The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement

The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement

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Edited by: Omobolade Delano-Oriaran, Marguerite W. Penick-Parks & Suzanne Fondrie

Abstract

Service-Learning and Civic Engagement: A Sourcebook focuses on historical, philosophical, social foundations, practices and models of service-learning and civic engagement. The title offers practical, jargon-free chapters applicable to any educational institution as well as community organizations that might consult the work. Key Features • Practical, jargon-free chapters applicable to any educational institution as well as community organizations that might consult the work • 58 signed chapters are organized into thematic parts, such as Concepts & Theoretical Approaches, Historical & Social Foundations, The Role of Service-Learning in Higher Education, The Role of the Community, Lessons Learned & Future Directions, etc. • Thematic parts provide a practical sampling of syllabi, lesson plans, activities and resources, and online websites and databases supporting service-learning. • Glossary (key terms commonly ...

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    Editorial Board

    Editors

    Omobolade Delano-Oriaran St. Norbert College

    Marguerite W. Penick-Parks University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

    Suzanne Fondrie University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

    Editorial Board

    Warren J. Blumenfeld University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Deirdre Egan-Ryan St. Norbert College

    Paul C. Gorski George Mason University

    Anand R. Marri Teachers College, Columbia University Federal Reserve Bank of New York

    Eddie Moore, Jr. The Privilege Institute

    Mary Oling-Sisay Alliant International University

    Robert Osgood St. Norbert College

    Julianne Price Price Learning Keys

    Marie G. Sandy University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

    Margaret-Mary Sulentic Dowell Louisiana State University

    Paul Van Auken University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

    About the Editors

    Omobolade Delano-Oriaran was born and raised in Nigeria and immigrated to the United States, where she earned her undergraduate and master’s degrees at Savannah State University, Georgia, and her PhD at Pennsylvania State University before assuming her current position as associate professor of education at St. Norbert College in Wisconsin. Her scholarly activities focus on multicultural education, community engagement, and gender and schooling and have resulted in numerous peer-reviewed publications in the Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Journal of Education for Teaching, Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide, and Encyclopedia of Human Services and Diversity. Dr. Delano-Oriaran focuses on engaging and empowering students to be change agents for social justice in the classroom and the community; thus, her strong interest is in infusing critical service-learning, community-based learning, and civic engagement in the curriculum and beyond. She developed an authentic and culturally engaging (ACE) service-learning framework for helping preservice teachers develop, improve, or enhance their cultural-competency skills and applied it to a service-learning opportunity that involves education faculty, preservice teachers, area social workers, White/Caucasian parents and families, and Black/African American children. It resulted in the development of a weekend enrichment retreat for parents of European descent with adopted Black/African American children. Furthermore, Dr. Delano-Oriaran is the co-founder of African Heritage, Inc. in Appleton, Wisconsin. She is a member of the National Association of Multicultural Education and Association for Teacher Educators. Dr. Delano-Oriaran is the recipient of numerous awards on diversity issues and community change. She is the recipient of the City of Appleton’s Toward Community Unity in Diversity Award, the Wisconsin State Human Relations Association’s Outstanding Human Relations Educator, and the St. Norbert College’s Bishop Morneau Community Service Award.

    Marguerite W. Penick-Parks student taught in the Cooperative Teacher Education Program in Kansas City, Kansas, a program for preparing urban teachers. She subsequently served as a high school teacher in Kansas City. Seeing the need to learn more about how schools work, she returned to academia to earn her MA in educational policy from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a PhD in curriculum and instruction from the University of Iowa. She taught for nine years in the Education Department at Ripon College and for the past 12 years at the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh, recently completing 3 years as associate dean of the College of Education and Human Services. In 2014, Dr. Penick-Parks won the University of Wisconsin’s Edward M. Penson Distinguished Teaching Award and the Edward M. Penson Award for Faculty Achievement. She is co-editor of the upcoming (2015) book Just Folks: White People Confronting Racial and Social Injustice. Dr. Penick-Parks has publications on preparing rural White teachers to understand self and curriculum, ESL/bilingual education in rural Wisconsin, and using multicultural literature to engage middle school students in seeing multiple perspectives. She currently teaches a graduate-level course for Educational Leadership, Dialogues in Social Justice, as well as dual-level courses in Multicultural Materials for Children and Adolescents, children’s literature, and adolescent literature. She served as president of the Wisconsin State Human Relations Association, president of the Quest Elementary School Governance Board (project-based-learning charter school Grades 2–3), and is on the National Advisory Board for the White Privilege Conference. Dr. Penick-Parks is one of the founding editors of the online journal Understanding and Dismantling Privilege. She has engaged in service-learning and civic-engagement projects with her students as well as at her institution. The guiding component of her work is how to prepare educators to work with all students and increase equity in access to educational opportunities.

    Suzanne Fondrie taught English and German to high school students in Las Vegas, Nevada, before earning her PhD in curriculum and instruction at the University of Wisconsin. Currently, she is an associate professor in the Curriculum and Instruction Department at the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh. Her teaching and research interests include democratic approaches, teacher education, and literature for children. Suzanne works with future secondary English language arts teachers in her methods courses and supervision, where she encourages them to consider ways to integrate community service into their writing, literature, and speech communication plans. She has also engaged students with civic and service-learning opportunities in her introductory education courses, where students designed and implemented diverse projects, such as presenting a panel on first-generation college success to high school seniors and compiling a video regarding local residents’ reactions to including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in elementary classrooms.

    About the Contributors

    Amy Argenal is the director of service-learning at The Urban School of San Francisco in California. She received her MA and is completing her doctorate work in international and multicultural education from the University of San Francisco. She also received an MA in human rights from Mahidol University in Thailand.

    Michelle Arnhold is an assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin–Superior. Her PhD in neuroscience is from the University of Minnesota. She specializes in neuroscience and physiology and is particularly interested in examining how neuroendocrine systems influence or are affected by different activities or events in a person’s life. She is also interested in issues around obesity and how obesity may influence the functioning of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and the HPG (hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal) axis.

    Crystal S. Aschenbrener DSW, MSW, is employed at the University of Wisconsin–Stout as an assistant professor. Formerly, she has worked at South Dakota State University and the Brookings Area Habitat for Humanity in South Dakota where her love of service-learning began. She earned her master’s of social work degree from the University of Kansas where she learned the strengths perspective, which is engrained in her service-learning philosophy. Aschenbrener has taught courses, presented at conferences, earned grants, and published manuscripts on service-learning, which has become a signature component of her academic career.

    Dana E. Aspinall associate professor at Alma College (MI), studies and teaches Shakespeare and early modern English literature as well as medieval drama. He earned his PhD from the University of Connecticut in 1996 and has taught at Alma College since 2007. His current professional interests include performance and reception, and he regularly reviews plays for Shakespeare Bulletin and Cahiers Élisabéthains. He also frequently enlists his introductory literature classes in service-learning projects and recently presented a shortened version of “Everyman, Service-Learning, and Collaboration” at the College English Association annual meeting.

    Isabel Baca received her PhD in rhetoric and professional communication from New Mexico State University and is currently an associate professor at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Her research focuses on service-learning across the curriculum and community-based learning in the writing classroom. Her edited collection (2012), Service-Learning and Writing: Paving the Way for Literacy(ies) Through Community Engagement includes chapters addressing service-learning and writing across the curriculum, and her numerous other publications center on the role of community engagement as a venue to help students improve their writing and help meet their communities’ literacy needs. Baca created and directs the Community Writing Partners program within UTEP’s English Department, collaborating on projects with nonprofit agency mentors.

    Kristen Berger is the seventh- and eighth-grade history teacher and Activism Project coordinator at Manhattan Country School in New York City. She is particularly interested in the concept of educating for global citizenship and using history education to prepare students for participation in a democratic society. She earned her BA at Swarthmore College in sociology and education and an MA in education leadership, politics, and advocacy from New York University’s Steinhardt School.

    Lindsay A. Blumer earned her MA in public policy and nonprofit management from the Lafollette School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and is currently the executive director of the Center for Social Responsibility at Ripon College (WI). She provides instructional support in social justice, service-learning, and community engagement and provides mentorship opportunities for students through community partner collaborations and undergraduate research grants. Her experience includes working with national organizations such as United Way as a community fellow and as the former executive director of an issues-based nonprofit organization.

    Terry J. Burant is an academic professional lecturer at the University of Wyoming where she focuses her attention on field-based general methods courses. She also teaches in the teacher education program at Marquette University (WI). She earned her PhD at the University of Arizona in the Department of Teaching and Teacher Education. Her areas of expertise and interest include secondary content area literacy, classroom management, curriculum studies, and practitioner research.

    Walter W. Cannon is professor of English at Central College in Pella, Iowa, where he teaches early modern literature and a variety of writing courses including writing for nonprofit organizations. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Nebraska and his MA and PhD in English from Marquette University (WI). He has co-edited a collection of essays entitled Who Hears in Shakespeare? (2012). He has been instrumental in securing funding for and piloting service-learning courses, and in 2011 he received the Engaged Faculty Award from the Iowa Campus Compact for his work in developing service-learning courses and for his assistance in establishing this statewide organization.

    Michael H. Carriere is an associate professor at the Milwaukee (WI) School of Engineering, where he teaches courses on American history, public policy, political science, environmental studies, and urban design. He has written for such publications as the Journal of Planning History, Perspectives on History, the Journal of Urban History, Reviews in American History, and History News Network. His first book, tentatively titled Between Being and Becoming: On Architecture, Student Protest, and the Aesthetics of Liberalism in Postwar America, is forthcoming from the University of Pennsylvania Press. He holds a PhD in American history from the University of Chicago.

    Jackie L. Clark PhD, is a clinical associate professor at the University of Texas at Dallas, and a research scholar at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. She earned her doctorate degree from the University of Texas at Dallas. Her current research interests include incidence and prevalence of hearing loss in developing countries and speech understanding in noise.

    Carol G. Cokely PhD, is a clinical associate professor and coordinator of clinical teaching at the University of Texas at Dallas. She earned her doctorate degree from Indiana University. Current research interests include auditory rehabilitation for adults with hearing loss, patient-centered counseling, and classroom and clinical pedagogy.

    Sheryl B. Cooper is the coordinator of the Deaf Studies Program at Towson University (MD). She earned her PhD in educational administration from Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C. She established the Service-Learning Program in Deaf Studies at Towson and has published on its impact. Cooper won the 2013 MD-DC Compact Award for Service-Learning.

    Reinie Cordier earned his PhD from the University of Sydney (Australia) and is a senior lecturer at James Cook University in Queensland. He has taught a number of subjects in occupational therapy with service-learning.

    Scott L. Crabill is the interim vice provost for undergraduate education at Oakland University (MI) and is the academic leader responsible for the quality of university-wide undergraduate experience. He is charged with advancing student success and faculty development, including oversight of the Office of Academic Service-Learning. He is an associate professor at Oakland University. Computer-mediated communication and interpersonal communication are his primary areas of study with a quantitative methodological focus.

    Jody H. Cripps an associate professor in the Department of Audiology, Speech-Language Pathology, & Deaf Studies at Towson University (MD), obtained his PhD in second language acquisition and teaching from the University of Arizona. He is vice president of The Gloss Institute, a nonprofit organization concentrating on promoting deaf children’s literacy skills.

    Ruth Cronje is a professor at the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire. She earned her PhD in rhetoric and scientific and technical communication at the University of Minnesota. Her research has focused on scientific literacy and the public understanding of science; her teaching has integrated issues of scientific literacy with civic engagement opportunities.

    Nicholas P. Danz is an associate professor of biology at the University of Wisconsin–Superior, where he teaches about plants and ecology. He holds his MS in biology from the University of Minnesota–Duluth and his PhD in biology from the University of Minnesota. He is currently working on projects related to human influences on Great Lakes coastal wetland vegetation, invasive terrestrial plants of northwestern Wisconsin, and the ecology of Wisconsin Point dunes.

