West.
Your editors have traveled a long scholarly path to this point. Professor Bakken benefited from the insights of William L. O'Neill in the 1960s as he pioneered women's history at the University of Wisconsin and from the scholarship of and friendships with Anne Butler, Betsy Jameson, Sandra Mathews-Lamb, Glenda Riley, Janet Schmeizer, Sherry L. Smith, Sandra VanBurkleo, and Kelly A. Woestman in the three decades that followed. Professor Farrington studied women's history as part of American legal history in the 1980s and benefited from the counsel of Glenna Matthews and Glenda Riley, who expanded her scholarly reach and inquiry. She has taught women's history at a variety of institutions and continues her scholarly inquiry as part of that instructional enterprise. In 2000 we produced a six-volume work titled The American West, with one of the volumes titled The Gendered West. Encyclopedia of Women in the American West continues our mutual quest to capture the lives of women in the West and to contextualize their experiences and contributions to American society.
We recognize that our selections for this encyclopedia are limited amid a rapidly growing field of women's history, women's studies, and feminist studies. Even within the West, a field with explosive scholarly tendencies since the 1980s, we have attempted both a selective and a suggestive set of entries. Some of the entries are topical, others biographical. Some entries survey the existing literature and provide a research bibliography. Debra Hansen of the San Jose State University School of Library and Information Science provides such an entry on women's clubs in the American West. Some of the entries pull together existing historiography and put forward research findings. Danelle Moon's work in librarianship in California is suggestive of the potentialities of such research. Our authors have produced some material not in print in any venue. Others have reworked fields of long-term scholarly interest. We trust that the combination will be useful to all readers, and encourage interest in further research. In that light, we have an entry on research strategies in the Appendix and encourage all to read it before entering the pages of our enterprise.—California State University, Fullerton—Fullerton College
The Chronology of America and its Women[Page 329]
1804- Lewis and Clark explore the West with the help of
1821 Emma Willard founds the Troy Female Seminary; Mexico grants Stephen Austin the right to settle in Texas with 300 families
1828 Sarah Josepha Hale founds the American Ladies' Magazine
1829 Fannie Baker Darden, “The Poet Laureate of Columbus, Texas,” born
1832 Harriet Bunce Wright is teacher/cofounder of Wheelock Academy, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory
1833 Lydia Maria Child publishes An Appeal for That Class of Americans Called Africans
1836 Sarah Josepha Hale becomes editor of Godey's Lady's Book; Eliza Hart Spalding and Narcissa Whitman become the first two white women to cross the Rocky Mountains on their way to Oregon; Emily Morgan (Emily D. West) becomes the Yellow Rose of Texas for her exploits in the Texas war with Mexico
1839 Mary Avery Loughridge becomes a teacher at the Koweta Manual Labor Boarding School, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory
1841 Nancy Kelsey departs Missouri for California with the Bartleson/Bidwell Company
1846 Susan Shelby Magoffin sets off down the Santa Fe Trail
1847 Tamsen Donner dies in Donner Pass, the victim of a man who would not ask for directions; Mary Bridget Hayden arrives at Osage Mission Government School
1848 Women's Rights Convention held at Seneca Falls, New York
1849 Elizabeth Blackwell receives a medical degree from Geneva College; Gold Rush to California begins
1852 Vicar Apostolic Jean-Baptiste Lamy accompanies the first Sisters of Loretto to New Mexico with Mother Magdalen Hayden as their first superior
1853 Sisters of Loretto open the Academy of Our Lady of Light in Santa Fe
1855 Sara Robinson arrives in Lawrence, Kansas
1856 Elizabeth Fulton Hester, teacher/founder of Muskogee Day Nursery, begins 70 years of service to American Indian people in Oklahoma
1859 Mary Bridget Hayden named mother superior at Osage Mission School; Clear Creek, Colorado, and “Comstock Lode” in Nevada strikes continue migration to mining regions
1864 Eliza Wood Burhans Farnham's Woman and Her Era published
1865 The first all-women's college founded: Vassar
1867 Kansas legislature refuses to extend voting rights to women; Mollie Evelyn Moore Davis's Minding the Gap published; Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) founded
1868 Laura de Force Gordon delivers her first speech for woman suffrage in California
