Encyclopedia of Transnational Crime & Justice

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Edited by: Margaret E. Beare

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      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Margaret E. Beare holds the position of professor of sociology and law at York University. She served from 1996 to 2006 as the first director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, located at Osgoode Hall Law School. Her career combines academic teaching with research and policy development. She worked in the area of police research for 11 years with the Department of the Solicitor General Canada and served two years as director of Police Policy and Research. She brings an international perspective to her work. Her previous publications include Criminal Conspiracies, Organized Crime in Canada (1996); Major Issues Relating to Organized Crime (with Tom Naylor); Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering and Corruption (edited, 2003); Money Laundering in Canada: The Chasing of Dirty and Dangerous Dollars (co-authored with S. Schneider, 2007); Police and Government Relations: Who's Calling the Shots (co-edited with Tonita Murray, 2007); and Honouring Social Justice: Honouring Dianne Martin (edited, 2009) in honor of a colleague at Osgoode Hall Law School.

      List of Contributors

      Justin Lewis Abold, Oxford University

      Nahel N. Asfour, University of Vienna

      Julie Ayling, Australian National University

      Elena Azaola, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social

      Margaret E. Beare, York University

      Marcel F. Beausoleil, Fitchburg State University

      Michael Paul Beltran, United States District Court

      Giulia Berlusconi, Università Cattolica/Transcrime

      Kiara A. Booth, Knox College

      Sarah E. Boslaugh, Kennesaw State University

      Paul Brienza, York University

      Benjamin E. Brockman-Hawe, Independent Scholar

      Thomas F. Brown, Virginia Wesleyan College

      Francesco Calderoni, Università Cattolica/Transcrime

      Stefano Caneppele, Università Cattolica/Transcrime

      John R. Cencich, California University of Pennsylvania

      John Martyn Chamberlain, Loughborough University

      Jacqueline Suzanne Chavez, Mississippi State University

      Silvia Ciotti, EuroCrime—Research, Training and Consultancy

      Karen K. Clark, Independent Scholar

      Rochelle E. Cobbs, Mississippi Valley State University

      Gregory Cooper, University of Texas

      John Coxhead, University of Derby

      D. Larry Crumbley, Louisiana State University

      Matthew C. Dahl, Independent Scholar

      Marika Dawkins, Prairie View A&M University

      Joseph F. C. DiMento, University of California, Irvine

      O. Oko Elechi, Prairie View A&M University

      Charles L. Fisk Jr., Saint Leo University

      Jennifer Fleetwood, University of Kent

      Jason Friedman, Wasatch Academy

      Trevor Fronius, WestEd

      Angeles Garduño, Knox College

      Gilbert Geis, University of California, Irvine

      Camille Gibson, Prairie View A&M University

      Angela R. Gover, University of Colorado, Denver

      Kacper T. Gradon, University College London

      Neil Guzy, University of Pittsburgh, Greensburg

      Francis Frederick Hawley, Western Carolina University

      Jason A. Helfer, Knox College

      David C. Hicks, Independent Scholar

      Livia Holden, Lahore University of Management Sciences

      Jason R. Jolicoeur, Cincinnati State Technical and Community College

      Kimberly Jones, Northeastern University

      Christina-Vasiliki, Kanellopoulou, Independent Scholar

      Robert M. Keeton, University of Tennessee

      Guy Richard Kempster, Sheffield Hallam University

      Paula Bridget Kenny, Institute of Technology, Sligo

      Janine Kremlin, California State University, San Bernardino

      Bill Kte'pi, Independent Scholar

      Liam Leonard, Institute of Technology, Sligo

      Kristine Levan Miller, Plymouth State University

      Ben F. Linton II, Independent Scholar

      Keith Gregory Logan, Kutztown University

      Robert M. Lombardo, Loyola University, Chicago

      Nicholas Lord, Cardiff University

      Arthur J. Lurigio, Loyola University, Chicago

      Georgia Lysaght, University of Wollongong

      Rande W. Matteson, Saint Leo University

      Glenn P. McGovern, Santa Clara County District Attorney's Office

      Sharon A. Melzer, State University of New York, Plattsburgh

      Nancy Ann Morris, Southern Illinois University

      Travis Morris, Norwich University

      Barry D. Mowell, Broward College

      Giulia Mugellini, Università Cattolica/Transcrime

      Krishna Mungur, Solution Concepts Consulting

      Tony Murphy, University of Westminster

      Timothy J. O'Boyle, Kutztown University

      David Orrick, Norwich University

      Maria Pasqualetti, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

      Jessica Peake, University of Pennsylvania

      Adam R. Pearlman, Independent Scholar

      Mladen Pecujlija, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

      Anthony Petrosino, WestEd

      Wm. C. Plouffe Jr., Independent Scholar

      Carol J. Pretlow, Norfolk State University

      Michael J. Puniskis, Middlesex University

      Elizabeth Rholetter Purdy, Independent Scholar

      John V. Rafferty, Villanova University

      Blake M. Randol, Washington State University

      Harry M. Rhea, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

      Juan R. Rivera, Central Intelligence Retiree Association

      Pierre M. Rivolta, Sam Houston State University

      Cliff Roberson, Kaplan University

      Kelly Rodgers, Hamline University School of Law

      Michael D. Royster, Prairie View A&M University

      Gabriel Rubin, Montclair State University

      Edward J. Schauer, Prairie View A&M University

      Stephen T. Schroth, Knox College

      Richard Severns, Sheffield Hallam University

      Jeffrey Shantz, Kwantlen Polytechnic University

      Martha L. Shockey-Eckles, Saint Louis University

      Anne R. Siders, Independent Scholar

      Alka Simlot, South Jersey Legal Services

      Rupendra Simlot, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

      Alicia H. Sitren, University of North Florida

      Thomas M. Southard, University of Delaware

      Rachel Elizabeth Southworth, Cardiff University

      Toine Spapens, Tilburg University

      Peter Squires, University of Brighton

      Leonard A. Steverson, South Georgia College

      Victor B. Stolberg, Essex County College

      Elizabeth A. Tomsich, University of Colorado, Denver

      Marcella Bush Trevino, Barry University

      Alejandro Varela, Knox College

      Santiago Villaveces-Izquierdo, Independent Scholar

      Mark V. Vlasic, Georgetown University

      Robert F. Vodde, Fairleigh Dickinson University

      Debra Warner, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

      Stan C. Weeber, McNeese State University

      Rob White, University of Tasmania

      Robert D. Williams, United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit

      Tanya Wyatt, Northumbria University

      Marisha D. Ziajor, California State University, San Bernardino

      Introduction

      If there was a race between the forces of globalized economies and the capabilities of globalized governance, the economic factors rather than the regulatory mechanisms might be seen to be winning. Any market—for goods or services—can be exploited by criminals for profit, and the flow of commerce across borders adds to these criminal opportunities. The opening of trade in parts of the world that previously were closed and the movement of tourists and businesses around the globe, together with advances in technology and communication systems, have created unprecedented opportunities for legitimate entrepreneurs as well as those who are intent on using this openness for illicit gain. As the 2010 report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime, confirms, “Organized crime has diversified, gone global and reached macro-economic proportions.”