    Julie Dierberger provides service-learning curriculum development workshops for P–12 teachers and higher education faculty members at the University of Nebraska Omaha. She has spent her professional career supporting service-learning in education as a practitioner developing community partners, faculty members, and students in service-learning and engaged learning experiences across the P–16 spectrum. Her research interests are in community partner development, service-learning impact, and best practices in service-learning and community engagement. Dierberger received a master’s of arts in educational administration and bachelor of arts in English from the University of Nebraska Lincoln.

    Cheri Doane serves as the director of community-based learning at Central College in Pella, Iowa. In that role, she develops community partnerships, provides faculty development, and oversees service-learning and civic engagement initiatives. Doane has been instrumental in the development of service-learning at Central’s study abroad programs, which have been recognized in Promising Practices of International Service Learning (North Carolina Campus Compact). She has provided consultation, review, and faculty development for colleges and universities around the United States. Her personal civic involvement has been recognized with honors from President Obama and Iowa Governor Terry Branstad. She holds a BA from Central College and an MS from Iowa State University.

    Jonathan C. Dooley is the assistant vice president for student life and dean of campus life at Elon University (NC), with responsibility for several offices and programs related to the residential campus initiative, inclusive community, and civic engagement. He earned a doctorate in educational policy and leadership from Marquette University (MI) and has held academic appointments at both Marquette and Elon. His teaching, research, and administrative interests and experiences include diversity and social justice, leadership development, student organizations and activities, student government, Greek life, service-learning, and student spirituality.

    Lina D. Dostilio is the director of academic community engagement at Duquesne University (PA). She is responsible for administrating the university’s service-learning and community-engaged research initiatives. Her research focuses on democratically engaged, multisector partnerships. She is currently faculty within Duquesne University’s Professional Doctorate for Educational Leaders and facilitates learning about, and practice of, school-academy-community partnerships. She is the 2014 chairperson of the International Association for Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement.

    Amie Dowling earned her MFA from Smith College (MA). She is an associate professor at the University of San Francisco (CA) and artist in residence at the San Francisco County Jails and San Quentin Prison. She has taught in the Five College Dance Department and at Amherst and Mount Holyoke Colleges. In 2001 she co-founded the Performance Project at the Hampshire and Hampden County Jails (MA). Dowling’s recently completed Well Contested Sites, a dance/theater film, examines the impact of incarceration on the body. Through a partnership with Teachers 4 Social Justice, the film is used in classrooms throughout the United States to facilitate conversations about mass incarceration. She recently received a choreography fellowship from the Massachusetts Cultural Council and funding from Kenneth Rainin Foundation, Fonds Soziokultur, the U.S. Consulate in Leipzig, Germany, and the Haymarket Foundation.

    Jacob M. J. du Plessis (MA) is a lecturer in sociology and specializes in development studies, the sociology of health, and the sociology of education. His research interests are focused on community collaborative research and community development processes. He is actively involved in civil society as manager of projects for the Division of Community Interaction at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, and has been the chairperson of a variety of community engagement committees. He has also been the academic director of Northwestern University’s (IL) Public Health and Development program in South Africa for the past eight years. He has taught various service-learning courses since 2006 and has received three awards for Excellence in Teaching. He has presented papers at international service-learning conferences in South Africa, the United States, Europe, South America, and China.

    Meghan Wilson Duff earned her MS and PsyD in clinical psychology from Antioch University New England. Duff was selected as an Albert Schweitzer Fellow as a graduate student and continues as an active Fellow for Life focusing on addressing health disparities by developing leaders in service. She is currently an associate professor of psychology at University of Maine at Machias, where she teaches undergraduate students and works with over 20 community partners on community- and health-related issues. Her teaching interest is in helping those students interested in social change and advocacy to develop self-care and reflective practice skills.

    Nancy Edick currently serves as dean of the College of Education at the University of Nebraska Omaha. Her teaching and research interests include new teacher induction and culturally responsive teaching. Edick earned her EdD at the University of Nebraska Omaha. Her interest in service-learning stems from her role as executive director of the Metropolitan Omaha Educational Consortium, a model collaboration between the college and the 12 metropolitan area school districts. Her career has focused on effective collaborations between P–12 and higher education.

    Sarah Edwards currently serves as the University of Nebraska Omaha chair of the Teacher Education Department. Her teaching and research interests revolve around community partnerships, culturally responsive teaching, literacy at the secondary level, and teacher dispositions. Edwards earned her PhD at the University of Arizona. Her interest in service-learning began in 1996 when she started teaching a service-learning class at Utterback Middle School in South Tucson (AZ). For over a decade, she has incorporated a variety of service-learning models in her coursework at the university.

    Mary Jane Eisenhauer earned a BS in speech-language pathology and MSEd in education and social policy from Northwestern University (WI). She started her career as a kindergarten teacher in Chicago, Illinois, before receiving an EdD in curriculum and social inquiry, with a concentration in early childhood from National College of Education at National Louis University (IL). She is currently associate professor of education and program coordinator for early childhood education at Purdue University North Central (IN). Eisenhauer has served as a faculty fellow with Indiana Campus Compact and her work has been published in Service-Learning in Higher Education: Connecting the Global to the Local.

    Hoda Farahmandpour earned an MA in adult education and community development from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, Canada. She founded Wordswell Association for Community Learning, a nonprofit organization that offers educational programs for the empowerment of young people in Toronto that accompanies youths to plan, execute, and analyze social action projects within their neighborhoods. Her research interests include youth development and social change, critical pedagogy, and service-learning.

    Joyce Fields is professor and program director for Child and Family Studies at Columbia College (SC). Her doctorate in family relations is from Florida State University. She is the director of Columbia College’s Sophomore Year Experience.

    Karen Frost-Arnold earned her PhD in philosophy from the University of Pittsburgh (PA). She is an assistant professor at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York, where she teaches a service-learning course titled Ethics of Civic Engagement. Her research focuses on the epistemology and ethics of trust.

    Randy Gabrys-Alexson is a professor of geology at the University of Wisconsin–Superior. She holds an MS in geography from the University of Wisconsin–Superior and a PhD in geography from the Union Institute (OH). Her research interests focus on geography education at all levels, from kindergarten through university level, and working with preservice and inservice teachers.

    Janna L. Goodwin, earned her PhD from University of Massachusetts Amherst. She is a playwright, director, performer, and producer of original community-based work exploring how systems, communication, responsiveness, creativity, and humor reflect and impact the quality of our relationships and experiences. Her ongoing collaboration with Modern Muse Theatre—Face: Live, Immediate and Online Theatre for Teens in a Wireless World—combines social media, video, and live performance to raise into view the process of identity formation and conflict through a performance conceptual framework (stigma, status, face, social drama). Goodwin has written about her own work using theater, dance, and dialogue in the health-care system, and about the work of others, in jails. She is an associate professor at Regis University (CO), where she teaches performance studies, intercultural communication, dialogue, and other communication classes.

    Cynthia Gordon da Cruz is an adjunct assistant professor in the Justice, Community and Leadership Department at Saint Mary’s College of California. Her research focuses on community-engaged scholarship, critical democratic citizenship, antiracism, and community organizing. While completing her doctorate at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Gordon da Cruz was involved in a study of community organizing for education reform. This research culminated in a book in which she co-authored a chapter, A Match on Dry Grass: Organizing for Great Schools in San Jose. Previously, Gordon da Cruz has worked in multiple areas of higher education: leadership development, advising multicultural and student advocacy groups, and with the American Cultures Engaged Scholarship program at University of California, Berkeley.

    Lois Veenhoven Guderian received her PhD from Northwestern University (IL) and is music education coordinator and an associate professor of music at University of Wisconsin–Superior. An educator, author, composer, choral director, and clinician, Guderian has taught choral, instrumental, and general music for ages preschool through adult, authored several books and journal articles for music education, and designed numerous arts education programs for the schools. A professional composer, she serves the National Association for Music Education as an online mentor in music composition education and as an adjudicator for the NAfME (National Association for Music Education) Student Composition Competition. Resounding closely with her own philosophies in music education and civic engagement, since 2009, Guderian has incorporated academic service-learning (ASL) fieldwork into all of her music education methods classes—a total of 12 different ongoing programs and projects that address both community and educational needs. On a personal note, throughout the entirety of her professional career, she has contributed professional service weekly to the communities where she has lived.

    Steven M. Hart is an associate professor of literacy education at California State University, Fresno, and is the coordinator of the urban civic education minor. Hart graduated from the University of South Florida’s PhD program in reading/language arts. Hart’s passion for service-learning and educational equity and justice is grounded in his extensive experience working with diverse student populations as a teacher in urban elementary schools in Norfolk, Virginia, and South San Francisco, California. He maintains this passion and extensively uses critical service-learning pedagogy in his courses to better prepare teachers to become agents of change.

    Collin Hayes is a senior in the Nazareth College (NY) philosophy department, has been a student in four different service-learning classes, and served as a Nazareth College Center for Service-Learning student worker.

    Brandon P. Hollingshead is an instructor at Florida Gulf Coast University, where he is also on the leadership team of the Center for Environmental and Sustainability Education. His research interests are in the rhetoric of sustainability, humanities and sustainability, and service-learning. Hollingshead’s master’s thesis at the University of Utah was Crafting Principles for Sustainable Development: Negotiations in the Drafting of the Earth Charter and Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. He has worked on a number of Earth Charter research projects and has published on youth participation in sustainable development.

    Syeda Zakia Hossain earned her PhD from the University of Queensland (Australia), and is a senior lecturer in the discipline of behavioral and social sciences in health at the University of Sydney. She has taught a number of behavioral and sociology of health science courses with service-learning.

    Maiya Jackson is the Upper School director at Manhattan Country School in New York City and was previously the co-director of Breakthrough Long Island, a nonprofit program where high school and college students teach motivated middle school students from underresourced schools to put them on the path to college. Her work in education reflects her interest in educational equity, social justice education, and the power of diverse communities in schools. She earned her BA at Brown University (RI) in English literature and an MA in school leadership from the Klingenstein Program at Columbia University’s Teachers College.

    Tomás Jacquez teaches critical service-learning at the Urban School of San Francisco (CA) where he challenges students to identify and challenge their initial assumptions around service, citizenship, culture, race, and class. Jacquez wrote his thesis on Creating Equity Consciousness and a Culture of Inquiry Within an Independent High School, in the organizational and leadership master’s degree program at the University of San Francisco. In fall of 2013, he began his doctoral work at the University of San Francisco in international and multicultural education.

    Christopher D. Jensen is the director of the Office of Civic Engagement and Leadership at Towson University (MD). He recently finished his PhD at Oakland University (MI) researching the impact of service-learning experiences on the retention of students. His focus is on the factors of community service experiences associated with the theories of student departure and student engagement that impact the students’ intentions to graduate from college. He has worked in higher education for over 15 years, in the areas of leadership development, student activities, campus safety, housing, orientation, and enrollment management. In addition, he has had the opportunity connect students with the community through curricular and co-curricular experiences.

    Lee Jerome is lecturer at Queen’s University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. He completed his PhD at the Institute of Education, University of London (UK) where he researched the development of citizenship education policy in secondary schools in England. He published England’s Citizenship Experiment: State, School and Student Perspectives in 2012 and also edits Teaching Citizenship, the journal of the Association for Citizenship Teaching in the United Kingdom. He has taught in secondary schools in London and on teacher education courses in several universities. He currently works in the School of Education in Queen’s University Belfast, where he is a member of the Centre for Children’s Rights and contributes to the MSc in Children’s Rights.

    Annette Johnson teaches social work research methods and policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She earned her MSW from the Jane Addams College of Social Work at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research interests include youth activism and critical service-learning and its influence on social emotional development. Professor Johnson has over 18 years of experience as a director of social work services within Chicago Public Schools.

    Shirin Karsan is the program director of weServe in the School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems at Drexel University (PA). She has been volunteering her bioethics expertise and, in particular “neuroethics” knowledge to the Penn-Drexel Optical Brain Imaging team since 2006 while working at the A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute. She received her master of bioethics degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests include the ethics of emerging biotechnologies, with cultural and religious perspectives, for which she received a Fulbright grant to conduct research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Her primary research focus was on if and/or how Sunni Muslims accept the usage of modern assisted reproduction technologies in the UAE.