1869 Wyoming Territory passes a female suffrage statute; Eagle Woman takes over the Grand River Agency trading post; National Woman Suffrage [Page 330]Association founded; American Woman Suffrage Association founded; Transcontinental Railroad completed
1870 Utah Territory passes a female suffrage statute
1871 Lawrence, Kansas, Friends in Council founded
1872 Kate Flint opens a brothel two blocks from Temple Square in Salt Lake City; Victoria Woodhull runs for president of the United States
1873 Abigail Scott Duniway named president of the Oregon Equal Suffrage Association; (Women's) Home Companion founded
1874 Women's Christian Temperance Union established; Occidental Mission Home for Girls opened by the Presbyterian church to minister to Asian females in San Francisco; Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) emerges as a national organization from its midwestern roots
1876 Oakland Ebell Society founded; Annie Oakley outshoots Frank Butler in a demonstration of world-class marksmanship
1877 Salt Lake City Lady's Literary Society founded; Elizabeth Culver elected first female school superintendent in Hamilton County, Kansas
1878 Clara Shortridge Foltz is the first woman admitted to the California bar; Buffalo Calf Road leads Cheyenne in battle against the U.S. Army; Caroline M. Severance founds the Los Angeles Women's Club
1879 Frances Willard named president of the WCTU
1880 Mary E. Foy appointed the first Los Angeles City Librarian
1881 First suffrage bill introduced in Arizona Territorial Legislature
1882 Association of Collegiate Alumnae founded
1883 Washington Territory extends voting rights and jury service to women, but the statutes are declared unconstitutional by the Territorial Supreme Court; Sarah Winnemucca's Life Among the Piutes published; Mary Hallock Foote's The Led-Horse Claim published; Ladies Home Journal founded
1885 Mary Elizabeth “Hell Raising” Lease admitted to the Kansas bar; Good Housekeeping founded
1886 Rebecca Lee Dorsey opens a medical practice in Los Angeles
1887 Congress disfranchises women in Utah Territory with the Edmunds-Tucker Act
1889 Ella L. Knowles passes the Montana bar examination with distinction; Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr establish Hull House in Chicago
1890 Wyoming is admitted as a state with woman suffrage, the first in the nation; General Federation of Women's Clubs founded
1891 Sophie Alice Callahan's Wynema published; Friday Morning Club of Los Angeles founded; Katherine Drexel founded the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Colored and Indian People
1893 Colorado amends its constitution to grant women the vote
1896 Utah enters the union with woman suffrage; Idaho adopts a woman suffrage amendment to the state constitution; woman suffrage lost at the polls in California
1898 Freda Ehmann starts the Ehmann Olive Company in Oroville, California
1900 Carrie Nation starts her prohibition campaign at the Cary Hotel in Wichita, Kansas; Donaldina MacKenzie Cameron becomes superintendent of the Mission Home of the Women's Occidental Board of Foreign Missions in San Francisco
1902 St. Frances Xavier Cabrini visits Denver
1903 Women first compete in rodeo at Cheyenne Frontier Days; Mary Hunter Austin's The Land of Little Rain published; Women's Trade Union League founded
1904 Annette Abbott Adams is the first woman to graduate from the University of California, Berkeley, Boalt Hall School of Law
1905 Alice Eastwood's A Handbook of the Trees of California published
1906 Elsie Clews Parson's The Family published; Bertha Muzzy Sinclair's Chip, of the Flying U published
1908 Woman's Club of Huntington Beach, California, founded
1910 Frances Marion signs a contract with Bosworth Studios; Alice Stebbins Wells becomes the first [Page 331]policewoman of the Los Angeles Police Department
1911 California extends the franchise to women; Triangle Shirtwaist fire in New York kills 146 workers, mostly women
1912 Kansas and Arizona extend the franchise to women
1913 Montana and Nevada extend the franchise to women; Willa Cather's O Pioneers! published
1914 Gloria Bullock graduates from the University of Southern California Law School
1915 Alice Stebbins Wells organizes the International Association of Policewomen; Woman's Peace Party founded
1916 Annie Webb Blanton becomes the first female president of the Texas State Teachers Association; Jeannette Rankin of Montana elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1917 North Dakota and Nebraska extend presidential suffrage to women
1918 Minne Grinstead becomes the first woman elected to the Kansas legislature
1920 Nineteenth Amendment ratified giving women the right to vote; Nellie Trent Bush elected to the Arizona Legislature; Hildegarde Flanner's Younger Girl and Other Poems published; Ruth Murray Underhill's White Moth published