      Certainly local criminality continues. However, the advantages gained by crossing borders and moving from one jurisdiction to another have been recognized by criminals and by those professionals who facilitate the criminal activities. The disadvantages have been recognized by those professionals who try to bring the transnational criminals to justice and those who try to secure justice for the victims of these transnational criminals. Criminals, criminal products, and criminal proceeds cross borders. Presenting a one-volume “picture” of transnational crime together with a review of some of the domestic and international mechanisms to counter these crimes is the objective of this encyclopedia. This task of creating an encyclopedia on transnational crime and justice has necessarily meant that decisions were made as to what to include and what to omit. The objective was to identify the key issues. In some cases, these decisions reflect the impact on societies in general, or the more individualized personal harm that is entailed in certain illegal acts, or occasionally the timeliness of the controversies.

      The term transnational crime rather than organized crime was used in the title. By definition, transnational crimes involve border crossings as an integral part of the criminal activity. They also include crimes that take place in one country with consequences that significantly affect other countries. This encyclopedia does include transnational organized crime (transnational crime carried out by organized crime syndicates), but there is an awareness that all sophisticated crimes that cross borders may not be “organized” in any manner that resembles classic, Mafia-type structures. The entries address the shifting perspective of scholars regarding the nature of these structured organized crime operations. Although these crimes are included, so are those criminal operations that more closely resemble what Peter Reuter has termed “disorganized” crimes. Likewise, there is also an awareness of the role that so-called legitimate businesses and professional individuals play in criminal enterprises. Topics such as money laundering require that one recognizes lawyers, accountants, bank officials, and border officers to be among those who are vulnerable to exploitation—or on occasion who are active participants in the criminality. In addition to a blurring of criminals and professionals, the essential linkages between the legal and illegal economies are explored.

      The encyclopedia addresses the justice aspect as well as the criminal side of the equation. Not only does it define, describe, and chart the crimes and criminal activity; it also includes significant coverage of the policing of those crimes and their prosecution within domestic and international court systems. The mechanisms that are set up to “police” global criminals obviously must reach from the local and domestic agencies to the international regimes. As an indication of the continuum, the encyclopedia includes entries on domestic policing, intelligence agencies (including a sampling of national security agencies as well as international organizations such as the International Chiefs of Police, Interpol, and Europol), and recognition of the private enforcement work of contracted police and contracted military groups. In addition to the enforcement personnel, the adjudication systems stretch from the domestic to the international; the encyclopedia therefore covers the impact of the mega-trials of organized crime members or street gangs on court processes, diverse prosecution approaches, the International Criminal Court, war crime tribunals, and a bevy of nonstate bodies, such as the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Financial Action Task Force, and numerous conventions and protocols that have been signed and eventually ratified.

      Why Is This Topic Important?

      There has long been an interest in the exploits of high-profile “organized” mobsters—from historical accounts to the movies. Some of these high-profile individuals have risen above their crimes to take on mythic reputations, and in several cases, their funerals have assumed an aura of celebrity status. Meyer Lansky, Al Capone, the “Teflon Don” John Gotti, the rest of the notorious Five Families of New York, the Canadian Rizzutos, and mafiosi scattered around the world are the source of much media attention and massive law enforcement—with some significant arrests as recently as January 2011 for violations of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. To some extent, however, these violent hoodlums no longer dominate the current list of transnational concerns. With or without the Mafia, international drug, and human-trafficking operations, the exploitation of the environment for profit, the smuggling of both legal and illegal goods, the proliferation and illicit sale of weapons of all sorts, and some of the “oldest” crimes, including gambling, will continue. Rigid Mafia-type, structured criminal organizations have given way to more fluid networks of criminals, often revealing a complex interaction between legitimate professionals and those who are more permanently entrenched in crime.

      As international scholarship and government policies shift slightly away from a preoccupation with traditional forms of organized crime to a greater appreciation of “harm” as a measurement of seriousness, the encyclopedia places a greater emphasis on those transnational crimes that can

      • undermine economies, such as price-fixing, capital flight, tax evasion, and corruption;
      • exploit gender, such as sex slavery, child exploitation, gender-based violence, and pornography; and
      • bridge organized crime with terrorist activities, either in the sense of organized crimes that provide financial support for terrorist operations or in the sense of criminal acts that themselves serve to terrorize populations.

      International businesses rely on certain protections that are violated by criminals; such violations include copyright infringement, corporate influence peddling, price-fixing, telemarketing frauds, and the blurred distinctions between the paying of commissions to secure contracts and payoffs or bribes.

      Old notions of sovereignty are challenged. The refrain that “criminals cross borders, but police can't” must change. Laws and law enforcement must follow them across and through countries in order to combat transnational crimes and in order to make international justice regimes viable. At the same time that we recognize the need to open the borders to cross-border intelligence sharing and transnational policing—to compete with the increasing traffic by commerce, currency, and citizens—the border must simultaneously be strengthened to counter threats to security. Obviously, it is a difficult balance to maintain: an open border for business and enforcement, but closed to transnational criminality and terrorist threats. New collaborative working arrangements are being forged, with varying degrees of success. Mutual legal assistance treaties (MLATs) facilitate the gathering and sharing of police intelligence. The roles of Interpol and Europol continue to shift to meet some of the law-enforcement demands. Conventions and agreements encourage the “harmonization” of policies and legislation across nations.

      Current Issues

      While some topics may be prioritized differently depending on the jurisdiction, other topics appear to be nearly universal. Drug trafficking and the collateral damage caused by this industry continue to harm developing as well as developed countries. The encyclopedia includes entries that address legalization debates as well as specific entries on cocaine, heroin, cannabis (marijuana), and pharmaceuticals. Included as well are analyses of drug source countries, plus destination and transit routes. “Fighting” drug trafficking has lately consisted of going after the huge profits that are seen to be accrued by drug traffickers, and therefore the encyclopedia includes entries on anti-money-laundering efforts, civil and criminal forfeiture, joint-force policing initiatives, and an array of enforcement efforts against trafficking.

      As the international community strives toward the harmonization of policies and laws, there is an increased need to have confidence in the direction in which those policies are moving. Some of the internationally advocated enforcement activities are not without controversy. Among the relevant conventions, the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime plays a significant role in terms of its objective to “promote cooperation and combat transnational organized crime more effectively.” Anti-money-laundering laws, policies, and mechanisms have garnered an often hysterical international response. Countries are encouraged to criminalize participation in an organized criminal group, criminalize the laundering of the proceeds of crime, and put in place all of the measures deemed necessary to combat money laundering. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has been particularly aggressive in encouraging compliance, backed up by blacklisting and punishing those countries that fail to meet FATF's expectations. The final partner in this effort against money laundering is the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs). Together these nonstate organizations exert a strong influence on policy and legislation globally. Critics may question this “harmonized” focus on criminal membership, given the simultaneous recognition of fluid and more open criminal operations. However, in order to provide full coverage of the anti-money-laundering issue, the encyclopedia looks at the policing of laundering via the focus on the proceeds of crime and the increasing use of forfeiture (both civil and criminal). Certain sectors of the economy that are the most vulnerable to exploitation by launderers are identified—as are the linkages between legal and illegal economies. Given the recent focus on terrorist financing, the underground banking of informal value transfer systems has merited scrutiny as well.