    Ann Marie Jursca Keffer is the associate director and service-learning coordinator of the Faith-Justice Institute at Saint Joseph’s University in Philadelphia (PA). She earned her bachelor of science degree in psychology with minors in Spanish and theology from University of Scranton (PA), her master’s of social work from Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and a certificate from University of Pennsylvania’s Robert A. Fox Leadership program. Jursca Keffer is a licensed social worker in the states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania who teaches and presents on service-learning pedagogy.

    Shenila Khoja-Moolji is a doctoral student and research fellow at Teachers College, Columbia University (NY). Her research interests include Muslim youth identity, gender and sexual citizenship, curriculum theory, postcolonial theory, and poststructuralist feminist theory. She has taught courses on Muslim cultures, gender relations, social foundations of education, and ethics of engagement at the Department of History and Philosophy at the State University of New York at Old Westbury, and the Department of Elementary and Childhood Education at Queens College, City University of New York. Prior to Columbia University, Khoja-Moolji attended the Divinity School at Harvard University where she graduated with a master of theological studies degree focusing on Islamic studies and gender.

    Rodmon King earned his PhD in philosophy from the University of Rochester (NY). He is an assistant professor of philosophy and faculty advisor to Sankofa, the Black Student Union at Hobart & William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York. His research focuses on ancient Greek philosophy, specifically the areas of ethics, semantics, and mental representation.

    Brandon W. Kliewer is an assistant professor of civic leadership in the Staley School of Leadership Studies at Kansas State University. Kliewer was formerly an assistant professor of civic engagement at Florida Gulf Coast University. He is currently working on a book length project related to community-engaged scholarship and civic leadership. He holds a PhD from the University of Georgia in political science and a master’s degree in political science from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

    Diana E. Kolar is currently an investment banking associate at JPMorgan Chase & Co. She earned a BSBA in finance at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., where she minored in Spanish and in justice and peace studies. Kolar took numerous service-learning courses at Georgetown in both business and liberal arts and completed an undergraduate thesis titled The Business of Community-Based Learning: Incorporating Reflection, Service and Social Change Into Undergraduate Business Classes. She was also an undergraduate research fellow at the Georgetown University Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs where she worked with the fellows to research, develop and publish a report titled When Diversity Meets the Global Market: Forging a New Generation of Business Leaders.

    Tim Krause began integrating service-learning projects in business communication courses as a PhD candidate at Purdue University (IN) in 1995. He is currently an associate professor at the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. His teaching and research interests include project management, the role of technology in job creation, and user-centered design. Krause works with the department’s graduating seniors and encourages them to consider ways to integrate community and professional service into their professional lives.

    Lois-Ann Kuntz earned an MA in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Central Florida and then specialized in human factors research while earning her PhD in sensation and cognition from the University of Florida. For the last 10 years, Kuntz has taught at the University of Maine, Machias. Her service-learning/civic engagement (SL/CE) coursework and the work of her department has received recognition by Maine Campus Compact. Kuntz advises a student group which hosts an LGBTQA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and ally) youth statewide Rainbow Ball Weekend and she facilitates faculty training for online service-learning.

    Ned Scott Laff is director for advising at Augustana College (IL). His doctorate in English education and educational policy is from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was formerly director for general education and service-learning at Columbia College (SC). He led Columbia College to Carnegie Community Engagement Classification, four presidential citations from the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS), and the 2012 Washington Center Award for Civic Engagement.

    Sophia Suk-mun Law, after gaining years of nursing experience in her first career, returned to school in 2004 to obtain a PhD in art history from the University of Hong Kong. In 2007, she developed a research interest in the relationship between art and well-being and is currently engaging in many research projects on art facilitation for specific communities, such as people with dyslexia, dementia, autism, and disabilities. She currently teaches at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. She is also dedicated to running community art projects as service-learning for college students.

    Darryl Mace is an associate professor at Cabrini College in Radnor, Pennsylvania. He studies cultural history, the civil rights movement, the experiences of Africans in the diaspora, media studies, popular culture, and gender theory. Mace earned his PhD in history and a graduate certificate in women’s studies from Temple University. He combines his research on race, gender, and culture with his passion for community collaborative research through his role as diversity coordinator for Cabrini College’s Justice Matters curriculum and through his partnerships with local domestic violence and mental health agencies.

    Martin Mackey earned his PhD from the University of Sydney (Australia) and is a senior lecturer and course director in the discipline of physiotherapy at the University of Sydney. He has taught a number of subjects in physical therapy and rehabilitation counseling with service-learning.

    Nancy Mathias serves as the director of the Sturzl Center for Community Service and Learning at St. Norbert College. She joined the college in 1990 working in the areas of experiential education, leadership development, and service-learning programs. She earned her master’s degree in education from Cardinal Stritch University.

    Cassandra McKay-Jackson earned her PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago in the College of Education (Curriculum and Instruction). Her research interests include critical service-learning, youth activism, and its influence on social emotional development. She teaches practice, policy, and research within the College of Social Work at the University of Illinois at Chicago. McKay-Jackson has worked in the field as a clinical practitioner with youth, adults, and families.

    Heather McRae is associate professor and associate dean of engaged learning at the University of Alberta (Canada). Her doctoral work at Simon Fraser University focused on the role of continuing education in supporting community engagement. Her current research explores the institutional and community conditions and requirements necessary for maintaining and developing the commitment to community engagement. She is involved in a number of research projects, including a pan-Canadian assessment measuring the impact of engagement on communities.

    Mandi R. McReynolds is the first director of community engagement and service-learning at Drake University (IA). She has spent her career building service-learning and leadership programs at three different institutions in Iowa. She received her BA in organizational communications from Cedarville University and MS in interdisciplinary studies from Iowa State University. Mandi was honored with the 2011 Iowa Campus Compact Engaged Staff Award, 2012 Iowa Student Personnel Association Outstanding Service Award, and 2012 Upper Midwest Region ACU-HO Social Justice in Action Award. Her research interests include student agency development and the career development of community service-learning professionals.

    Tynisha D. Meidl is an assistant professor at St. Norbert College (WI). She teaches undergraduate courses focused on reading development in the elementary and middle school. Meidl received her bachelor’s and doctoral degrees from Pennsylvania State University. She taught elementary school in South Texas and in Baltimore (MD) city public schools. Most of her research focuses on developing teachers of reading for diverse contexts. For the past four years, Meidl has offered an academic service-learning course for early childhood and elementary education majors.

    E. Nicole Meyer is chair of the Department of English and Foreign Languages and professor of French at Georgia Regents University in Augusta, Georgia. After earning an MA from the Johns Hopkins University and an MA from the University of Pennsylvania, she completed her PhD in romance languages and literatures at the University of Pennsylvania. Currently at work on a book project, Fractured Families in Contemporary French and Francophone Women’s Autobiographies, she is author of numerous publications on FLES (foreign languages at the elementary school), business French, Flaubert, French and Francophone women’s autobiography, 20th-century French literature, and biography. She is a longtime member of the American Association of Teachers of French FLES Commission and serves on innumerable commissions and committees at local and national levels.

    Michael Millington earned his PhD from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and is the course director and senior lecturer in the discipline of rehabilitation counseling at the University of Sydney (Australia). He is service-learning placement coordinator and previously conducted knowledge dissemination leadership with the U.S. National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials.

    Kate A. Molchan earned her JD from Case Western Reserve University (OH). While there, she also graduated with a master’s in bioethics. She worked in higher education for one year at the West Virginia University as assistant general counsel for health sciences before enrolling at Duquesne University (PA) to obtain a PhD in health-care ethics. She is currently entering her second year of the doctoral program and simultaneously working in the Office of Service-Learning as a teaching assistant and Community Engagement Scholars Program manager.

    Elias Mpofu has a PhD from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a DEd from the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He is professor and head of discipline of rehabilitation counseling at the University of Sydney, and interim-chair of the Rehabilitation Psychology Interest Group of the Australian Psychological Society. He has published research on service-learning as pedagogy for health sciences education.

    James Mullooly is an associate professor of anthropology at California State University, Fresno and is the director of the Institute for Public Anthropology. Mullooly graduated from Teacher College, Columbia University’s (NY) PhD Program in anthropology and education. Mullooly is a specialist in applied anthropology and qualitative research methodology. He has conducted years of research in rural and urban underserved populations in the schools and homes of those students. His work with Latino populations in New York, Wisconsin, and California illustrates sensitivity to the local context and its value in better understanding the larger patterns at play in society.

    Jennifer Garrett Nissen currently serves as the assistant director of community service and learning in the Sturzl Center for Community Service and Learning at St. Norbert College (WI). She works with TRIPS (Turning Responsibility into Powerful Service) and Michels Hall Service Program, a residential service program. She received her bachelor’s degree from the University of Florida in human resource development and her master’s in higher education administration at Florida State University. In 2011, Nissen received her doctorate in educational leadership and policy studies from Iowa State University. She has worked at a large public institution, an institution for women, and two religiously affiliated colleges.

    Nicholas Rademacher is an associate professor at Cabrini College in Radnor, Pennsylvania. He researches North American Catholicism and Catholic social teaching. Rademacher earned his PhD in religious studies from the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and has been teaching courses that explore lived religious traditions as well as religious radicalism—especially the Catholic peace movement—in the work of Paul Hanly Furfey, Dorothy Day, Thomas Merton, and the Berrigan brothers. He continues to foster rich community collaborations (for his students and himself) with the intentional Christian community, Norristown (PA) Community House, and the local homeless outreach center.

    Rosemary C. Reilly worked in cooperative daycares and nursery schools for many years before attending Concordia University (Canada) in 1987 to obtain a certificate in family life education. This proved to be a turning point in her career, from working with young children to working with families, schools, and organizations. She went on to earn a PhD in educational psychology from McGill (Canada) and became tenured at Concordia in 2009. Her particular research interest is exploring learning as a lever for change with individuals, organizations, and communities. Rosemary employs an experiential teaching approach, which emphasizes the whole person and has been engaged with civic engagement, service-learning (CESL) since 1991.

    Jessica J. Rhea is the director of community engagement at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU). Under her leadership there has been substantial growth in the number of faculty implementing service-learning into their coursework, students engaging in service-learning experiences, and community partners being added to the university’s service-learning database. Her work in this field has earned FGCU much recognition. In 2011, FGCU’s Office of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement was awarded the Washington Center’s Higher Education Civic Engagement Award and Florida Campus Compact’s Engaged Campus of the Year award. FGCU has also been included on the President’s Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll with Distinction.

    Reid Richard Riggle is an associate professor at St. Norbert College (WI). He earned a BA in psychology and K–8 certification from Coe College (IA) and a MA and PhD in educational psychology from the University of Iowa. He is the co-founder and leader of the Village Project.

    Kristin Riker-Coleman is an assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin–Superior. She holds an MS in geological sciences from Ohio State University and a PhD in geology from the University of Minnesota. She currently teaches in the Earth Science Program, focusing on the field of environmental geology, and is interested in how the changing climate is recorded in the geologic record.

    Keith E. Robinder received his MS in student affairs and higher education from Colorado State University. He has worked in student affairs at both private and public institutions, from community colleges to research universities. As the director of student life and community engagement at Laramie County (WY) Community College, he co-founded the service-learning program, infusing a culture of civic engagement across all curricular and co-curricular areas. He recently completed his PhD in educational leadership at Colorado State. Dr. Robinder currently serves as associate dean of students at Iowa State University where he also enjoys teaching in the School of Education.

    Helen Rosenberg earned a PhD in sociology from Northwestern University (IL) in 1989. Currently, she is professor at the University of Wisconsin–Parkside. She teaches courses in the sociology of mental illness, substance use and abuse, and social gerontology, but focuses her research on outcomes of community-based learning and its impact on students, faculty, and community partners. She heads the Gerontology Certificate Program and coordinates the Community-Based Learning Certificate.