1921 National Woman's Party starts a state-by-state campaign for an Equal Rights Bill; Sheppard-Towner Act passes in Congress to provide maternal and infant health education; Alice Mary Robertson (R-Okla.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1923 Aimee Semple McPherson opens the Angelus Temple in Los Angeles; Mae Ella Nolan (R-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Congress holds hearings on an Equal Rights Amendment
1924 Miriam “Ma” Amanda Wallace Ferguson elected governor of Texas
1925 Emma Grigsby Meharg appointed first female Secretary of State in Texas; Edith Eunice Therrel Wilmans appointed to the Texas Supreme Court; Florence Prag Kahn (R-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1926 Margie Elizabeth Neal becomes the first woman elected to the Texas Senate; Laura Scudder introduces Mayflower Chips to California
1929 Florence “Pancho” Barnes wins the First Women's Air Race in Glendale, California; Ruth Leah Bunzel's The Pueblo Potter is published; Isabella Selmes Greenway (D-Ariz.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1930 Jessie Daniel Ames helps found the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching
1931 Ruth Winifred Brown elected president of the Oklahoma Library Association; Gloria Bullock is the first woman appointed to the California Superior Court bench
1932 Helen S. Richt graduates from the veterinary medicine program at Kansas State University; Ella Cara Deloria's Dakota Texts published; Amelia Earhart makes her solo flight over the Atlantic
1933 Kathryn O'Loughlin (McCarthy) (D-Kan.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1934 Gladys Amanda Reichard's Spider Woman published
1935 Sarah Tilghman Hughes becomes first woman to serve as a Texas district judge; Mari Sandoz's Old Jules published
1936 Katherine Cheung obtains her commercial pilot's license; Nina Otero Warren's Old Spain in Our Southwest published; Mary McLeod Bethune named Negro Affairs Director of the National Youth Administration
1937 Nan Wood Honeyman (D-Ore.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1938 Lorna Lockwood elected to the Arizona legislature
1939 Cleofas Martinez Jaramillo's Cuentos del hogar/Spanish Fairy Tales published; Elsie Clews Parson's Pueblo Indian Religion published
1940 Jeannette Rankin of Montana wins a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives a second time
1941 Agnes Morley Cleaveland's No Life for a Lady published
1942 Charlotte Winter King wins a seat on the South Pasadena City Council; Maria Tallchief becomes [Page 332]America prima ballerina with Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo
1944 Mildred Jeffrey and Lillian Hatcher lead the United Auto Workers Women's Bureau
1945 Helen Gahagan Douglas (D-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1947 Rose Hum Lee completes her doctorate at the University of Chicago; Georgia Lee Lusk (D-N. Mex.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1948 Marie Callender starts selling her pies commercially to Long Beach, California eateries
1949 Georgia Neese Clark Gray named U.S. Treasurer; Reva Boone (D-Utah) elected to U.S. House of Representatives
1953 Ivy Baker Priest appointed U.S. Treasurer; Kinsey Report issued; Gracie Pfost (D-Idaho) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1955 Adlai Stevenson exhorts Smith College graduates to become republican mothers; Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon found the Daughters of Belitis in San Francisco; Rosa Parks refuses to sit in the “colored” section of a Montgomery, Alabama bus; Edith Green (D-Ore.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1958 Donna Joy McGladrey starts teaching in Alaska
1959 Ruth Handler creates Barbie; Catherine Dean May (R-Wash.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1960 Alice Ramsey named Woman Motorist of the Century; Julia Butler Hansen (D-Wash.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1963 Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique published; Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, issues its report and only Marguerite Rewalt supports an Equal Rights Amendment; Equal Pay Act becomes law
1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 becomes law
1966 Barbara Jordan elected to the Texas Senate; National Organization of Women founded; Ivy Baker Priest elected Treasurer of California; Lera Thomas (D-Tex.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1968 Shirley Ann Mount Hufstedler appointed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals; Kuniko Terasawa receives the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Zuiosho-5th Class