      Frauds and scams, often perpetuated via the Internet, have become commonplace. We turn on our computers to be welcomed by an e-mail that invites us to make millions of dollars simply by sending a few dollars to Nigeria or elsewhere. There are too many of these schemes to cover, but the most typical and significant types are examined. Some frauds may target corporations or involve criminal behavior by corporations—such as copyright infringement, counterfeiting of goods or currency, forgery, financial fraud, accounting fraud, and price-fixing. As banks around the world have faced possible collapse with the worldwide recession that began in 2008, there has been a heightened concern over frauds of all types. Some of these frauds—such as massive pyramid schemes and accounting frauds—have left not just individuals but whole communities as victims and have even, to some extent, had an impact on the stability of entire economies.

      Several of the topics of course overlap. Charities—so essential in many communities—can also be vehicles for fraud, and following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, these have been recognized as potential sources of terrorist financing. Smuggling operations can involve more than one commodity, and in some cases different types of goods travel in each direction. Some of the enforcement agencies, such as intelligence agencies, that are essential in combating transnational crimes may themselves exploit criminal commodities to advance their own or their governments' objectives. Transnational criminals benefit greatly from the corruption of border officials, police, government officials, and white-collar professionals to assist with the hiding of their illicit proceeds.

      All of these separate topics are covered in this encyclopedia. In short, there is an endless number of topics to be covered and all areas of the world to be considered. We have tried to cover the essential issues that are priority topics in the widest number of regions of the globe.

      Margaret E.BeareEditor

      Chronology

      1856

      Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia sign the Declaration of Paris, agreeing that they will not engage privateers.

      1898

      The First Hague Convention adopts a number of principles regarding the laws of war and war crimes.

      1900

      The Lacey Act in the United States attempts to protect game species by prohibiting the sale or importation of plants, fish, and wildlife that have been taken illegally, as defined by the laws in the region where they were acquired.

      1912

      The International Opium Convention, the first international drug control treaty, is signed by the United States, Germany, France, China, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Japan, and Thailand; it goes into force globally in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles.

      1915

      The phrase “crime against humanity” is used in a statement by Britain, France, and Russia denouncing the Ottoman Empire's role in the Armenian genocide.

      1918

      The United States passes the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which prohibits the hunting, capture, or sale of migratory birds or any part of them, such as eggs and feathers. The act currently lists more than 800 species that are thus protected. The United States will later enter into agreements with other nations, including Canada and Mexico, to expand these protections.

      1919

      Prohibition begins in the United States with passage of the Volstead Act and the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibiting manufacture, sale, and transportation of “intoxicating liquors.” Ironically, one of Prohibition's effects is to strengthen organized crime and foster a culture of bootlegging across both national and state boundaries. Prohibition will be repealed in 1933.

      1923

      Interpol, the International Criminal Police Organization, is founded (as the International Criminal Police Commission) to promote cooperation among the law enforcement agencies of member countries.

      1925

      The Geneva Protocol prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons.

      1945

      The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal establishes, in August, the procedures by which the Nuremberg trials will be conducted.

      The United Nations charter establishes the International Court of Justice to settle disputes between nations; it begins work in 1946.

      1946

      The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR), a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council, is established. It will be replaced in 2006 by the UN Human Rights Council.

      The Commission on the Status of Women Within the United Nations is established; it and the United Nations Commission on Human Rights are the first two functional commissions established within the UN structure.

      1948

      The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man is adopted in April at the Ninth International Conference of American Stages in Bogotá, Colombia, making it the first general international declaration of human rights.

      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948; it contains 30 articles setting out various points, such as the prohibition of slavery, the right to political and religious freedom, and social, economic, and cultural rights.

      The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defines genocide as acts intended to destroy a national, racial, ethnic, or religious group.

      1951

      The United Nations adopts the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which defines who qualifies as a refugee, their rights, and the responsibilities of nations that grant them refuge.

      1959

      The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in November, sets out 10 principles pertaining to all children, such as the right to education, food, medical care, and citizenship, as well as protection against exploitation or cruel treatment, including protection against being forced into work that pays less than a minimum wage.

      1961

      Amnesty International is founded by British lawyer Peter Benenson.

      1963

      The initial draft of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is drafted at a meeting of the World Conservation Union (IUCN).

      The Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (the Tokyo Convention) is concluded; it comes into force in 1969 and is the first law recognizing the authority of the aircraft commander on international flights to restrain anyone believed to be committing or about to commit an offense endangering the safety of those onboard.

      1967

      The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR) begins to investigate and report on human rights violations, in contrast to its former policy of restricting its activities to drafting treaties and promoting human rights in general.

      The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine is founded.

      1969

      U.S. President Richard M. Nixon announces Operation Intercept in September, instituting increased surveillance of the U.S.-Mexican border and inspection of vehicles crossing the border in an attempt to prevent marijuana from Mexico from entering the United States. Operation Intercept is abandoned after less than a month because of the burden imposed on vehicles crossing the border.

      1971

      The 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances responds to a broadening spectrum of drugs by introducing controls over synthetic drugs.

      1972

      The Biological Weapons Convention supplants the 1925 Geneva Protocol and becomes the first multilateral disarmament treaty to ban an entire class of weapons.

      At the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany, 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team (coaches and athletes) are taken hostage and murdered by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September.

      1973

      The final language of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is approved by representatives of 80 nations meeting in Washington, D.C.; CITES will go into effect in 1975 and, as of 2010, will be accepted by 175 countries.

      1976

      The International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR) creates an art-theft archive and begins publishing the Stolen Art Alert. Ten years later, the archive will include more than 20,000 manual records.

      1978

      Helsinki Watch is founded to monitor the Soviet Union's adherence to the Helsinki Accords; today it is called Human Rights Watch and conducts advocacy and research into many aspects of human rights.

      1981

      The Chaos Computer Club, an organization of computer hackers, is formed in Germany.

      1982

      The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), an international agreement defining laws concerning the world's oceans, is concluded; it comes into force in 1994.

      1984

      The Court of Arbitration for Sport, an international body established to deal with disputes related to the Olympics, is established.

      1986

      The International Whaling Commission (IWC) establishes a moratorium on commercial whaling.

      The U.S. Congress passes the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, which makes it a crime to access (without authorization) computers used by the U.S. government, by financial institutions, or in foreign or interstate commerce, and to transmit a program or other code (such as a computer virus or worm) that causes damage.

      1987

      The United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment—adopted in 1984—comes into force. It includes provisions against the use of torture and against returning any individual to a state where he or she would be likely to be subjected to torture.

      1988

      The 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is abroad in scope and includes provisions against money laundering.

      Cornell University graduate student Robert T. Morris sends a computer worm across the ARPAnet (the predecessor to the Internet), and it eventually spreads to about 6,000 networked computers; Morris is sentenced to three years' probation and a fine of $10,000 and is dismissed from Cornell.

      1989

      The United States invades Panama during Operation Just Cause, in part to combat drug trafficking.

      The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is founded at the G7 Summit in Paris to combat money laundering and funding of terrorist organizations.

      In Soering v. United Kingdom, the European Court of Human Rights declares that allowing extradition of a German national to the United States to face capital charges is a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights.

      1990

      International trade in ivory is banned by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), in response to the rapid decline of the African elephant population in the previous decade. (Some estimate that in 1979 there were more than 1.3 million African elephants; by 1989, there were fewer than half that number.)

      1991

      The Art Loss Register (ALR) is created by the International Foundation for Art Research to combat the international trade in stolen art; by 2010, the ALR will have become the world's largest private database of lost and stolen art, collectables, and antiques.

      1992

      The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) outlaws the use and stockpiling of chemical weapons; as of 2010, 188 countries will have become party to the CWC.