    J. Ashleigh Ross Community-University Exchange fellow, University of Wisconsin–Madison, is a PhD candidate in the environment and resources program in the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. Ross’s dissertation research focus is on the impacts of campus-community partnerships in the post-Katrina recovery of New Orleans (LA).

    Laurelyn Sandkamp is a graduate student in the Urban and Regional Planning program at the University of Minnesota’s Humphrey School of Public Affairs. Sandkamp earned her bachelor of arts degree from the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire. Her research explores the sustainability of food systems and her community work promotes food security and food justice.

    Marie G. Sandy PhD, is assistant professor of educational policy and community studies at University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee where she teaches service-learning oriented courses on philosophy of education, community-academic partnerships, and community organizing. Her research interests involve humanities-based approaches to social change and community engagement. She previously directed a community- and service-learning immersion program at Pitzer College (CA), and later coordinated California Campus Compact’s project on community partner perspectives in community-academic partnerships. She is involved presently with research designed to overcome family homelessness, a passion ignited through her involvement in a community-academic partnership. She earned her PhD in education at Claremont (CA) Graduate University.

    Molly Sarubbi is a doctoral student in the University of Denver’s (CO) School of Education. She earned her master’s of science in student development and was a former Center for Service-Learning graduate student intern.

    Margaret Sass is the assistant director of service-learning at Purdue University (IN). She received her juris doctor from Western State University College of Law in California and her doctorate in curriculum and instruction at Boise (ID) State University. Sass has been teaching communications and law in higher education for the last 12 years and is currently teaching online. Most of her research focuses on the outcomes of service-learning on college students. She is also an assistant professor (by courtesy) at Purdue University.

    Courtney Dwyer Satkoski is an instructor at Florida Gulf Coast University. She began her career as an environmental education resource instructor and internship coordinator and focused on integrating STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education programs into Lee County (FL) Schools. Her interests include ecological, communal, and economic sustainability and community engagement. She holds a master’s degree in public administration from Florida Gulf Coast University and began the FGCU Malaria Project in 2009 to improve the quality of lives of people living in remote villages in countries in the African continent.

    Karen Schwartz is an associate professor at Carleton University (Canada) in social work. Her areas of research involve community-engaged scholarship, field education, mental health, and social work pedagogy. She has fostered community university partnerships including an ongoing relationship with the Somali Family Service Centre and international student practica. Schwartz is currently involved in teaching a research course where students engage in community-based research and a study funded by a grant from the government of Canada exploring the benefits to the community from campus engagement. She co-authored Research for Social Justice: A Community-Based Approach. She earned her PhD from Columbia University in New York.

    Jason C. Senjem is an assistant professor at St. Ambrose University in Davenport, IA. He earned an MS in human resources from Purdue University (IN) and a PhD in business administration from the University of Colorado Boulder. His research is concerned with how organizations use innovative work practices to create economic, social, and environmental value. Senjem has taught management at Syracuse (NY) University and St. Norbert College (WI) and for the past seven years has incorporated academic service-learning into his introductory and elective courses. He has presented on service-learning at the Academy of Management Conference.

    John Shepherd has taught at Canada’s Northwest Community College, College of New Caledonia, Laurentian University, and for the past four years at Kwantlen Polytechnic University. He earned an MBA from the University of British Columbia, an MSc with Distinction from Heriot–Watt University (Scotland), and is a Certified General Accountant. He served on the boards of the Prince Rupert Airport Authority, Northwest Community College, and the Prince George Public Library. He is a past president of the Rotary Club of North Delta and vice-chair of the Surrey Public Library. In 2014, the British Columbia Library Trustee Association awarded him with the Nancy Bennett Award.

    Ilya Shodjaee-Zrudlo studies in the department of educational psychology and adult education at the University of Montreal (Canada). For many years, he has been involved in youth programming as an animator, trainer, and coordinator in the Montreal region. His research interests include the philosophy of moral empowerment, service-learning, the philosophy of science, methodology in the social sciences, knowledge production in organizations and social movements, and youth organizing.

    Marian Slaughter, Community-University Exchange fellow, University of Wisconsin–Madison, is a PhD candidate in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction in the School of Education. Slaughter’s dissertation research focuses on discourses of nation-state crisis and mathematics education reform. She is also licensed by the State of California Commission on Teacher Credentialing as an instructor.

    Antoinette Smith-Tolken (PhD) heads the Office for Service-Learning and Community-based Research at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. In this capacity, she is primarily responsible for enhancing the scholarship of engagement of academic staff through training and support programs with secondary graduate teaching responsibilities. She plays a leading role in the proliferation of service-learning and community engagement in South Africa. Smith-Tolken has presented at conferences in South Africa, Australia, Europe, the United States, and China over the past 10 years and co-chaired two international symposiums and a national colloquium. She is one of the co-founders of the International Symposium: Service-Learning, offered for the fifth time in 2013 in Stellenbosch. Her research record reflects several national and international publications.

    Linda M. Thibodeau is an associate professor at the University of Texas at Dallas. She earned her PhD from the University of Minnesota. Current research interests include the relationship between psychoacoustic processing and possible benefits from amplification circuits and the evaluation of auditory training approaches and assistive devices designed to enhance speech recognition.

    Janis Timm-Bottos is a community art maker, art therapist, and assistant professor at Concordia University in Montreal (Canada). She is collaborator and founder of six community art studios, including ArtStreet and OFFCenter Arts in Albuquerque, New Mexico; and La Ruche d’Art St Henri and Studio d’Art St Sulpice in Montreal. Her current research practice includes networking with other universities and communities across Canada to spread the ideas of the art hive and helping to initiate these small and sustainable sites of creative renewal in every neighborhood. She earned her PhD in American Studies from the University of New Mexico.

    J. Estrella Torrez is an assistant professor at Michigan State University. She earned her PhD in language, literacy, and sociocultural studies with a concentration in bilingual education from the University of New Mexico. Her scholarship centers on language politics and the importance of community-based knowledge, particularly among rural migrant families and urban indigenous youth in the Great Lakes region. She currently works closely with Michigan State University’s Migrant Student Service program and the Lansing (MI) School District’s bilingual/bicultural programs to create academic enrichment programming.

    Elizabeth Tryon is assistant director for community-based learning at the Morgridge Center for Public Service, University of Wisconsin–Madison. Her interests in community-based learning and research focus on community impact and engaged scholarship for academic staff. She facilitates projects; develops curriculum; administrates academic service and research programs globally; teaches; and presents on her work in the United States, Canada, and Europe. She chairs the Community-University Exchange program and co-chairs the Wisconsin Without Borders (WWB) Initiative.

    Adje van de Sande is an associate professor at Carleton University (Canada) in social work. He teaches research methods, statistics, and social work theory at the undergraduate and graduate levels and quantitative analysis at the PhD level. He co-authored Research for Social Justice: A Community-Based Approach. From 2003 to 2007, he was president of the Canadian Association for Social Work Education. He has over 30 years of practice and research experience and has published more than a dozen research reports and journal articles in the area of child poverty and Aboriginal child welfare. He earned his PhD from Wilfred Laurier University (Ontario).

    Leela Viswanathan is an assistant professor at the School of Urban and Regional Planning at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. After a decade of working as a planner and social policy analyst in government and notfor-profit sectors, she earned a PhD in environmental studies from York University in Toronto. Her interdisciplinary research practice focuses on indigenous approaches to planning, immigration, postcolonial theories, and planning pedagogy. Experiential learning is foundational to her teaching practice and she builds curricula on principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). She is a registered professional planner in Ontario and a full member of the Canadian Institute of Planners.

    Marie Watkins is a professor at Nazareth College, Rochester, New York. She graduated from Syracuse University with a master’s in marriage and family therapy, a master’s in social work, and a doctorate in child and family studies. She was director of the Center for Service-Learning from 2002 to 2013 and is currently director of the Community Youth Development Program at Nazareth College.

    Nancy Watterson is an associate professor at Cabrini College in Radnor, Pennsylvania. She is a folklorist passionate about engaged ethnography, social justice, and community-based collaborative research. Watterson received her PhD in folklore and folklife from the University of Pennsylvania and has been teaching courses that combine arts and protest, community building, and social change for many years: in Cabrini College’s (PA) distinctive Justice Matters curriculum and previous to that, through affiliation with the Princeton (NJ) Community Based Learning Initiative (CBLI), and as part of the University of Pennsylvania’s academically based service-learning courses.

    Carol Wickersham worked with grassroots, national, and global social justice initiatives for over 30 years as an ordained pastor in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.), having received her MDiv from Pacific School of Religion (CA). She taught as an adjunct faculty at San Francisco Theological Seminary. Currently at Beloit College (WI), she is an instructor in the sociology department, coordinator of the Duffy Community Partnerships, and director of the Office of Community-Based Learning in the Liberal Arts in Practice Center.

    Sarah Wilkes-Gillan (BAppSc, Occupational Therapy, hons) is a PhD candidate and postgraduate teaching fellow at the University of Sydney (Australia). Her research has been serving as service-learning placement coordinator for the Service Learning Core in the Faculty of Health Sciences.

    Allan Wilson currently the university librarian at the University of Northern British Columbia in Canada, was formerly chief librarian of the Prince George and Prince Rupert Public Libraries. He has a master’s of library science from the University of Toronto and was a former PhD student at the University of Toronto, with an expertise in Russian library classification systems.

    Acknowledgments

    From Omobolade Delano-Oriaran: My thanks to my parents, Grace Ebunoluwa and Isaac Babatunde Delano, for laying the foundation and preparing me to be community engaged. I acknowledge my husband, Dr. T. Philips Oriaran, for supporting my journey as a community-engaged scholar. My love to my daughter, Oluwafeyikemi, for her patience when Mummy is “working.” My appreciation to my siblings, Yejide and Idowu Wyse, Fola and Funke Delano, and Lola and Yinka Abinusawa, their children, and numerous nieces and nephews for their consistent support. I thank St. Norbert College for providing me with a sabbatical to dedicate time to this book. My thanks to my friends and colleagues who always believe in me. Most importantly, I give honor to God for the blessings in my life.

    From Marguerite W. Penick-Parks: My thanks to Dr. Bola Delano-Oriaran, without whom this book would not have happened. Thank you to my daughters, Maggie, Lizbet, Adele, and Danae for always believing in me and supporting me. My thanks to my brothers, George and Worth, and my program assistant, Mary, who always has a smile on her face. Most of all, I thank my mother and father, Marguerite and George, who were always there for me the value of human dignity.

    From Suzanne Fondrie: Thank you to Bola and Marguerite for their work on this volume and in furthering diverse perspectives in teacher education. I acknowledge my family’s understanding about providing time to focus on editing. Finally, thank you to the service-learning partners who have joined together, often on their own time and at their own expense, to create something more than just another academic course.

    From all of us: Appreciation to the authors who contributed to this sourcebook and worked on numerous drafts. Our gratitude to Dr. Barbara Jacoby for believing in our project and writing the foreword for this publication. We thank our editorial board members who provided critical reviews and input. We also thank the following people for their contributions to the Resource Guide section of the appendixes: Kristen Berger, Lindsay Blumer, Mary Jane Eisenhauer, Maiya Jackson, Mandi R. McReynolds, Tim Krause, Lois Ann Knutz, Meghan Wilson Duff, St. Norbert College Teacher Education student workers, other chapter authors who inspired the resources, and everyone involved in the revision process. Sincere appreciation to Jim Brace-Thompson, who nurtured the idea of a book proposal. We are grateful to our developmental editor, Shirin Parsavand, for her invaluable contributions. To the SAGE family, thank you! Your patience, professionalism, and respect for scholarship are appreciated. Finally, we thank our students and all the community partners out there who inspire us to stay engaged.