1969 Hattie Burnstad is named Washakie County, Wyoming, teacher of the year
1971 Octavia Butler's Crossover published
1972 Barbara Jordan elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Sarah Ragle Weddington is the first woman elected to the Texas House of Representatives; Title IX of the Higher Education Act becomes law, increasing access to higher education for women, particularly athletics; Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm runs for president of the United States; the journal Women's Studies founded; the journal Feminist Studies founded; Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution approved by Congress; Patricia Schroeder (D-Colo.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1973 Sarah Ragle Weddington successfully argues Roe v. Wade; Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in a tennis match; Yvonne Brathwaite Burke (D-Calif.) and Barbara Jordan (D-Tex.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1974 Leslie Marmon Silko's Laguna Woman Poems published; Mary Ann Graf is the first female graduate of the University of California, Davis, enology program; March Fong Eu elected California's first female Secretary of State
1975 The journal Signs founded; Congress mandates that U.S. military academies admit women; Shirley Pettis (R-Calif.), Martha Keys (D-Kan.), and Virginia Smith (R-Nev.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1976 Maxine Hong Kingston's The Warrior Woman published
1977 Rose Elizabeth Bird becomes the first female Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court; United Nations International Women's Year declared; Phyllis Schlafly's The Power of the Positive Woman published
1978 Sally K. Ride joins NASA
1979 Mildred Imach Cleghorn named chair of Fort Sill Apache tribe; Dorothy Wright Nelson appointed to [Page 333]the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals; Ruth Murray Underhill's Papago Woman published
1980 Kathleen M. Conley is the first woman to graduate from the U.S. Air Force Academy
1981 Margaret Coel's Chief Left Hand: Southern Arapaho published; Linda Hogan's Daughters, I Love You published; Molly Ivins takes a job with the Dallas Times Herald; Bobbi Fiedler (R-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1982 A sufficient number of states fail to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment
1983 Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.), Sala Burton (D-Calif.), and Barbara Vucanocick (R-Nev.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Sally K. Ride is first female in space on the shuttle Challenger
1984 Gloria Anzaldua's Borderlands/La frontera: The New Mestiza published; Cynthia Holcomb Hall appointed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
1985 Jan Meyers (R-Kan.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1987 Linda M. Hasselstrom's Going Over East published; National Museum of Women in the Arts opens in Washington, D.C.; Wilma Mankiller becomes Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation; Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1988 Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club published; Dr. Mae C. Jemison becomes first African American woman in space; Congress passes the Family Support Act to collect from “deadbeat dads”
1989 Joyce Kennard appointed to the California Supreme Court; Patricia Schroeder's Champion of the Great American Family published; Jolene Unsoeld (D-Wash.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1990 Ann Richards elected governor of Texas; Maxine Waters elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1991 Congresswoman Patricia Schroeder's rider to a Department of Defense bill leads to the assignment of women to combat aircraft
1992 Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) elected to the U.S. Senate
1993 Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) elected to the U.S. Senate; Mary Crow Dog's Ohitika Woman published; Janet Campbell Hale's Bloodlines published; Karan English (D-Ariz.), Anna Eshoo (D-Calif.), Jane Harman (D-Calif.), Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-Calif.), Lynne Schenk (D-Calif.), Lynn Woolsey (D-Calif.), Elizabeth Furse (D-Ore.), Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-Tex.), Karen Sheperd (D-Utah), Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.), and Jennifer Dunn (D-Wash.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Wilma Mankiller's Mankiller: A Chief and Her People published
1994 Kathryn M. Werdegar appointed to the California Supreme Court