      The Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union, or TEU) creates the European Union.

      The United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 780, condemning widespread violations of international law in Bosnia and Herzegovina and providing a definition of the term ethnic cleansing.

      Six international organizations join forces to create the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.

      1993

      The Golden Venture, a Chinese smuggling ship, is grounded in New York City's harbor with nearly 300 illegal immigrants aboard; an estimated six to 10 of the immigrants die while trying to swim to shore.

      1995

      The UNIDRIOT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects creates regulations regarding the return of cultural objects stolen from member states.

      1997

      The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of AntiPersonnel Mines (the Ottawa Treaty) bans the use of anti-personnel landmines; 156 countries will be parties to the treaty by April 2010.

      The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions calls for effective measures to deter, prevent, and combat the bribery of foreign public officials in connection with international business transactions, in particular the prompt criminalization of such bribery in an effective and coordinated manner.

      1998

      Physicians for Human Rights is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to conduct research and investigation into potential human rights violations.

      The Washington Conference on Nazi-Confiscated Art, involving 44 countries, is held and endorses 11 principles regarding art confiscated during the Holocaust.

      The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is adopted in July and enters into force in July 2002; it establishes a permanent international tribunal to prosecute genocide and other serious international crimes; as of October 2009, 110 countries will be parties to the statute, but the United States and Israel will not.

      1999

      The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is established in Lausanne to combat the use of performance-enhancing drugs in international sport, including the Olympics.

      The International Labour Organization (ILO) adopts the Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor; signatories agree to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, which are defined as slavery (including trafficking in children, debt bondage, forced or compulsory labor, and forced recruitment of child soldiers); commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), including prostitution and pornography; and the use of children in commission of crimes, including drug trafficking and production.

      Europol, the European Police Office, becomes fully operational.

      The United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism specifies that it is a criminal activity to help finance terrorist activity, even if the person involved is not actually taking part in the violent action; nations that sign this treaty commit to freezing funds to be used for terrorist activity.

      2000

      The United Kingdom passes the Terrorism Act, which defines terrorism, proscribes a number of domestic and international organizations, and allows police special powers with regard to those suspected of terrorism (such as an extended period of time during which a person could be held without charge).

      The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by the General Assembly November 2000, is the main international instrument in the fight against transnational organized crime. It opened for signature by member states at a high-level political conference convened for that purpose in Palermo, Italy, on December 12–15, 2000, and entered into force on September 29, 2003. The convention is further supplemented by three protocols that target specific areas and manifestations of organized crime: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children; the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air; and the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition. Countries must become parties to the convention itself before they can become parties to any of the protocols.

      2001

      A conference of East Asia Forest Law and Governance is held in Bali, Indonesia, to address issues related to forest policy and law enforcement, including illegal logging.

      Following the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) issues eight Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing.

      2002

      The International Criminal Court (ICC) is created to prosecute individuals for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity.

      U.S. art and antiquities dealer Frederick Schultz is convicted of receiving antiquities stolen and smuggled out of Egypt; together with co-conspirator Jonathan Tokeley-Parry, an antiquities restorer (who was prosecuted in the United Kingdom), Schultz had smuggled more than 2,000 artifacts out of Egypt.

      2003

      Africa Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (AFLEG) holds a conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon, to address issues, including methods to combat illegal forest exploitation and trade associated with that practice.

      The International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for Joseph Kony, leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in Uganda, as well as Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odiambo, and Dominic Ongwen, who also held leadership positions in the LRA.

      International action against corruption progressed from general consideration and declarative statements to legally binding agreements. The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) deals with forms of corruption such as trading in official influence and general abuses of power, including a focus on the recovery of stolen assets, that had not been covered by many of the earlier international instruments.

      The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) completely revises its 40 Recommendations (originally issued in 1990) in recognition of the continued evolution of techniques in money laundering.

      2004

      European and North Asian Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (ENAFLEG) holds a conference in Russia and agrees to the St. Petersburg Declaration on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance.

      The United Kingdom passes the Human Tissue Act, specifying regulations regarding the handling of human tissues, partly in response to the Alder Hey organs scandal, during which medical personnel, without obtaining parental permission, harvested organs and other body parts from infants who had died at the Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool.

      2005

      The Fund for Peace, a think tank founded in Washington, D.C., in 1957, begins publishing the Failed States Index.

      The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) is established at the University of Maryland, funded with a $12 million grant from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to study terrorism and society responses to it.

      The United Kingdom passes the Prevention of Terrorism Act, which allows the home secretary (secretary of state for the Home Department) to restrict the liberty of individuals suspected of being involved in terrorism through the use of control orders that may affect their ability to travel, their right to choose their place of residence or employment, and other liberties.

      2006

      Thomas Lubanga is arrested under a warrant issued by the International Criminal Court for conscripting children under the age of 15 to serve in the Union of Congolese Patriots.

      The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California, announces that it will return a Greek statue dating from the 6th century B.C.E. and a gold funerary wreath dating from the 4th century B.C.E. in response to claims by the Greek government that these artifacts were illegally excavated and removed from Greece.

      2008

      In January, an illegal organ-trafficking scheme is discovered in Gugaon, India, in which kidneys were obtained from poor Indians and sold to clients in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere.

      In June, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Jean-Pierre Bemba, a former official of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for crimes against humanity and war crimes in the Central African Republic; he is turned over to the ICC in July.

      In July, Omar al-Bashir, president of Sudan, becomes the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

      2010

      Ten American missionaries are charged with kidnapping for taking children out of Haiti in the wake of the January 2010 earthquake without proper authorization.

      The labor recruiting firm Global Horizons, based in Los Angeles, is indicted for bringing Thai farm workers to the United States, then mistreating them and withholding their wages.

      2011

      A number of artifacts illegally removed from Iraq by U.S. Department of Defense contractors in 2004 are returned to Iraq.

      2012

      The International Criminal Court finds Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese military leader, guilty of kidnapping children to serve as soldiers.

      The short film Kony 2012 spreads rapidly over video-sharing Internet sites and draws attention to the alleged war crimes of Joseph Kony, head of the Ugandan guerilla group the Lord's Resistance Army.

      Sarah E.BoslaughKennesaw State University
    • Glossary

      Alien: A person who is a citizen of a country other than the one in which he or she currently resides.

      Amnesty International: An international organization founded in 1961 to protect human rights around the world. It focuses particularly on abolition of torture, regulation of the global arms trade, freedom for prisoners of conscience, and defense of the rights of refugees, migrants, women, and of those trapped in poverty.

      Anti-Slavery International: An international charitable organization, founded in 1839 and based in the United Kingdom, that fights against slavery and associated abuses; it adopted its current name in 1990.

      Arms trafficking: Smuggling or other illegal means of transporting and selling weapons and ammunition in violation of national and international law.

      Asymmetrical political relations: A situation in which, as a result of their different levels of power, one country can dominate another and thus engage in unilateral (one-sided) decision making rather than bilateral decisions in which the two countries have approximately equal power.

      Biological weapon: A biological agent, such as a virus or bacteria, that may be intentionally released in order to harm human life; examples include the anthrax bacterium and the smallpox virus.

      Biometric identification technology: A type of computer technology that allows matching of fingerprints and facial features in digital photographs with people suspected of using false travel papers or who are suspected of being terrorists.