    Foreword

    Since I began my journey with service-learning in 1992, it has become a permanent part of the landscape of both K–12 and higher education. We have amassed considerable evidence of its benefits for students and communities. Service-learning is integrated into the curriculum and the co-curriculum, long-term campus-community partnerships, organizational infrastructure, base budgets, faculty research, and even the tenure and promotion process. Institutions around the world engage deeply with their communities to achieve common goals and to promote sustainable economic development. My state, Maryland, was the first to establish service-learning as a requirement for graduation from public secondary schools. Service-learning is one of the high-impact educational practices identified by the Association of American Colleges and Universities as having been widely tested and shown to be beneficial to college students from a wide variety of backgrounds. U.S. News & World Reports influential college rankings include service-learning as an outstanding academic program that leads to student success. Campus Compact, the organization of college presidents who have committed their institutions to public service and community engagement, has more than 1,100 institutional members and 34 state affiliates.

    Service-learning and civic engagement motivate students to learn course content thoroughly and deeply. Acquiring knowledge for its own sake rarely motivates students, and learning can only occur if students are engaged. Boredom and disengagement during lectures and other traditional classroom activities are commonplace. Service-learning and civic engagement are, by their nature, active learning. Because they address real issues and needs, students are more likely to invest time and effort in their learning. Students engage with faculty, peers, and community members about substantive matters and discover the relevance of their learning through real-world experiences.

    Students who participate in high-quality service-learning and civic engagement have the opportunity to see and act on the problems individuals and communities face, engage in dialogue and problem solving with the people most affected, and reflect on how they will be civically engaged citizens, scholars, and leaders throughout their lives. When we engage students in reflection related to their experiences, they can see the interdisciplinary nature of problems and solutions, the complexity of the social fabric, and how they can choose to be part of the solution rather than part of the problem. A student once told me that service-learning enabled her to test out theories in real time, in real places, with real people, and with real consequences. Through civic engagement, students can come to understand the difference between helping someone through direct service and becoming involved in public policy and political work that can foster change. They learn about the levers of social change that are available to them as citizens of a democratic society and how to use them in their work with community leaders and members.

    However, some of the leading scholars and practitioners in the field believe that service-learning and civic engagement work has stalled. Some point to fragmentation and drift. Others lament that elementary school teachers are forced to “teach to the test” while our work in higher education has not fulfilled Ernest Boyer’s call for higher education “to serve a larger purpose” (Saltmarsh & Hartley, 2011). Others note that we have been doing civically engaged work for years and our country is even more unjust than ever before.

    As for me, I do not believe that our work has stalled. However, I do believe that we must be reflective practitioners in order to continue to move it forward. We must walk the walk of critically reflecting on our work as we encourage our students to do. In the workshops and consultations I do on campuses around the country and around the world, I am asked many questions, from the most basic to the most complex, by faculty members, students, community partners, administrators, and staff. Those who are considering whether they should engage in the work of service-learning and civic engagement ask questions: When is service-learning the right pedagogy for a course? Is this work academically rigorous? Why should I consider this approach for my courses? Those who are deeply engaged frequently encounter its most challenging questions and difficult dilemmas: Is social justice the ultimate purpose of service-learning and civic engagement? Can community partnerships really be relationships among equals? Should the focus of service-learning be local or global? How can we educate students for global citizenship through service-learning? In my recent book, Service-Learning Essentials: Questions, Answers, and Lessons Learned (Jacoby, 2014), I take the stance that is incumbent upon us to respond to questions like these by incorporating the most fundamental principles and practices of our work to as we continuously question and challenge their relevance as service-learning evolves to meet changing local and global needs. I believe that we must also “trouble” and “problematize” our work to deeply and critically reflect on its complexities in order to advance our practice in ways that allow us to fully reap its potential benefits for students, communities, and campuses.

    I enthusiastically welcome The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement for many reasons, one of which is that it thoughtfully responds to questions like these. Omobolade Delano-Oriaran, Marguerite W. Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie have assembled an outstanding group of chapter authors who invite us to step back from our daily work and to look carefully and intentionally into what we do and why we do it. They pose and respond to many questions that I believe we must address if we are to make meaning of our work, to shape its direction and focus. Without a clear vision and focus, we risk the potential of “just doing” or, worse yet, fulfilling the prophecy that our service-learning and civic engagement work has stalled.

    The sourcebook begins with a section on the foundations of our work. I was delighted to see that the opening chapter by Mandi McReynolds focuses on developing practitioner-scholars for the future of community engagement. It sets the tone for this provocative and inspiring volume and appropriately challenges readers with its opening question: “Will you consider embracing a larger vision of yourself as a practitioner-scholar?” In contrast to focusing on the definition, history, and foundational principles of service-learning as I do in the first chapter of Service-Learning Essentials, the authors of the chapters in Part I of this book address our work through original perspectives, including the theory of practical beauty, epistemologies of ignorance, critical democratic citizenship, and the power of student activism.

    Following practical sections on using and applying civic engagement and service-learning in Parts II and III, Part IV is about community partnerships, starting with the basics of finding the right partners for courses, moving through purposeful examples, and ending with a chapter on the need for a paradigm shift in our approach to campus-community partnerships. I will share these insights with my community partners and look forward to our ensuing conversations.

    Parts V through VIII address on point the questions I am most frequently asked by faculty members in regard to academic rigor and how service-learning and civic engagement can work in their disciplines. In regard to academic rigor, Jeffrey Howard advanced a set of principles for service-learning pedagogy in 2001. The second of these principles states, “Do not compromise academic rigor” (Howard, 2001, p. 16). The principles strongly emphasize such rigorous practices as awarding academic credit for learning, not for doing service; explicitly stating learning goals and criteria for selection of service sites; thoroughly preparing students for learning from the community; and equating the value of community learning with classroom learning. The chapters that describe courses in many disciplines that engage elementary through doctoral students demonstrate clearly and definitively that considering service-learning and civic engagement to be “soft” or “fluffy” is a gross misperception. In fact, as these enlightening examples show, student participants in these experiences must master academic content as they do in traditional courses but must also to apply it in community settings.

    When I introduce faculty members to service-learning and civic engagement, I find it helpful to compare the community experience to a text and describe how it can be integral to teaching and learning. In this analogy promulgated in 1996 by Keith Morton, the community experience is a potential text for a course. Faculty members select texts, or service experiences, that they believe to be most effective in enabling students to learn and apply course content. Experience in the community is certainly not a text in the traditional sense, given that it is “written” concurrently with the course. However, thinking of community experience as text has several practical benefits. First, it suggests that such an experience is equivalent to traditional texts in learning potential and that both the community experience and other course materials are, in fact, course content. The text analogy also implies that faculty members decide which texts, or experiences, are appropriate for the course and how much experience, or “reading,” that students are required to do. Another consideration is whether the text, or community experience, is required or optional. Faculty members assign “readings” (i.e., community experiences), determining whether to use complete texts (i.e., intensive work with a single organization) or an anthology (i.e., several short experiences with different organizations). In addition, they create structures for students to read, analyze, and discuss the text.

    In the development of any course, most faculty members consider a wide range of possible texts and pedagogies and select those that are most likely to enable students to achieve the learning outcomes. Neither should be simply added to an existing course. Faculty members should seek to replace current texts and assignments with community experiences, or “texts,” that are more likely to facilitate student learning and achievement of course objectives. This applies particularly to service-learning and civic engagement. The sourcebook offers excellent examples that are helpful for faculty who teach in all disciplines and at all levels. In one such example, Jason C. Senjem, in Chapter 28, addresses head on the three service-learning myths in management education, which are endemic in most other disciplines as well: Students and faculty do not feel that their business skills are useful in their service, they believe service is “touchy-feely,” and they fear that service takes time away from content learning.

    The most pressing question that I am regularly asked by faculty members about service-learning and civic engagement is this: How could they work in my discipline? To begin to answer this question, an example is worth a thousand words. I am delighted that The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement provides many examples of just how they can work and work well to achieve a wide range of desired student learning outcomes. Aware that my own discipline is French language and literature, many faculty colleagues in the languages have approached me with their skepticism about how service-learning and civic engagement can work in their courses. Those in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields often tell me that they are sure that service-learning works just fine in the humanities and the social sciences but that it just doesn’t fit with their courses. Examples in the sourcebook ranging from health sciences to engineering to technology happily prove them wrong.

    In regard to some of the most critical questions in the field, Part IX on international service-learning provides a stimulating glimpse into how service-learning across the globe is flourishing, albeit in a wide variety of forms and models, on every continent except Antarctica and in a staggering array of nations. American concepts and practices of service-learning may not always serve well in international settings. While the reverse may also be true, there is no doubt that U.S.-based service-learning educators have much to learn from our international counterparts. The experiences and scholarship of our international colleagues open the door for those of us in the United States to take a critical view of things we have often held to be self-evident. A thought-provoking example is Chapter 49 by Antoinette R. Smith-Tolken and Jacob M. J. du Plessis from Stellenbosch University in which they examine reflection from a South African perspective. They challenge the prevailing view that John Dewey is the “father” of service-learning reflection, contend that his view of reflection is only one of many, and offer findings from their research on the central role of emotion in reflection.

    In the final section on sustainability, the chapter authors offer lessons learned and thoughts on the future directions of our work. In Chapter 52, Walter W. Cannon and Cheri Doane of Central College home in appropriately on holistic partnerships, using their institution as an example of how colleges and universities must rethink the structures, paradigms, and other forces that stand in the way of transformation from current practice to the realm of truly reciprocal campus-community partnerships. Among the other future directions we must focus on are how to fully integrate our work at the institutional and departmental levels (Chapters 54 and 55) and what we can learn from the lived experiences of service-learners (Chapter 57).

    As I reflect again and again on the questions raised and lessons learned from the sourcebook, I keep coming back to the overwhelming impression that service-learning and civic engagement have the potential to reinvigorate our teaching and remind us why we fell in love with our disciplines to begin with. Along with our students, they enable us to ponder how our discipline can address the most serious challenges facing our society.

    The exceptional work that the contributors and editors of The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement have generously shared with us positively reinforces my confidence that service-learning and civic engagement will continue to grow and flourish. Both U.S. and global society face a growing number of complex, intertwined, entrenched, and divisive problems. Our only chance of addressing these local and global problems—wicked problems, as they have come to be known—is if educators at all levels prepare the socially responsible citizens, scholars, and leaders of the future. I am grateful for the profound reflections, case studies, and challenging questions the authors of this volume share with us. Thanks to all of you as well for making us feel that we are well supported and in good company as we begin or deepen our adventures in service-learning and civic engagement.

    Barbara Jacoby, University of Maryland
    References and Further Readings
    Howard, J. (Ed.). (2001). Michigan journal of community service learning service-learning course design workbook. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan OCSL Press.
    Jacoby, B. (2014). Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers, and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Morton, K. (1996). Integrating service-learning into the curriculum. In B. Jacoby (Ed.), Service-learning in higher education: Concepts and practices. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Saltmarsh, J., & Hartley, M. (2012). To serve a larger purpose: Engagement for democracy and the transformation of higher education. Philadelphia, PA.: Temple University Press.

    Introduction: Community-Engaged, Community-Based Learning Approaches We Serve to Learn and Learn to Serve

    Many years ago, I decided to take some of my college students—mostly White and middle class—into a school in a racially diverse urban community to engage them in service-learning with the goal of increasing racial awareness, developing cultural competencies, and deconstructing any of their existing prejudices. After three years of this service-learning project, and after critically examining some students’ reflections and my own pedagogy, I temporarily ended the project as it failed to meet the desired objectives. Some students came back from the field with more stereotypes than ever. This revelation shocked me, but it started a journey of reflecting on my own pedagogical practices to unlearn and relearn appropriate community-engaged learning practices.

    This journey started in 2005 when I was approached by a community resident (now a partner) about concerns that many European American (Caucasian/White) parents encountered in raising their African American/Black children as a result of transracial adoption. She expressed the need for support in addressing some of their concerns. I was professionally and, yes, emotionally drawn to her and these issues as I thought about the disproportionate number of Black children “caught” in the web of the U.S. foster care system. Our relationship began as we partnered in exploring and addressing these concerns. This relationship guided my journey as I unlearned and relearned appropriate methods of community engagement. While this nine-year journey is not yet complete, it has resulted in a service-learning learning opportunity that involves White parents, African American children and professionals, and social workers partnering with my college students (preservice teachers) in a Black Heritage program focusing on Black history and awareness (Delano-Oriaran, 2012). My journey of “joys, trials, tribulations” has been seasoned with thoughts of “how-to, what-if, and oh no!” Ultimately, engaging in this work with community members planted the seeds for this sourcebook on service-learning and civic engagement.