1995 Eileen M. Collins of San Antonio, Texas, becomes first woman to fly the space shuttle; Zoe Lofgren (D-Calif.), Andrea Seastrand (R-Calif), Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-Calif.), Helen Chenoweth (R-Idaho), Darlene Hooley (D-Ore.), Sheila Jackson-Lee (D-Tex.), Enid Green (Waldholtz) (R-Utah), Linda Smith (R-Wash.), and Barbara Cubin (R-Wyo.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1996 Janice Rogers Brown appointed to the California Supreme Court
1997 Ellen Tauscher (D-Calif.), Loretta Sanchez (D-Calif.), Diana DeBette (D-Colo.), and Kay Granger (R-Tex.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Maria Tallchief receives Kennedy Center Honor
1998 Patricia Schroeder's 24 Years of House Work… and the Place is Still a Mess published; Lois Capps (D-Calif.), Mary Bono (R-Calif.), Barbara Lee (D-Calif.), and Heather Wilson (R-N. Mex.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1999 Dawnine Dyer named Mentor of the Year by winemakers; Team USA wins Women's World Cup of soccer; Eileen M. Collins becomes the first woman space shuttle commander; Shelley Berkley (D-Nev.) and Grace Napolitano (D-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
[Page 334]2000 U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Tex.) named Border Texan of the Year
2001 Rosario Marin named U.S. Treasurer; Susan Davis (D-Calif.), Hilda Solis (D-Calif.), and Diane Watson (D-Calif.) elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
2002 Delphine Red Shirt's Turtle Lung Woman's Granddaughter published
2003 Representative Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) named House Democratic Whip
Women's Organizations[Page 335]Quick Reference
Association of Black Women Historians http://labwh.tcnj.edu
Berkshire Conference of Women Historians http://www.berkconference.org
Coordinating Council for Women in History http://theccwh.org
National Women's History Project http://www.nwhp.org
Western Association of Women Historians http://www.wawh.org
Women's Studies Section, Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association http://www.ala.org/acrl/wss/wsshp.htmlAdditional Sites of Interest
Alice Paul Centennial Foundation
PO Box 1376
Mt. Laurel, NJ
American Historical Association
Women & Minorities
400 A Street, SE
Washington, DC 20003
Assoc. of Black Women Historians
Dr. Barbara Woods, Director
South Carolina State University
Department of History
Orangeburg, SC 29117
Butte Women's Labor History Project
Ellen Crain, Director
Butte Silver Bow Public Archives
Butte, MT 59703
Colorado Coalition for Women's History
c/o Marcia Goldstein
PO Box 673
Denver, CO 80206
Coordinating Committee for Women Historians
c/o Kimberly Jensen
Western Oregon State University
Monmouth, OR 97361
Foundation for Women's Resources
Candace O'Keefe, Director
3500 Jefferson, Suite 210
Austin, TX 78731
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Women's History and Resource Center
1734 N Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
International Women's Air and Space Museum
26 North Main Street
Centerville, OH 45459
Italian-American Women's History Project
c/o Lola Rozzi
3531 Kutztown Road
Laureldale, PA 19605
[Page 336]Montana Women's History Project
c/o Jennifer Hisatomi
University of Montana
University Center 210
Missoula, MT 59812
National Women's History Museum
Post Office Box 1296
Annandale, VA 22003
National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame
111 West 4th Street, # 300
Ft. Worth, TX 76102
National Women's History Project
3345 Industrial Drive, Suite 3
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
(707) 636–2909 FAX
On-line form: Order our free catalog
Nevada Women's History Project
c/o Jean Ford
1048 N Sierra, #A
Reno, NV 89503
Pioneer Woman Museum
c/o Jan Prough
701 Monument Road
Ponca City, OK 74604
Rogue Valley Women's History Project
c/o Marilyn Boje
PO Box 674
Ashland, OR 97520
Women's Heritage Museum
Elizabeth Colton, President
PO Box 642370
San Francisco, CA 94164–2370
Women's History Reclamation Project
Mary Lou C. Sulentich, Exec. Director
2323 Broadway, Suite 103
San Diego, CA 92102
Washington Women Historians
c/o Sarah Larson
1668 Wainwright Drive
Reston, VA 20190–3432
Women's History Research Center
c/o American Heritage Center
University of Wyoming, Box 3924
Laramie, WY 82071–3924
Researching Women's History: Access and Strategy in the Electronic Age[Page 337]
Over the last 3 decades, the academy has witnessed a proliferation of scholarship across the disciplines on women, and more recently, on gender. Along with the growth of women's studies as an academic discipline, women's history has increasingly filled the pages of books, journals, conference panels, and curricula. Women's historians now have colleagues and collaborators in area studies, anthropology, sociology, communications, literary criticism, and beyond. Historians of the American West, too, have been engaged in an active cross-disciplinary discussion.