      Black market: A market in which goods are sold in violation of national or international law; black markets may exist because the goods are prohibited in international trade (for instance, those made from ivory or tortoise shell), are prohibited in a particular country (for instance, firearms or certain drugs), or to avoid paying tariffs or duties on the goods.

      Black September: A Palestinian terrorist group best known for kidnapping and killing eleven Israeli athletes and coaches during the Munich Olympics in September 1972.

      Blue Blindfold: An international campaign, launched in 2007, of the United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC), which is aimed to prevent human trafficking, share information about trafficking, and aid those victimized by it.

      Bonded labor: Also called debt bondage, a system in which a person pledges his or her labor as security for a debt; it may be considered a modern form of slavery, as the person may be paid wages so low that the debt can never be repaid.

      Border Patrol: An agency that monitors U.S. borders between ports of entry and is part of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

      Border security: Officials in charge of maintaining an orderly process of entry and exit at a nation's borders in order to prevent unauthorized entry, exit, and smuggling.

      Bribery: Offering or accepting an undue advantage (such as money) to influence the decision of a public official or private person holding power.

      Chemical agents: Chemicals that can be used as weapons of terrorism or converted for that purpose.

      CITES: The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, drafted in 1963 at a meeting of the World Conservation Union (ICUN); the final text was approved in 1973 and entered into force in 1975. CITES is a voluntary international agreement regulating the trade in wild animals and plants and their products (such as ivory) in order to protect species that are endangered or may become endangered.

      CND: The Commission on Narcotic Drugs, established in 1946 by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations as the United Nations' central policy-making body in matters relating to drugs.

      Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime: A multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations in 2000, with two protocols: one against human trafficking, especially of women and children, and one against smuggling of migrants.

      Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions: A convention that was adopted in 1997 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and that came into force in 1999 to address bribery of foreign public officials.

      Core Principles: Shorthand for the Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the Insurance Supervisory Principles of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors, and the Objectives and Principles for Securities Regulation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions.

      Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption: A convention covering a broad range of offenses, including bribery in the public and private sectors and trading in influence; as of February 2007, it had 48 signatories.

      Counterterrorism: Policies and actions aimed at identifying and eliminating terrorist groups or individual terrorists and preventing terrorist actions.

      Cross-border crime: Another name for transnational (or transborder) crime, that is, illegal activities that straddle territorial boundaries.

      CSEC: Commercial sexual exploitation of children, including procuring or offering a child for use as a prostitute or in the production of pornography or pornographic performances; signatories to the International Labour Organization's 1999 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention have explicitly agreed to combat CSEC.

      CUBAC: Children used by adults in the commission of a crime (often the production or trafficking of illegal drugs), a practice explicitly prohibited under the International Labour Organization's 1999 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention.

      Cyberterrorism: The use of technology for the purpose of disrupting information systems such as computer networks.

      Debt bondage: Also known as bonded labor or peonage and considered by many a modern form of slavery, the practice of tricking or forcing an individual into a labor contract that does not pay enough to meet personal needs or to pay off past debts.

      Deportation: The formal process of removing an alien who has violated immigration laws and returning that person to his or her home country.

      Derogation: Partial revocation of a law; various international conventions specify that certain human rights may be derogated at times of public emergency that threaten the existence of a nation, while others may never be derogated.

      Dirty bomb: An explosive device intended to spread radioactive material, considered a weapon of mass destruction because it could render large areas inhabitable.

      Drug cartel: A sophisticated criminal organization involving multiple drug-trafficking organizations and cells with specific duties such as production, transport, and distribution.

      Drug trafficking: The large-scale practice of transporting illegal drugs across a border so they may be sold (to be differentiated from drug dealing, which occurs on a smaller scale and involves street-level distribution).

      ECPAT International: An organization founded in 1990 to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children; the organization's motto is “End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes.”

      Environmental crime: An act that is intended to secure a financial or other advantage for the actor and that also carries the potential or intention to harm ecological or biological systems or violate an existing environmental protection statute.

      Ethnic cleansing: A policy intended to remove the civilian population of a particular religious or ethnic group from a geographic area, by means including force and intimidation as well as murder.

      Europol: The European Police Office, founded in 1999 to improve cooperation and share information among the police forces of member states.

      EWI: “Entered without inspection,” a term applied to foreign nationals crossing a border (such as between Canada or Mexico and United States) without having their documents inspected by immigration officials.

      FATF: The Financial Action Task Force (in French, Groupe d'Action Financière, or GAFI), an organization founded at the G7 summit in 1989 to combat money laundering.

      Free the Slaves: An organization based in Washington, D.C., that conducts research into modern slavery, works with grassroots organizations, conducts educational campaigns, and generally works to end slavery throughout the world.

      GRECO: The Group of States Against Corruption, founded in 1999 by the Council of Europe to monitor states' compliance with anti-corruption standards.

      GTD: The Global Terrorism Database, a database maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland; it contains information about terrorist events, worldwide, from 1970 to 2008 and is freely available the public through the Internet at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd.

      Hacking: Breaking into a computer or computer network, whether for purposes of committing a crime or for intellectual pleasure.

      Human Rights Watch: An international organization founded in 1978 (as Helsinki Watch) to monitor the Soviet Union's compliance with the Helsinki Accords; today it is headquartered in New York City and conducts research and advocacy campaigns on many aspects of human rights.

      Human smuggling: Also known as migrant smuggling, the practice of transporting or facilitating the entry of individuals across national borders in violation of immigration laws. Human smuggling is distinguished from human trafficking: Human smuggling involves the transport of individuals who have chosen to take part in the border crossing (for instance, moving from a poor to a rich country), although they may be exposed to harsh conditions that they did not anticipate, whereas human trafficking involves involuntary participation of the trafficked individuals.

      Human trafficking: A modern form of slavery in which human beings are bought and sold for the purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation; it is distinguished from human smuggling because in trafficking there is the element of force and coercion, in addition to fraud, and the human rights of the individuals trafficked are violated.

      Humanitarian intervention: The use of force or the threat of force across national borders to prevent or end violations of fundamental human rights.

      IAP: The Istanbul Action Plan, an anticorruption program endorsed by the Anti-Corruption Network (ACN) in 2003, which provides review, monitoring, and self-assessment of anticorruption activities in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.

      Integration: The third and final stage of money laundering, in which the laundered funds reenter the legitimate economy—for instance, by being invested in real estate or business ventures.

      Interdiction: The legal process of intercepting contraband or unauthorized migrants at a nation's border.

      Interpol: The International Criminal Police Organization, established in 1923 (as the International Police Commission) to act as a liaison between the law-enforcement agencies of member countries, sharing information and promoting cooperation in order to combat criminal activity.

      IOM: The International Organization for Migration, an intergovernmental organization established in 1951 in Brussels to aid resettlement of refugees, displaced persons and economic migrants, and which today helps ensure that human migrations takes place in an orderly and human manner.

      Keystroke logging: Tracking the keys struck on a computer keyboard without the awareness of the person doing the typing, with the intention of stealing sensitive information such as a computer account username and password; also called key logging, this practice is often accomplished through a computer virus or worm installed on the computer of an unsuspecting individual.

      Lacey Act: A law passed in the United States in 1900 to protect plants and wildlife by prohibiting the sale or trafficking of animals, fish, or plants acquired in a manner that violated the law in the region where they were acquired.

      Layering: The second stage of money laundering: the process of moving money through a financial system—for instance, through shell companies or multiple identities—to make it more difficult to trace the money back to its illicit source.