    Service-learning is a pedagogical approach that allows students to engage in intentional, structured activities in the community by linking and applying course learning goals with activities meaningful to the community. Service-learning is credit-bearing, guided by teaching faculty, rooted in the academic curriculum, and supported with structured prereflections and postreflections. As scholars and practitioners, we are now grounded in field-based research that enables us to assert that community service is not and should not be equated with service-learning. Community service is volunteering in the community with no direct relationship or application to course curricula, learning goals, structured reflections, and acquisition of skills. Civic engagement is also a pedagogical practice that involves direct or indirect action taken to address public issues, which results in promoting and improving the quality of life for individuals and the community. Like service-learning, civic engagement involves building multicultural and cross-cultural relationships; social justice; political leadership; individual, collective, and community action; and advocacy (Adler & Goggin, 2005; Jacoby, 2009).

    Some scholars contend that service-learning is part of civic engagement, while others have used the two interchangeably (Delano-Oriaran, 2015), with scholars such as Thomas Klak and Emma Gaalaas Mullaney (2013) differentiating between both pedagogies. There is no consensus on the definition of civic engagement; however, I emphasize political action, participation, and engagement. Both service-learning and civic engagement involve learning in and with the community and are linked and reflected in newer, still-evolving pedagogical models (Welch, 2009); thus, our editorial team chose to title the sourcebook Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. This title takes into consideration that as we serve to learn or learn to serve (Steinberg, Bringle, & Williams, 2010), we become civically engaged, empowered, and caring with communities. In other words, service-learning and civic engagement constitute community-engaged learning as students are engaged and learning from the community and within the community. Thus, within the context of this introduction, I have adopted using the terminology community-engaged learning when appropriate to represent and include the varied terminologies in this publication. What is undebatable about service-learning and civic engagement is that they are credit-bearing, intentional, and structured. Further, they link curriculum goals with meaningful service opportunities that are derived from the community and with the community. The community is at the center of the service-related goals and must be at the center of learning.

    This sourcebook is intended for faculty, staff, administrators, school districts, center directors, and students who are pondering or currently linking their curriculum with structured community engagement, as well as for readers who are simply curious about the subject. The SAGESourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement provides many theoretical and practical models, guides, ideas, and resources that can be immediately adapted, adopted, and used. It is a multidisciplinary book by authors from K–12 and Institution of Higher Education (IHE) communities written from first- and third-person perspectives. What is evident throughout is the passion that all the colleagues have as they are immersed in using this pedagogical approach.

    Organization of the Sourcebook

    The sourcebook is a collection of 58 chapters organized under 10 different parts. The chapters are laid out into 10 parts to empower readers to go directly into subject areas that apply to their needs, concerns, or curricula interests. Each part provides chapters that describe theoretical frameworks; literature reviews discussing current issues, practices, problems, and solutions; policy implications; sample syllabi; suggested further readings; and an array of resources, such as organizations that may assist with infusing this pedagogical technique into the work or scholarly interests of a school or course of study. To emerging scholars or practitioners in this field, my co-editors and I use this book to plant a seed, to invite you to engage in service-learning and civic engagement. To seasoned colleagues, we share best practices to enhance your work, taking into consideration that it takes a village to engage.

    Part I

    Part I describes the foundations of service-learning and civic engagement; thus, it offers the basis from which to explain and engage in this pedagogical approach. It provides the historical, contemporary, philosophical, and moral foundations of service-learning and civic engagement. It features contributions from K–12 and IHE institutions that engage readers to be critically conscious of models to use. It offers frameworks to redefine or rethink our traditional views of service-learning and civic engagement. Further, it suggests models to consider that are rooted in community building, social justice, and critical democratic citizenship.

    As this part lays the groundwork for those seeking to engage in this pedagogical technique, it features additional overlooked aspects, noting what to consider when engaging in service-learning, ethical decision making, and pedagogy. It begins in Chapter 1 with Mandi McReynolds challenging us to join in this journey of engagement, infusing theory with practice, to act as practitioner-scholars rather than bystanders. In Chapter 2, Marie Sandy delicately provides and critiques theoretical philosophical developments, while in Chapter 3, Rodmon King presents us with the case for considering and infusing virtue ethics in our classroom practices. Chapter 4 then supplements this using a framework supported with exercises by Lindsay Blumer for helping students reflect on their values and ethics. As students reflect, in Chapter 5, Karen Frost-Arnold helps them to intricately unpack any ignorance that they may have while engaged in the community.

    Chapters 6 through 11 position practices for rethinking service-learning and civic engagement. In Chapter 6, Omobolade Delano-Oriaran offers an overview of the varied terminologies and recommends community-engaged learning as an inclusive, general terminology for pedagogies that link course content and goals acquired in the classroom with needs that are meaningful to the community. In Chapter 7, Hoda Farahmandpour and Ilya Shodjaee-Zrudlo extend the discussion of redefining service-learning by sharing ideas that faculty could use in their classrooms to situate learning.

    Chapters 8 through 11 illustrate efforts to critically redefine service-learning using a social justice approach. In Chapter 8, Kristin Berger and Maiya Jackson provide first a literature review of traditional and critical conceptions of service-learning, then a case for critical service-learning as a basis for contextualizing their work with seventh and eighth graders at a New York City school. They illustrate how social justice issues discussed in class inform and empower students to be civically minded activists and change agents.

    In Chapter 9, Amy Argenal and Tomás Jacquez describe a journey of infusing social justice education into a four-year service-learning program at a San Francisco high school. They describe critical service-learning and social justice, an approach that is rooted in highlighting issues of power in society and that helps students to be self-aware and empowered to be societal change agents. Argenal and Jacquez detail how they apply the critical service-learning and social justice pedagogy in their courses: ninth-grade Identity and Ethnic Studies, 10th-grade Service-Learning: Identity and Community Partnerships, 11th-grade Service-Learning Independent Internship and Seminar: Identity at Urban and Beyond, and 12th-grade Service-Learning: Independent Community Engagement and Synthesis Seminar. The authors address the privileges that may be associated with opportunities to implement courses of this nature.

    In Chapter 10, J. Estrella Torrez discusses a bicultural and bilingual civic engagement undergraduate course that engaged ethnic-majority White, middle-class students with bilingual, Latina/o, farmworker students to work together with the aim of bridging two campus communities. The approach weaves in the personal experiences of the author as a former seasonal farmworker and the theoretical perspectives of the author as a scholar in language, literacy, and sociocultural studies with a concentration in bilingual education. The author outlines the authentic practices applied in creating safe and multilingual spaces with the goal of building community.

    Part I ends with Chapter 11, where Cynthia Gordon da Cruz addresses the challenges IHEs face in preparing U.S. students to be civically engaged for democracy and justice. She proposes well-defined civic engagement goals and learning outcomes that are characterized by participation, openness to multiple perspectives, controversy with civility, active thinking, justice orientation, and structural thinking about racial inequality. Gordon da Cruz’s work is critical to the work of community engagement, especially because a majority of the community partners that most institutions collaborate with are from racially and culturally diverse communities.

    Using the analogy of a thriving tree with healthy branches, leaves, and fruits as a result of its solid foundation—the roots—Part I represents the roots. It provides historical, philosophical, social, and cultural underlying principles to consider in using curricula incorporating community-engaged learning and engagement methods and pedagogy. The remaining parts of the sourcebook illustrate the product of the roots—healthy branches, fruits, and trees—modeling the various methods and approaches that are currently being applied by faculty to integrate community-engaged learning into their curriculum.

    Part II

    Part II focuses on using and applying civic engagement. It provides a sampling of methods to institutionalize civic engagement across campus and approaches that various faculty members have adopted. In Chapter 12, Brandon Kliewer, Brandon Hollingshead, Jessica Rhea, and Courtney Dwyer Satkoski showcase how all stakeholders, faculty, staff, students, and community partners developed a framework for the foundations of a civic engagement course. The authors outline how they used the democratic engagement service-learning method in designing the curriculum that informed the undergraduate course that became a requirement for 10 of 24 majors at their regional state university. In Chapter 13, Darryl Mace, Nancy Watterson, and Nicholas Rademacher present the Voice of Justice (VoJ) Living and Learning Community approach used in preparing first-year students at their institution. The approach aims to foster personal values as they relate to social responsibility, justice, and civic action. The authors detail the practices and methods applied in engaging students to come with diverse perspectives and engage in critical dialogues while offering safe spaces to converse and think about theories, life experiences, and real-world problems.

    In Chapter 14, Ned Scott Laff and Joyce Fields outline a liberal arts approach they infused into sequentially required seminars for sophomores and juniors that challenge students at Columbia College to reflect on their purpose in life and how it fits with becoming civically engaged. In Chapter 15, James Mullooly and Steven Hart share Fresno State University’s approach and achievement in developing an interdisciplinary minor in urban civic education. They argue for housing service-learning within an academic discipline as a means of gaining validity and credibility while ensuring its success as a worthy pedagogy. These authors share the process they used in accomplishing these efforts to stand on solid ground.

    Part III

    Part III, using and applying service-learning continues the theme of curricula infusion across all disciplines. It introduces us to authors who subscribe to using and applying service-learning. In Chapter 16, Marie Watkins, Collin Hayes, and Molly Sarubbi share and apply the six R’s collaborative service-learning pedagogy model to a First Year Seminar: Youth Engaged in Service course, which involved IHE students and K–12 students from the surrounding community. They outline how the six R’s of rigorous learning—relevant and responsive service, reciprocity, risk and reality assessment, reflection, and recognition and celebration—are applied and result in high-impact practices.

    In Chapter 17, Scott Crabill and Christopher Jensen share an interdisciplinary capstone course that positions students to (a) integrate knowledge and theory acquired from their general education courses and individual majors, (b) apply it to an academic-service-learning experience, and then (c) describe it in the form of a research paper. The authors share how students’ multiple learning experiences (coursework, academic service-learning, and writing) situate them to critically explore societal issues and present possible solutions for change.

    Chapter 18 reflects the basis for service-learning to be part of the institutional culture. Margaret Sass discusses the need for institutions to develop and implement action-oriented service-learning policies. She then shares strategies and examples for implementing institutional organizational structures that support service-learning.

    In Chapter 19, Ann Marie Jursca Keffer shares the need for using intentional-designed models on relationship-based service. She asserts that collaborations between partners should be reciprocal, as they are the key to quality service-learning, and shares how her institution has adopted relations-based service by illustrating these relationships in a cross-section of courses.

    In Chapter 20, Helen Rosenberg highlights a case study in the community-based learning model that involved IHE students, a community agency that provides vocational rehabilitation, and members of the National Alliance on Mental Illness. Using this model, students interacted with individuals diagnosed with mental illness with the goals of deconstructing any stereotypes the students may have held. The author demonstrates how issues surrounding fear for populations that may be removed from students’ experiences may emerge during the implementation of service-learning projects.

    Part III concludes with Chapter 21, where Karen Schwartz and Adje van de Sande share their approach to service-learning by involving students to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) with agencies. They address barriers encountered while adopting CBPR as a form of service-learning and civic engagement, including solutions for addressing them.

    Part IV

    As you enter the world of using and applying community-engaged learning, you will find that the community residents and agencies within the neighborhood become equal partners that are critical to this pedagogy. They can make or break the process. To that end, Part IV focuses on recognizing the assets and strengths of communities. The authors of Chapters 22 through 27 emphasize the value of developing and nurturing authentic relationships that result in sustainable partnerships based on high-impact practices.

    In Chapter 22, Isabel Baca addresses practices in helping to find the right partners. She lists responsibilities for all partners—faculty, student, and community partners—that include agency mentorship roles that all should review and practice. When faculty members infuse these responsibilities into their practices, they become proactive and avoid any pitfalls that may typically occur. Baca, like many authors in this sourcebook, supplies us with resources, including agency profile forms, agreements, contracts, and evaluations, that we can easily adopt and use within our institutions. On the topic of contracts, we offer a word of caution and recommend that you review these forms with your risk management office before official adoption.