The explosion of such varied historical scholarship in the last quarter century has coincided with rapid advances in information technologies and systems of information retrieval. Researchers face important challenges as they attempt to navigate this information arena—both inside the walls of libraries and special collections and in an increasingly electronic, Web-based environment. First, the terminology and classification schemes used to describe (and hence access) research materials are themselves historically constructed. Second, interdisciplinary research continues to be constrained by the highly structured internal organization of academic disciplines and the manner in which academic research is published. This essay will raise the reader's general awareness of the structure of information, impart concrete library skills, and introduce tools and resources for mediating the quest for interdisciplinary historical literature.The Literature
Modern historical inquiry is based on the examination of primary documents—to analyze and tell stories about the past using its contemporaneous evidence. Historians rely on secondary source materials—books, journal articles, conference presentations, and other forms of published scholarly communication—to provide context and background for original investigations and to engage in interpretive dialogue. Bibliographies, abstracting and indexing services, and, increasingly, Web-based pathfinders make up a third category of tertiary literature—or sources that compile and otherwise direct students and scholars to primary and secondary material. The concurrence of electronic publishing and increased interdisciplinarity among women's historians and historians of the American West has influenced the access to and availability of all forms of historical literature. The savvy researcher will need to make use of new research strategies to identify, locate, and keep pace with it all.
Women's studies and social history are “highscatter” fields—with needed information dispersed throughout many different journals and books, indexed by different databases, and recorded and preserved in different locales. Electronic databases, full-text journal articles, digitized archival and manuscript materials, and electronic books have emerged to serve history students and professional historians alike, and proficiency in accessing resources in electronic format is now essential. However, research strategies also must include an understanding of the physical arrangement and description of books, manuscripts, and other forms of printed scholarly text and communication, as some of these materials remain in printed form, and even as others are converted to digital formats. Historians must apply the same evaluative skills they use every day to determine the context and voice of documents, to understand the tools and terrain of the information and resources in which they are searching and browsing. Information by and about women itself has a history that shapes research strategy and success.[Page 338]Primary Sources
Traditionally the domain of archives, manuscript repositories, historical societies, and library special collections, unpublished primary source material is assembled, described, and preserved based on prevailing social and intellectual values and professional archival judgment. To locate source material, researchers can consult comprehensive finding aids such as the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC) and more specialized volumes such as Women in the West: A Guide to Manuscript Sources, which compile information about the scope and location of existing collections. The Internet has vastly expanded and facilitated the process of identifying and locating potential archival and manuscript collections for research and afforded smaller projects and sources increased visibility and access. Prominent examples of Web sites include the geographically arranged Archival Sites for Women's Studies (http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edu/~mfpankin/archwss.htm). Ken Middleton's American Women's History: A Research Guide (http://www.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women.html) organizes sites by type or format of material. Middleton's extensive guide also includes practical tips on using online library catalogs to find published primary documents. Finally, online versions of NUCMC (http://www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc/nucmc.html) for the United States, and subscription products such as OCLC's union catalog WorldCat (international), Chadwyk-Healey's ArchivesUSA, and RLG Archival Resources, also figure prominently in the historian's electronic library by providing keyword access to cataloged archival and manuscript collections.
Some special collections and manuscript repositories have also digitized their collections, making scanned page images of unique materials available worldwide. Examples of fully digitized, online collections of primary source documents continue to grow, either through locally funded projects or national initiatives such as the Library of Congress American Memory Project (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amhome.html). American Memory has spawned sites such as History of the American West: 1860–1920, a collection of photographs from the Denver Public Library. Among universities, the University of California, Berkeley's, Bancroft Library (http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/collections) is distinguished for depth and breadth of research material on the American West available online, including the California Heritage Collection.