      Malware: Malicious software, a broad category including computer viruses, computer worms, spyware, and Trojan horses.

      Money laundering: A crime that involves a variety of methods for concealing the proceeds of illegal activities: for instance, they may be combined with legitimate proceeds (such as those from a store or other business) or may be concealed through a company deliberately founded to conduct most transactions in cash and thus make the illegal gains difficult to monitor.

      Nonintervention: A principle in international law in which one state respects the sovereignty and self-determination of other states and refrains from interfering in their internal politics.

      Palermo Protocol: Also called the UN TIP Protocol, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which supplemented the United Nations' Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.

      Placement: The first stage in money laundering: the introduction of illicit funds (obtained through criminal activity) into a financial system.

      Poaching: Killing or taking wild animals or plants in a manner that contradicts conservation and wildlife management laws—for instance, hunting an animal out of season, without a permit or on land where hunting is not allowed.

      Ports of entry: Locations at which individuals and cargo can legally enter a country via land, air, or sea.

      Radiological agents: Radioactive materials that can harm people or animals when inhaled or ingested.

      Refoulement: Forcible return of a refugee to his or her former homeland, where the person's life or freedom might be imperiled; this practice was prohibited by the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

      Refugee: A person who is unwilling or unable to return to his or her home country because of fear of persecution on the basis of religion, race, political opinion, or nationality.

      Rogue state: A state that supports terrorist activity or terrorist groups.

      SIS: The Schengen Information System, a database used by 27 European countries to share information relevant to law enforcement, national security, and border control.

      SOCA: The Serious Organised Crime Agency, a national intelligence and law-enforcement agency created in the United Kingdom in 2006, which deals with matters including money laundering, child exploitation, and computer crime and is the United Kingdom's point of contact for Interpol.

      START: The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, a program based at the University of Maryland and established in 2005 by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. START conducts research and publishes information related to terrorism, radicalization, and community resistance to terrorism.

      State terrorism: Acts of terror committed by a state against its own people or against a foreign state; the term is controversial because some scholars believe that terrorism can be committed only by nonstate actors.

      Stateless person: A person who does not belong to or does not have a legally enforceable claim to citizenship in a recognized state; the problem of statelessness is addressed in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations, which says that everyone has the right to a nationality and no one should arbitrarily be deprived of nationality or of the right to change nationality.

      Stockholm Declaration: The Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted in 1972 by the United Nations as the first international document to recognize the rights of human beings to a healthy environment.

      TI: Transparency International, an organization founded in 1993 to monitor and expose corruption in international development; it publishes the annual Corruption Perceptions Index, which surveys of business people to rank countries according to how corrupt they are perceived to be.

      TraCCC: The Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center, located within the School of Public Policy at George Mason University, Virginia, established in 1998 as the first U.S. center devoted to studying terrorism and transnational crime.

      Trading in influence: A crime that occurs when a person with real or apparent influence on the decision making of a public official accepts an undue advantage in exchange for exerting this influence.

      TREVI: An intergovernmental network formed among members of the European Community in 1975 in response to terrorist acts, including the massacre of several Israeli athletes during the 1972 Munich Olympics; TREVI was integrated into the Justice and Home Affairs division of the European Union in 1992.

      Trojan horse: A type of computer software that appears to perform a desirable function but in fact (or also) performs harmful functions such as stealing data, downloading files, or logging keystrokes on the computer where it is installed.

      UNCAC: The United Nations Convention Against Corruption, adopted in 2003 as a global, legally binding instrument against corruption.

      UNIDROIT: The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, an independent organization created in 1926 to harmonize and coordinate international commercial and private law.

      UNODC: The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, an agency established in 1997 (as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention) to address drug trafficking, criminal justice, corruption, and international terrorism.

      Virus: A type of computer software which can replicate itself and infect computers, often spreading on networks.

      Sarah E.BoslaughKennesaw State University

      Resource Guide

      Books

      Agamben, Giorgio. Means Without End: Notes on Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

      Ain-Krupa, Julia. Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.

      Albrecht, Hans-Jörg and Cyrille Fijnaut, eds. The Containment of Transnational Organized Crime: Comments on the UN Convention of December 2000. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Edition Iuscrim, 2002.

      Arar, Mazigh. Hope and Despair in My Struggle to Free My Husband, Maher Arar. Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 2008.

      Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking, 1965.

      Atwan, B. A. The Secret History of Al Qaeda. London: Saqi Books, 2006.

      Baker, Thomas E. Introductory Criminal Analysis: Crime Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2005.

      Bales, K. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

      Bales, K. and B. Cornell. Slavery Today. Toronto, ON: Groundwork Books, 2008.

      Batstone, David. Not for Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade—and How We Can Fight It. New York: HarperOne, 2007.

      Bierne, P. and N. South. Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing, 2007.

      Birnie, P. and A. Boyle. International Law and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Caplan, J. and J. Torpey. Documenting Individual Identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

      Christensen, Peter. The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1993.

      Clark, Robert. Intelligence Analysis: A Target Centric Approach. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007.

      Clinard, Marshall. Corporate Corruption. New York: Praeger, 1990.

      Clinard, Marshall and Peter Yeager. Corporate Crime. New York: Free Press, 1980.

      DeStefano, Anthony M. The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

      Elias, Norbert. The Civilizing Process. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1978.

      Eller, J. D. Violence and Culture: A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2006.

      Ericson, Richard and Kevin Haggerty. Policing the Risk Society. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

      Farah, D. Blood From Stones: The Secret Financial Network of Terror. New York: Broadway Books, 2004.

      Farr, Kathryn. Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children. New York: Worth, 2005.

      Findaca, G. Women and the Mafia: Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures. London: Springer, 2007.

      Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Random House, 1975.

      Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, The Will to Knowledge. London: Penguin, 1976.

      Frank, N. K. and M. J. Lynch. Corporate Crime, Corporate Violence. Guilderland, NY: Harrow and Heston, 1992.

      Gerdes, L. I. Endangered Oceans. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2004.

      Gerges, F. Journey of the Jihadist: Inside Muslim Militancy. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, 2006.

      Goode, E. Drugs in American Society. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

      Gunaratna, R. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Berkley, 2002.

      Habeck, M. Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

      Harris, Robert. Political Corruption: In and Beyond the Nation State. London: Routledge, 2003.

      Hazan, Pierre. Justice in a Time of War: The True Story Behind the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Austin: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.

      Herzog, Arthur. Vesco: From Wall Street to Castro's Cuba: The Rise, Fall, and Exile of the King of White Collar Crime. New York: Doubleday, 1987.

      Inciardi, J. The War on Drugs IV. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2008.

      Jenkins, P. Beyond Tolerance: Child Pornography on the Internet. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

      Kepel, G. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2004.

      Khee-Jin Tan, A. Vessel-Source Marine Pollution: The Law and Politics of International Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

      LaFaive, Michael, Patrick Fleenor, and Todd Nesbit. Cigarette Taxes and Smuggling: A Statistical Analysis and Historical Review. Midland, MI: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008.

      Levinthal, C. Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice. Boston: Pearson, 2008.

      Lyman, Michael D. and Gary W. Potter. Organized Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2009.

      Mahan, Sue and Pamela L. Griset. Terrorism in Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008.

      Manning, Peter. The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

      Marcus, R. and G. Hastings. Identity Theft Inc. London: Disinformation, 2008.