    In Chapter 23, Crystal Aschenbrener brings invaluable experiences to this sourcebook as she writes from the perspective of her former role as director of a Habitat for Humanity affiliate and her current role as a faculty member engaged in using this pedagogy. She emphasizes the importance of developing purposeful, goal-oriented plans when engaging with the community and further presents benefits that communities and students will gain from partnerships.

    In Chapter 24, Julie Dierberger illustrates a model for creating successful partnerships. She uses the example of a grassroots initiative and involved multiple partners, including the local school district, community agencies, and the University of Nebraska Omaha. She shows how all partners used their assets in addressing a community need determined by the community.

    Another added value of this book is learning from authors from various geographic global regions, and this is best demonstrated in the next chapters. In Chapter 25, Janis Timm-Bottos and Rosemary Reilly share how an art studio in Montreal, Canada, was collaboratively created within a working-class community and resulted in a community space for open dialogue and safe acceptance for all partners. This chapter reflects how learning was situated and based in the community.

    Showing a community involved perspective in Chapter 26, Leela Viswanathan demonstrates the partnership between students in a professional planning graduate course in urban and regional planning, community residents, and faith-based organizations in a downtown Kingston community in Ontario, Canada. Viswanathan details the process applied in using community strengths, assets, culture, and demographics to implement a community service-learning project. The author demonstrates how community stakeholders were involved, from the preplanning phases of writing the syllabus to facilitating multiple sessions, orientations, and community tours with the students. The community helped to shape the learning experiences of the graduate students. As learning continues in the community, it is important that we consistently measure the effectiveness of community-based learning to determine its benefits, impacts, and outcomes.

    When considering outcomes, it is crucial to ask “outcomes for whom?” In Chapter 27, Elizabeth Tryon, Marian Slaughter, and J. Ashleigh Ross discuss the need for a paradigm shift to engaging in thorough, critical, and authentic evaluation of community impacts as previous evaluation models have been superficial and especially lack discussion of inherent issues, such as the power differentials between IHEs and the community members served. In an effort to address limitations in evaluation models, Tryon, Slaughter, and Ross provide a synopsis of promising models to learn from in evaluating the impacts of community-based learning. In their review of literature, they explain the difference between outcomes and impacts. These provide a lens for IHEs and their community partners to take into consideration when assessing what works and for whom it works.

    Parts V through VIII focus on disciplinary approaches to the infusion of academic community-engaged learning and engagement pedagogy in the classroom. The chapters are illustrations of models that various faculty members across the country have used to infuse academic community-engaged learning into their courses.

    Part V

    Part V, the business and management section, features three examples from faculty and student perspectives in business courses. In Chapter 28, Jason Senjem provides major myths that faculty members find hindering the integration of service-learning into curriculum. He responds to those myths with practical solutions, using immersive, student-directed, and research-based models that have been applied in organizational behavior, which is the foundation of management and sustainable business courses.

    Chapter 29 is an illustration of a four-year partnership that has involved a local community library, its librarian, a faculty member, and 29 accounting graduates in British Columbia, Canada. John Shepherd and Allan Wilson provide an account of the process of identifying and meeting community needs and collaborating with community partners. Their model is an illustration of community-based engagement with all stakeholders equally working together.

    Chapter 30 concludes the business and management section with a unique perspective that is integral to the learning process—the perspective of students. Diana Kolar presents a personal story of her experiences as a former business student who engaged in service-learning. Her experience may not represent the experiences of all students in IHEs, but it brings a refreshing perspective on how some students may feel. Her story provides insight for faculty, most especially those in business, into which aspects to consider. Her appeal is not meant to criticize a specific program but to illustrate how her experiences with community engagement have shaped her personal life and have been beneficial to her professional success.

    Part VI

    Part VI, the humanities section, is a sampling of faculty in world languages as well as performing and visual arts. It begins with E. Nicole Meyer comprehensively showcasing the intersection of theory and practice in a French language service-learning course. In Chapter 31, Meyer details the preparation, action, and community engagement processes involved. She shares challenges, which I call developmental opportunities, for all of us to learn from.

    Chapters 32 and 33 represent faculty from various geographic regions within the United States. They introduce us to community-based art by using drama as a tool for exploring societal issues and social change. In Chapter 32, Janna Goodwin and Amie Dowling teach a performing arts course that engages undergraduate students and incarcerated individuals on an equal level in a creative space to create original works of art in dance, theater, and music. The authors provide steps, from the yearlong program design, course development, assignments, exercises, and rehearsal methods to the assessment practices that were implemented for this service-learning and civic engagement program.

    In Chapter 33, Dana Aspinall creatively shows the parallels between medieval drama and service-learning. He explains how he taught an experimental service-learning drama course that involved first-year students and residents from an assisted-living facility—age 75 to 91—in acting. Aspinall shows how he integrated the PARE model (preparation, action, reflection, evaluation) into this course that created a collaborative setting for learning to occur between generations. It ultimately resulted in the performance of a play titled Everyman.

    In addition to these insights, as readers will uncover as they explore, this sourcebook illustrates disciplinary, interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary efforts in community-engaged learning. Chapter 34 reflects a cross-disciplinary focus with music instruction intersecting with teacher education. Readers will observe that Lois Veenhoven Guderian emphasizes academic service-learning and teacher education. Given this, it could be argued that that this chapter should be placed in social sciences with other teacher education programs using community-engaged learning. However, as students are applying their specialized knowledge and skills in music to teacher education—and as this field is housed in the music department at their institution—we decided to place this chapter in the humanities section.

    Chapter 34 presents how the music department has collaborated with community partners in developing academic service-learning programs to fulfill the needs of current teachers, preservice teachers, and K–12 students. The department accomplished this by engaging preservice teachers to use their knowledge and skills gained in creative writing and composing music by applying that knowledge through tutoring, coaching, and mentoring K–12 students. This chapter shows one of the many features of this pedagogy, the win-win emphasis of community-engaged learning when infused well.

    In Chapter 35, as Part VI comes to a close, Sophia Sukmun Law shares how a course in visual arts is used to engage college students and institutional residents with cognitive and physical disabilities to creatively communicate their thoughts and visualize their emotions using art. Law outlines the steps to get students prepared for going into the field and, subsequently, conducting surveys to illustrate the outcomes of applying their knowledge and skills.

    Part VII

    Part VII features chapters that focus on the STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). In Chapter 36, Kristin Riker-Coleman, Michelle Arnhold, Nicholas Danz, and Randy Gabrys-Alexson show a departmental approach to infusing civic engagement into their science courses. Faculty from the Department of Natural Sciences teaching biology, human biology and anatomy, and physiology courses utilize existing natural and environmental resources within their surrounding communities to address some regional environmental concerns while fulfilling community and student needs. The authors detail the processes of course transformation and community preparation, curricula infusion, and assessment methods. This chapter serves as a guide for science faculty attempting to get started in service-learning or to continue transforming their courses in this direction.

    In Chapter 37, Elias Mpofu, Martin Mackey, Syeda Zakia Hossain, Reinie Cordier, Michael Millington, and Sarah Wilkes-Gillan discuss the role of service-learning in the health sciences field. They assert that this pedagogy helps professionals in these health care fields (physiotherapy, disability studies, health psychology, speech pathology, behavior and community health, occupational therapy, rehabilitation and counseling) become more sensitive to the lived experiences of their clients based on professional engagement with them in the community. The authors highlight service-learning goals specific to various health sciences disciplines and illustrate the methods they have used in their courses.

    In Chapter 38, Carol Cokely, Linda Thibodeau, and Jackie Clark show how they have each applied service-learning principles to their audiology curriculum at the University of Texas at Dallas where students work in the community with mentors, agencies, the clients and their families using their specialized knowledge, problem-solving, technology, assessment, and management skills. Each author shows us how partnerships were formed with community stakeholders within the United States and Mozambique in addressing and supporting real-life issues that pertain to individuals with hearing loss. This chapter features a timeline that could be adopted for implementing service-learning.

    In Chapter 39, Sheryl B. Cooper and Jody H. Cripps introduce us to multicultural service-learning, a pedagogy that connects a theoretical basis in multicultural education to the situations of marginalized and disenfranchised communities. They use this pedagogy to collaborate with the Deaf community and area agencies. The authors share how engaging in the community results in multiple gains for their students, but they also discuss challenges and provide recommendations that we could learn from.

    In Chapter 40, Michael Carriere draws in the reader as he uses a first-person writing style to describe how, on a warm spring day in Milwaukee, he found himself ankle deep in soil working with first-year engineering students and a neighborhood agency to raise a community garden. He highlights the relationships between service-learning, the STEM disciplines, the liberal arts, social sciences, and technology. He then models students’ collaboration with community residents in the creation of community garden. Carriere outlines the curricula preparation and application—engaging students majoring in electrical, mechanical, architectural, and bimolecular engineering—to transition from learning to doing.

    In Chapter 41, Tim Krause discusses the roles technology might play in supporting faculty and students engaged in service-learning and shares online resources that assist with crucial aspects: project and time management, communication, time tracking and reporting, document management and sharing, and communication with community members. The resources provided in this chapter are applicable to all of us involved in work with other stakeholders.

    In Chapter 42, Ruth Cronje and Laurelyn Sandkamp model an undergraduate environmental civic engagement course that helps students problematize and reflect upon the epistemic status of scientific evidence and their role as technocrats in a community project that required the collaboration of citizens. The project resulted in a community public campaign that impacted nearly 60,000 residents.

    Part VIII

    Part VIII showcases exemplary work done by colleagues in teacher education and sociology disciplines. The work engaged undergraduate and graduate students in the community. It also shares various approaches used in helping IHE students develop cultural competency skills in working with racially and culturally diverse students. It begins with Chapter 43, where Reid Richard Riggle and Nancy Mathias share the process of collaborating with the K–12 community in supporting their goals to close the opportunity gap. They share the Village Project model, an opportunity that places first-year preservice teachers in multiple tutoring and mentoring opportunities to serve as extra support for after-school program staff working with K–12 public school students. The authors detail elements of the model, such as gaining student buy-in, training students, then defining the roles and expectations for all partners. The practices shared by these authors are practical enough to be replicated in any academic program.

    In Chapter 44, Jonathan Dooley and Terry Burant share the experiences and perceptions of undergraduate preservice teachers regarding social justice issues as they engaged in service-learning in their first professional education course. The reflections shared are reminders for faculty about experiences some students may encounter as they interact with people perceived as different from them. As faculty members engage in using community-based learning, they need to develop, nurture, and sustain cordial relationships with other IHE partners that consistently work with various community agencies.

    In Chapter 45, Tynisha Meidl and Jennifer Garrett Nissen discuss the importance of developing quality relationships between academic and co-curricular partners. They model a partnership between a faculty member and a staff member in student affairs to provide a service-learning opportunity for preservice teachers in Wisconsin to work with K–12 students and staff in New Orleans, Louisiana. This chapter is extremely important as it shares how emerging hierarchies in collaborative relationships could be dismantled or deconstructed.

    In Chapter 46, Mary Jane Eisenhauer shares a unique collaborative model between faculty, campus community service staff, and students to strengthen intracampus relationships and promote community engagement. The model uses a student mentoring program developed to meet preservice teachers’ needs for support and guidance while engaging in service-learning.

    In Chapter 47, Cassandra McKay-Jackson and Annette Johnson emphasize how critical service-learning helps to challenge issues dealing with oppression, privilege, and power differentials. They integrate this approach with theoretical frameworks in sociology. Then they outline the steps taken in implementing their critical service-learning project in engaging master’s level social work students to work with marginalized youths in promoting empowerment, social skills, and emotional development.