Finally, both free and commercial Web-based products not only make available full-text diaries, historical periodicals, court cases, statutes, speeches, census data, letters, and many other sources online, but they often integrate them and index them in ways that facilitate new kinds of historical inquiry. Noteworthy examples include Alexander Street Press's North American Women's Letters and Diaries and Early Encounters.Secondary SourcesMonographs
Most academic libraries in the United States arrange their print collections using the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) system—which assigns an alphanumeric code (or call number) corresponding to subject arrangement and shelf location. Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) terms describe the collections, and although that language has changed over time, LCSH terms chronically trail current academic vernacular. Its embedded gender hierarchies (e.g., “lawyers” and “women lawyers”) also endure. Since its development as a classification scheme at the turn of the 20th century, the LCC system has evolved to reflect the ordering of traditional academic disciplines. Research materials appropriate for women's history and other interdisciplinary studies are physically dispersed throughout the library, and can only be identified comprehensively by navigating the entire system—from A (General works) to Z (Bibliographies). Subject terms schematically link items in different classification ranges, and library users can search online catalogs by keyword (finding words in titles, multiple subject terms, and sometimes additional notes) to create lists of desired material. But literature on the information-seeking behavior of historians and other humanists suggests a strong penchant for browsing. If serendipitous identification of new works through browsing library stacks often leads to important new discoveries, it also takes place in a decidedly ordered, discipline-oriented context, which may obscure other useful materials from view. The most successful researchers will harness the power and functionality of online retrieval systems by combining keyword and subject searches, maintaining a productive skepticism of the way information is organized, and employing analytical and creative approaches to research.[Page 339]Journals
Since the early 1970s, feminism as a social movement and women's studies as an academic discipline have influenced scholarship throughout the academy. As articles about women and gender increasingly appear in discipline-based journals (in the humanities and social sciences and, more recently, in the sciences), scholarship also is flourishing in women's studies periodicals such as Signs and Feminist Studies. Historians seeking recent interdisciplinary scholarship on women should therefore be aware of several challenges of bibliographic access to women's studies and women's history content in academic journals.
Scholars are often compelled by the tenure process to publish in the journals of their home discipline. Women's history and related articles might therefore appear in journals of anthropology, literature, and sociology, as well as economics, medicine, and beyond. A variety of online databases (the electronic counterparts of print indexing and abstracting services) associated with each academic subject will index these discipline-based journals. At the same time, scholars also publish articles of interest to women's historians in peer-reviewed women's studies journals. And while a wide range of discipline-based databases may index women's studies journals, they often do so selectively and in ways that reflect a more traditional disciplinary bias or perspective.
Women's studies databases such as Women's Resources International and the full-text Contemporary Women's Issues and GenderWatch provide more comprehensive access to women's studies journals, but cannot fully capture the gender-related content available from subject-specific periodical literature. Finally, at the intersection of what in interdisciplinary studies is separated into “women's history” and “ethnic studies” lies a rich literature on ethnic minority and international women, which is even further dispersed. Like women's studies journals, ethnic studies journals are themselves marginalized by traditional subject indexes, and access to content on women may be further scattered in their pages. While literature in many academic fields is scattered, such relatively new and inherently interdisciplinary categories of inquiry as gender or ethnicity increase the extent to which needed materials are located across literature in numerous disciplines.Tertiary Sources
Bibliographies and other tertiary sources of compiled research are standard tools for historians. Attempts to assemble citations from disparate disciplines and provide reviews and summaries in subject handbooks represent a critical component of the information infrastructure that facilitates comprehensive retrieval. Bibliographies also may be published as Web-based pathfinders to an integrated mix of print and electronic sources.
The principal online databases in history, ABC-CLIO's Historical Abstracts and America: History & Life, have greatly enhanced historians' access to history journals of recent decades, through sophisticated search interfaces and indexing appropriate to the structure of the discipline. As noted, however, interdisciplinary research projects in women's history require searching across multiple subject-oriented indexes in the social sciences, humanities, and sciences. As well as including different content, each database has its own indexing structure and set of subject terms to describe included material. Similar to library catalogs, online keyword access to these indexes obviates some of the need to master each database's unique set of subject terms, but successful searchers understand that subject terms exist to describe and link related materials, and use these to supplement keyword searches and expand retrieval.