      Mares, D. Drug Wars and Coffeehouses: The Political Economy of the International Drug Trade. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006.

      Martha, Rutsel Silvestre J. The Legal Foundation of Interpol. Oxford: Hart, 2010.

      Mayer, Jane. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Became the War on American Ideals. New York: Doubleday, 2009.

      McKanna, Clare V., Jr. Court Martial of Apache Kid, Renegade of Renegades. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2009.

      McLean, David. Transnational Organized Crime: A Commentary on the UN Convention and Its Protocols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Mestrovic, Stjepan G. The Trials of Abu Ghraib: An Expert Account of Shame and Honor. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2005.

      Meyer, K. and T. Parssinen. Webs of Smoke: Smugglers, Warlords, Spies and the History of the International Drug Trade. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

      Mgbeoji, I. Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants and Indigenous Knowledge. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2006.

      Miles, Robert. Racism After “Race Relations.” London: Routledge, 1993.

      Musto, D. The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Napoleoni, L. Modern Jihad: Tracing the Dollars Behind the Terror Networks. Sterling, VA: Pluto, 2003.

      Newman, J. Q. Identity Theft: The Cybercrime of the Millennium. Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics, 1999.

      Nicholls, Clive, Clare Montgomery, and Julian B. Knowles. The Law of Extradition and Mutual Assistance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

      Peterson, Marilyn. Applications in Criminal Analysis: A Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

      Pfiffner, James P. Torture as Policy: Restoring U.S. Credibility on the World Stage. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2010.

      Pyle, Christopher H. Extradition, Politics, and Human Rights. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.

      Ratcliffe, Jerry. Intelligence-Led Policing. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing, 2008.

      Roebuck, Julian and Stan Weeber. Political Crime in the United States. New York: Praeger, 1978.

      Ross, Jeffrey Ian. Dynamics of Political Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003.

      Sambei, Avinder and John R. W. D. Jones. Extradition Law Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

      Shantz, Jeff, ed. Racial Profiling and Borders: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Lake Mary, FL: Vandeplas, 2010.

      Shiva, V. Biopiracy. Boston: South End Press, 1999.

      Sigel, Lisa International Exposure: Perspectives on Modem European Pornography, 1800–2000. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

      Skinner, E. Benjamin. A Crime So Monstrous: Face-to-Face With Modern-Day Slavery. New York: Free Press, 2008.

      South, N. and P. Beirne. Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing, 2007.

      Spindlove, Jeremy R. and Clifford E. Simonsen. Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010.

      Subotic, Jelena. Justice Hijacked: Dealing With the Past in the Balkans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.

      Sudbury, J. Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex. London: Routledge, 2005.

      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto. New York: United Nations, 2004.

      Wall, D. Cybercrime. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2007.

      Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Penguin, 2002.

      Whelan, R. Al-Qaedaism: The Threat to Islam, the Threat to the World. Dublin: Ashfield Press, 2005.

      White, R. Crimes Against Nature: Environmental Criminology and Ecological Justice. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing, 2009.

      Wright, L. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf, 2006.

      Youngers, C. and E. Rosin. Drugs and Democracy in Latin America. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America, 2005.

      Journals

      American Journal of International Law

      Anthropological Quarterly

      British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

      British Journal of Criminology

      Brown Journal of World Affairs

      Crime, Law and Social Change

      Criminology and Criminal Justice

      European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice

      European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research

      FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

      Global Crime

      Global Governance

      International Affairs

      International Criminal Law Review

      International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice

      International Journal of Law in Context

      International Lawyer

      Journal of Criminal Justice

      Journal of Gang Research

      Journal of International Law

      Justice Quarterly

      Policing

      Science and Engineering Ethics

      Social Justice

      Social Problems

      Strategic Insights

      Terrorism and Political Violence

      War Crimes, Genocide, and Crimes Against Humanity

      World Policy Journal

      Internet

      Art Loss Register: http://www.artloss.com

      ASEAN Center for Combating Transnational Crime: http://www.asean.org

      Central Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov

      Egmont Group: http://www.egmontgroup.org

      Europol: https://www.europol.europa.eu

      Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov

      Financial Action Task Force: http://www.fatf-gafi.org

      International Association of Chiefs of Police: http://www.theiacp.org

      International Court of Justice (World Court): http://www.icj-cij.org

      International Criminal Court: http://www.icc-cpi.int

      International Monetary Fund: http://www.imf.org

      Interpol: http://www.interpol.int

      National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism: http://www.start.umd.edu/start

      National Institute of Justice: http://nij.gov

      Office of the Director of National Intelligence: http://www.dni.gov

      Piracy Under International Law (United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea): http://www.un.org/depts/los/piracy/piracy.htm

      Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center: http://policy-traccc.gmu.edu

      Transcrime: http://www.transcrime.unitn.it/tc/664.php

      Transnational Institute: http://www.tni.org

      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: http://www.unodc.org

      U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/index.htm

      World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org

      Appendix

      The following selected Websites, along with editorial commentary, are provided for further research in transnational crime and justice.

      International Criminal Court

      http://www.icc-cpi.int

      The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an independent international organization and the first permanent, treaty-based court established as a court of last resort to deal with serious crimes that are not prosecuted by a national judicial system. It is based in The Hague, the Netherlands, and was established in 1998 when 120 countries adopted the Rome Statute. The ICC is funded by contributions from State Parties and voluntary contributions from governments, individuals, international corporations, and other entities. Proceedings may be initiated by the United Nations Security Council, a State Party, or the Prosecutor.

      The ICC Website is available in English or French and includes information about the court's history, structure, and rationale; information about situations and cases brought before the ICC; information about the Assembly of States Parties (the ICC's management and legislative body, consisting of representatives of the countries that have ratified the Rome Statute); and press materials, including press releases, video streaming of public hearings, and weekly updates of ICC activities.

      As of November 2011, 11 cases in seven countries (Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Kenya, Libya, and Côte d'Ivoire) have been brought before the ICC. Each situation and case is summarized on the ICC Website. Within each section, links are provided to information about each case, including a timeline and materials, such as the text of the warrant of arrest and the decision. The Official Journal of the ICC is also available on the Website; this includes texts such as the Rome Statute, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, the Code of Judicial Ethics, and the Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the United Nations.

      The ICC is in the process of developing the ICC “Legal Tools,” an electronic library about international criminal law and justice and four legal and reference tools meant to make the documents more useful. These documents, which are in process, are “Case Matrix,” “Elements Digest,” “Proceedings,” and “Means of Proof Digest.” The purpose of the Legal Tools is to “equip users with legal information, digests and an application to work more effectively with core international crimes cases (involving war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide or aggression,” according to the ICC Website. As of 2011, the library section of the ICC Legal Tools contains almost 50,00 documents, including ICC documents, international legal instruments, national implementing legislation, and national cases involving core international crimes; these documents may be read or downloaded in PDF format from the ICC Website.

      INTERPOL: Connecting Police for a Safer World

      http://www.interpol.int

      INTERPOL is an international organization that works closely with a number of international partners, including the United Nations and the European Union, to facilitate mutual assistance between criminal law enforcement agencies, ensure global access to police data and information, and facilitate secure communication. INTERPOL also provides operational support for certain prime areas and fosters continuous development of the knowledge and skills required for effective international policing.

      As of 2011, 188 countries have become members of INTERPOL. INTERPOL's strategic priorities for the years 2011–13 are to create and operate a secure global communication network, provide constant (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) support and operational assistance to member countries, raise the standards of training and infrastructure for international policing and security, assist member countries in identifying crimes and criminals, improve INTERPOL's own core infrastructure, and enhance the legal foundation for international police activities.

      The INTERPOL Website is written in English, but parts of it are also available in French, Spanish, and Arabic, as are many of the documents available for download from the Website. The Website is divided into five main areas: general information about INTERPOL, news and media, areas of INTERPOL expertise, types of crimes, and member countries. Information about INTERPOL includes an overview of the organization, its structure and governance, its priorities, origin and meaning of the name and official symbols (logo and flag), history of the organization, legal materials relating to INTERPOL (general regulations, rules of procedure, etc.), and information about international partners (the United Nations, the European Union, the Group of Eight, the World Health Organization, and some private-sector companies). The news and media section includes press releases, texts of speeches, notices of events, publications, videos, and photos. The publications area is particularly substantial and includes downloadable fact sheets on different types of crimes (drug trafficking, maritime piracy, nuclear and radiological terrorism, etc.), annual reports from 1998 to 2010, and other types of publications, including guides, manuals, and brochures. All of these documents are available in English, and many are available in French, Arabic, and Spanish as well.

      Specific areas of INTERPOL expertise documented on the Web page include training and capacity building, data exchange, databases, notices, the command and coordination center, response teams, forensics, and intelligence analysis. Within each area, an overview is provided on the Website with links to related information (for example, a history of fingerprints in the forensics section). The Website also organizes information according to type of crime, with each section containing an explanation of INTERPOL's activities in this area, relevant news items, and links to further information. The 16 crime areas covered in this manner are corruption, crimes against children, cybercrime, drugs, environmental crime, financial crime, firearms, fugitive investigations, intellectual property crime and counterfeiting, maritime piracy, organized crime, pharmaceutical crime, terrorism, trafficking in human beings, vehicle crime, and works of art. Finally, the member countries section includes brief information about INTERPOL operations in that country and links to news reports, if relevant.

      National Institute of Justice, International Center

      http://www.nij.gov/nij/international

      The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Justice, an executive agency within the U.S. federal government. The NIJ is dedicated to research, development, and evaluation for the purpose of “improving knowledge and understanding of crime and justice issues through science,” according to its Website. In addition, the NIJ “is committed to being a transformative force in the criminal justice field” by meeting five challenges: fostering science-based criminal justice practice, translating knowledge into practice, advancing technology, working across disciplines, and adopting a global perspective.

      The International Center of the NIJ focuses on research into terrorism, international organized crime, trafficking in persons, cybercrime, and forensics. Its goals include increasing awareness of transnational crimes; improving access to information about transnational crime; supporting global research partnerships; ensuring NIJ-funded research, including crime across national borders; and disseminating research, technology, and best practices for combating crime at all levels, from local to transnational. The International Center partners with international researchers, foreign governments, and other U.S. government agencies to aid in knowledge transfer across national boundaries, building international collaborations and partnerships, and constructing global networks of policy makers, practitioners, and researchers.

      Three areas of particular interest within the NIJ Website are those devoted to transnational organized crime (http://nij.gov/topics/crime/transnational-organized-crime/welcome.htm), human trafficking (http://nij.gov/nij/topics/crime/human-trafficking/welcome.htm), and terrorism (http://nij.gov/nij/topics/crime/terrorism/welcome.htm). In each case, the NIJ Website provides an introduction to the topic, including links to references (e.g., section on human trafficking includes a link to the United Nations Web page summarizing the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the terrorism section includes a link to Title 22 of the U.S. Code, which defines terrorism), describes NIJ efforts to combat the crime in question, and provides an annotated bibliography with links to relevant publications published or sponsored by the NIJ. Most of these publications can be read on the Website and/or downloaded in PDF or text format.

      The NIJ Website includes a search engine to search the Website or NIJ publications on all topics. The International Document Exchange (IDE; https://www.ncjrs.gov/intlide.html) facilitates sharing of information across national boundaries by providing access to publications of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service for organizations outside the United States. Those interested must register on the IDE Website; currently organizations in over 60 countries use this resource.

      Piracy Under International Law (United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea)

      http://www.un.org/depts/los/piracy/piracy.htm

      The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea is the secretariat of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Its mandate, according to its Website, is “to provide information and advice on the uniform and consistent application of the provisions of UNCLOS, including those relevant to the repression of piracy.” The Website explains the rationale for the suppression of piracy and the obligations of states to cooperate in combating piracy and other threats to maritime security. This includes links to the UNCLOS articles that provide the legal framework to define piracy, the obligation of states to combat piracy, and the differentiation between piracy and armed robbery against ships. The entire Oceans and Law of the Sea Website is also searchable by keyword, date, language, and file format.

      This Website provides links to many United Nations documents concerning piracy, most of which are available in multiple languages in addition to English (e.g., French, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic). These include eight Security Council resolutions, from 2008 to 2011, on piracy off the coast of Somalia; a number of General Assembly resolutions on Oceans and the Law of the Sea; links to numerous reports of the Secretary-General addressing piracy (with the relevant page numbers noted); and two reports from the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea that focus on piracy.

      Another section of the United Nations piracy Web page provides information from various countries and international national organizations regarding piracy and links to information about national legislation regarding piracy in over 50 member states of the United Nations. In about 30 cases, the links lead to the actual text of the legislation; in the remaining cases, information about the laws is provided. It also provides a link to a detailed 2011 letter from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which includes a number of documents intended to assist members in implementing international antipiracy conventions.

      One section of this Website is also devoted to links to other organizations and Websites involved in combating piracy. These include the IMO, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, ReCAAP (Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia, the Maritime Security Centre: Horn of Africa, the International Maritime Bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce, INTERPOL (international police organization), and UNPOS (United Nations Political Office for Somalia, created in 1995 to help advance peace and reconciliation within Somalia).

      U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

      http://www.state.gov/g/tip/index.htm

      The Department of State is the branch of the U.S. federal government that deals with issues of relations with other countries. The Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs within the Department of State deals with a number of issues, including human trafficking (trafficking in persons). The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons leads the U.S. global effort to combat human trafficking, an umbrella term describing a person obtained or held in compelled service. Types of human trafficking include sex trafficking, forced or bonded labor, debt bondage, child soldiers, and involuntary domestic servitude.

      The Web page of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons includes basic information about human trafficking, including a definition of the various types of activities included in that term (forced labor, sex trafficking, etc.) and information about the extent of each type of trafficking. The “Trafficking in Persons Report” provides much more detailed information about human trafficking. This annual report is available for the years 2001–11 in PDF and HTML format on the Website, and it is available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Persian, Russian, and Spanish as well as in English.

      The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons administers a competitive grant program devoted to eradicating human trafficking. Information about applying for one of the grants in this program is available from the Website. The Website also includes a chart listing and describing research funded by the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in the past, with clickable links leading to the reports for some of the projects. The entire Department of State Website can also be searched by keyword or browsed by topic, country, date, and several other options. More basic information on topics of special interest (e.g., “Optimal Regulatory Approach for Labor Recruiting,” “Slavery and Food Security: The Fishing Fleet”) is available on the Website in English, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, and Persian. A number of press materials are also available on the Website, including fact sheets, press releases, speeches, interviews, and testimony (video and/or text) relevant to the subject of human trafficking.

      Sarah E.BoslaughKennesaw State University
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