Further complicating the picture are studies revealing that women's studies journals are generally underindexed by the discipline-based subject databases. For example, while databases such as America: History & Life, with its comparatively strong interdisciplinary content, yield citations from women's studies journals, they do not necessarily include all relevant articles from them. Relevance to the historical discipline may not always correspond to relevance to the individual researcher. From 1975 to 2000, America: History & Life contains 293 abstracts of articles from Signs—an average of 12 articles per year, or slightly more than 10% of the articles published in Signs during that period. The articles selected for inclusion were identified for their significance to history and the database's geographic scope (United States and Canada). Articles not selected, however, still might be relevant to U.S. women's historians, based on topic, method, or approach. Researchers should be aware of the selection criteria of any information tool they consult, with consideration to limitations those criteria [Page 340]may place—disciplinary, geographic, etc.—on the interdisciplinary study of women and gender.Conclusion
How information is produced, collected, preserved, categorized, and accessed reflects (and shapes) the society in which it originated. Successful researchers will be aware of these categories and critically interrogate the content and structure of the tools available to them. If libraries, online databases, Web sites, and other tools discussed in this article provide paths to needed research material, they themselves also constitute primary sources that reveal much about the social and political structure of information at the turn of the 21st century.—References and Recommended ReadingWomen in the West: A Guide to Manuscript Sources. New York: Garland, 1991.Women in LC's Terms: A Thesaurus of Library of Congress Subject Headings Relating to Women. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1988., , and .“Indexing Patterns of Periodical Literature on African American Women and U.S. Latinas,” in K. H. Gerhard, ed., Women's Studies Serials: A Quarter Century of Development. New York: Haworth Press, 1988, 167–196.“Indexing Adequacy and Interdisciplinary Journals: The Case of Women's Studies.” College & Research Libraries54(2)1993, , .“The Role and Impact of Library of Congress Classification on the Assessment of Women's Studies Collections.” Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory20(3)2691996, .“Beyond the Intellectual Meridian: Trans-disciplinary Studies of Women.” Pacific Historical Review611992“Going West and Ending Up Global.” Western Historical Quarterly32(1)2001http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3650835“Women's History in the New Millennium” (Panel Discussion). Journal of Women's History111999, , , .Abstracting, Information Retrieval and the Humanities: Providing Access to Historical Literature. Chicago: American Library Association, 1993.Interdisciplinary Information Seeking in Women's Studies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999.
Readings, Resources, and References[Page 341]“Ann Florence Wilson: Matriarch of the Cherokee Female Seminary.” Chronicles of Oklahoma67(4)(Winter 1989–1990).“Nora Naranjo-Morse.” I Stand in the Center of the Good: Interviews of Contemporary North American Artists. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.Abernethy, Francis Edward, ed. Legendary Ladies of Texas. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1994.Abram, Ruth J., ed. Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835–1920. New York: Norton, 1985.Acheson, Sam Hanna, Herbert P.Gambrell, Mary CarterToomey, and Alex M.AchesonJr., eds. Texian Who's Who: Vol. 1. Dallas, TX: Texian, 1937.“A Legacy of Education: The History of the Cherokee Seminaries.” Chronicles of Oklahoma63(2)(Summer 1985)“Resurrecting History's Forgotten Women: A Case Study From the Cheyenne Indians.” Frontiers6(3), .“An Experiment in Progressive Legislation: The Granting of Woman Suffrage in Utah in 1870.” Utah Historical Quarterly38(Winter, 1970).Utah, The Right Place. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs-Smith, 1995.“The Feminine Landscape of Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony,” in Paula Gunn Allen, ed., Studies in American Indian Literature: Critical Essays and Course Designs. New York: Modern Language Association, 1983.“Progressive Spirit: The Oklahoma and Indian Territory Federation of Women's Clubs.” Chronicles of Oklahoma66(1)(Spring 1988)4–19American Medical Association. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S., 2003/2004 Edition. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/print/article/168-185.html.American Medical Association. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/print/article/168-191.html.American Police Hall of Fame. “Officer of the Year 1996: Corporal Regina Bonny.” http://www.aphf.org.Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1998.Narrative of the Veterinary Profession in California. San Francisco: Joseph M. Arburua, 1966.“Tireless Kuniko Terasawa Is the Force Behind a Newspaper Almost no One Can Read.” People Weekly(September 25, 1989).Armitage, Susan, and ElizabethJamison, eds. The Women's West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.Women in the West: A Guide to Manuscript Sources. New York: Garland, 1991.Arnold, Ellen, ed. “Listening to the Spirits: An Interview with Leslie Marmon Silko,” in Conversions with Leslie Marmon Silko. 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