    Part IX

    Part IX is titled “International Service-Learning, Comparative and International Perspectives.” This source-book reflects various exemplary works by colleagues pertaining to community engagement in Australia, Canada, Ghana, England, Hong Kong, Mozambique, South Africa, the United States, and countries in Latin America. We explored the question of whether to present separately the works done outside the United States but concluded that regardless of where the community engagement is situated, the theories used are the same. Yet, the community approaches used may be different given the social, political, cultural, and historical context of each country; thus, we decided to present these works based on similar themes. In our research, we also discovered—as implied in Chapter 6 and the works of Ann Marie Thomson, Antoinette Smith-Tolken, Anthony V. Naidoo, and Robert G. Bringle (2011)—that what some of us consider service-learning, civic engagement, or even community-based learning, may not be accurate terms for projects carried out in various countries. Chapters 48 through 51 present service-learning with partners in various countries as community engagement that intersects service-learning with international education. This can be termed international service-learning (Bringle, Hatcher, & Jones, 2012).

    In Chapter 48, Shenila Khoja-Moolji and Shirin Karsan discuss power relations that emerge in international community engagement opportunities, especially as projects may reproduce power differentials and unequal power relations between service providers from technologically developed countries (and/or supporters) and the recipients of such services in developing countries with fewer technological advancements.

    In Chapter 49, Antoinette Smith-Tolken and Jacob du Plessis offer a reflection model that is used in Stellenbosch University, South Africa, for engaging students who come from various countries to work with community organizations. They share how they adopted a reflection model to address language barriers, cultural differences, and communication issues that emerged.

    In Chapter 50, Marguerite W. Penick-Parks and Suzanne Fondrie share their work in a graduate education course that involved IHE faculty and students and K–12 students from smaller communities in Ghana, West Africa, and Wisconsin (U.S.). The authors share how they infused multicultural education, social justice, and international education curriculum in helping first graders in the United States deconstruct misconceptions, prejudices, and stereotypes of countries in the African continent.

    In Chapter 51, Lee Jerome compares the British tradition of active citizenship education with the U.S. tradition of service-learning and outlines some tensions and complexities about terminologies and application between the countries.

    Part X

    The curricula sections in this sourcebook end with Chapters 52 through 58 in Part X, which focuses on sustainability, lessons learned, and future directions. It is important to note that although we have a separate section for these topic areas, they are also woven into all aspects of the chapters as all authors have shared strategies they have used in sustaining their work with partners and have also made recommendations regarding best practices.

    In Chapter 52, Walter Cannon and Cheri Doane share a partnership model built on trust, communication, and shared needs as best practices in developing and nurturing relationships while sustaining partnerships with community partners based on their institution’s approach to using holistic listening. They outline multiple principles and best practices that they have used with all partners and share an exemplary course to illustrate the approach they adopted.

    In Chapter 53, Heather McRae presents a strong case for institutionalizing engagement but also shares that there is no singular best approach to institutionalizing engagement. She supports learning communities by sharing guidelines that could be adopted for use and providing frameworks for guiding the entire process to institutionalized engagement.

    In Chapter 54, Lois-Ann Kuntz and Meghan Wilson Duff provide guidelines for making service-learning and community engagement (SL/CE) sustainable within a department. Within these guidelines, they propose that departments build on existing structures, plan for transforming these structures based on collective voices, and be ready to adapt to internal and external influences. In addition to the need for sustaining SL/CE within departments, they share strategies for sustaining community partnerships.

    In Chapter 55, Carol Wickersham draws upon 20 years of experiences on both sides, as a community partner and then as a faculty member. She shares faculty and community perspectives of each other to guide us in developing collegiality among stakeholders that is mutually beneficial and respectful for all involved.

    In Chapter 56, Sarah Edwards and Nancy Edick caution us to explore the price of community engagement as they share the demands, challenges, and opportunities to service-learning and community engagement within their college of education program. As they reveal how they came to realize their program’s flaws and failures, their chapter is refreshing as it cautions readers to step back and reflect on what they could be doing better.

    In Chapter 57, Keith Robinder draws upon the experiences of community college students to illustrate lessons learned from engaging in service. The stories shared by students provide lessons for stakeholders about the efficacy of service-learning and civic engagement pedagogy.

    In Chapter 58, Lina Dostilio and Kate Molchan present risk management approaches commonly used in service-learning. They assert that these approaches are critical to the effectiveness and sustainability of service-learning programs; thus, they present us with a relational approach to co-constructed risk management that involves all stakeholders.

    Closing Remarks

    The editing of this book has indeed been a learning process. I became reborn into community-engaged learning pedagogy as a scholarly field as I unlearned, relearned, and continue to learn about different types of effective community-engaged and community-based learning pedagogical methods. I hope that as you use this sourcebook, you will experience a critical learning process that inspires you to share the knowledge acquired from this publication and apply it into your practice to mentor future generations of leaders to become civically engaged. The collection of voices represented in this sourcebook is evidence of the diverse and rich work currently applied in various learning institutions. What is clear is the critical value of community partners and the need for partnerships that are based on mutual trust, reciprocity, and rewards. There is also still much work to be done in institutionalizing community-engaged learning. We hope that this sourcebook is used as a guide in supporting you or your institution in building or enhancing a climate of institutionalizing academic community-engaged learning. We strongly assert that our intent is not for this book to be used as a recipe, nor do we proclaim that it shows the only way for adopting this pedagogy. However, we do believe that it serves as a guide for quality infusion and engagement. It takes a village to engage. We are indeed part of that village.

    Omobolade Delano-Oriaran
    References
    Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education, 3(3), 236253.
    Bringle, R. G., Hatcher, J. A., & Jones, S. G. (Eds.). (2012). International service-learning: Conceptual frameworks and research. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
    Delano-Oriaran, O. (2012). Infusing Umoja, an authentic and culturally engaging service-learning model, into multicultural education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(3), 403414.
    Jacoby, B. (2009). Civic engagement in higher education: Concepts and practices. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Klak, T., & Mullaney, E. G. (2013). Levels and networks in community partnerships. Gateways: International Journal of Community Research & Engagement, 6(1), 6121.
    Steinberg, K. S., Bringle, R. G., & Williams, M. J. (2010). Service-learning research primer. Scotts Valley, CA: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.
    Thomson, A., Smith-Tolken, A., Naidoo, A., & Bringle, R. G. (2011). Service-learning and community engagement: A comparison of three national contexts. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, 22(2), 214237. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11266-010-9133-9
    Welch, M. (2009). Moving from service-learning to civic engagement. In B. Jacoby & Associates (Eds.), Civic engagement in higher education: Concepts and practices (pp. 174195). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    10.4135/9781483346625.n5
  • Resource Guide

    The following is a listing of reputable resources, organizations, programs, and journals that focus on community engagement. We have also attempted to list websites, where available, for your immediate access; however, note that these Web addresses may change.

    Achieving the Dream Institute, http://www.achievingthedream.org

    Achieving the Dream is a nongovernmental organization developed to support community colleges, low-income, and historically marginalized students who attend them. Its website offers education, initiatives, and other informative documents.

    American Education Research Association (AERA), http://www.aera.net

    AERA, the premiere association for universities and colleges, offers multiple publications, special-interest groups (SIGs), and an annual convention. Of particular note is the Service-Learning and Experiential Education SIG. Available free to AERA members, the American Educational Research Journal offers a wide range of theoretical and empirical education research.

    American Journal of Education (AJE), http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/journals/journal/aje.html

    The quarterly AJE publishes a variety of articles relating to philosophy, theory, research, and synthesis in educational fields.

    Apptivo, http://www.apptivo.com

    Apptivo is one example of a Web-based project-management approach. (See also Collabtive, Freedcamp, and Trello in the resource guide. For an overview, see Chapter 41, “Integrating Technology With Service-Learning.”)

    Campus Compact, http://www.compact.org

    This is a national organization of more than 1,100 institutions of higher education presidents dedicated to accomplishing the public purposes of higher education. It promotes and fosters students’ citizenship skills and is the only college or university organization solely committed to campus-based civic engagement. The organization serves as a support system for institutions of higher education (IHEs), including offering faculty support in infusing community engagement into their pedagogy or scholarship. Campus Compact’s website offers resources, conferences, and technical support for community engagement partners. The website lists state affiliates that provide local programming and support to surrounding institutions through annual conferences, such as the Eastern Regions Campus Compact Conference (http://www.ercc.floridacompact.org).

    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/

    This independent research and policy organization is dedicated to developing ideas that will advance teaching, learning, and scholarship. It provides nationally recognized classification awards to institutions of higher learning for their commitment to community engagement. The awards are administered through the New England Resource Center for Higher Education (NERCHE).

    Campus Outreach Opportunity League (COOL), http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper181.html

    This league has been a major force behind improving civic engagement in colleges at the student level. Its mission is to educate, connect, and mobilize college students and their campuses to strengthen communities. COOL provides technical assistance and the tools needed to begin the process of social change to universities starting volunteer programs. One of COOL’s publications, The Five Critical Elements of Community Service, has been used to help shape many campus programs.

    Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), http://www.civicyouth.org/

    The organization conducts research on civic education in K–16 schools and the community. Located at Tufts University, the center examines the political participation, engagement, service, and activism of American youths. CIRCLE is considered to produce timely and independent research that is widely used by other major organizations and media outlets. For example, it publishes a series of working papers that gives an in-depth analysis of issues pertinent to civic education and/or engagement. See http://www.civicyouth.org/ResearchTopics/research-products-cat/working-papers-research-products-cat/#for recent papers.

    Collabtive, http://www.collabtive.com/

    Collabtive is an online project management suitable for service-learning institutions and partners.

    College Teaching, http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vcol20#.VFKEuzTF_0F

    This quarterly print and online journal focuses on providing interdisciplinary perspectives on teaching and learning in undergraduate and graduate education. See sample issues at http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/vcol20/current#.VEu-3vnF98E.

    Community College Journal of Research and Practice, http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ucjc20#.VFKFCDTF_0F

    Published monthly, this international journal offers research and commentary on issues relating to community colleges, including applied learning and service-learning approaches. See indices at http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ucjc20#.VE5K1PnF98E.

    Community College National Center for Community Engagement Conference (CCNCCE), http://ccncce.org/

    This is the only national organization that dedicates its focus to community colleges. It provides support to community colleges by developing programs, hosting an annual conference, securing funding for service-learning and civic engagement, and producing an online peer-reviewed publication, The Journal for Civic Commitment.

    Community-Campus Partnership for Health (CCPH), https://ccph.memberclicks.net/mission-values-goals

    This organization promotes social justice and health equity through partnerships between academic institutions and communities. Part of its goal is to ensure that social change issues, as perceived by the community, are a pivotal component of community and academic partnerships. CCPH focus areas include community-based participatory research, community-engaged scholarship, community-institutional partnerships, service-learning, research ethics, and anchor institutions. In addition, the organization hosts an international conference and facilitates a community network for research equity and impact.

    Community Works Institute (CWI), http://www.communityworksinstitute.org/

    This organization of scholars and practitioners promotes instructional practices that support students in being actively and civically engaged within their communities. CWI emphasizes four core principles in service-learning: sense of purpose, academic integrity, student engagement, and meaningful integrated reflection. CWI offers on-site professional development opportunities, an educator’s guide to service-learning and the Common Core, articles, and authentic reflections grounded in practice. In addition, it hosts summer institutes and publishes the Community Works Journal.

    Community Works Journal (CWJ), http://communityworksinstitute.org/cwjonline/

    An online magazine produced by the nonprofit Community Works Institute, CWJ includes articles about teaching practices that build, enhance, and sustain community.

    Conference on Applied Learning in Higher Education

    This annual conference offers an array of presentations and research on applied learning. Access current calls for presentations and past programs at http://www.missouriwestern.edu/appliedlearning. See also the Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education.

    Diversity and Democracy, http://www.aacu.org/diversitydemocracy

    This journal, a publication of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU), offers higher education articles on civic engagement, global learning, and democratic engagement.

    Education, Citizenship, and Social Justice, http://esj.sagepub.com/

    This publication focuses on issues related to citizenship and social justice. It provides an international forum for scholars to engage in dialogue regardless of their perspectives or academic disciplines.

    Education Liberation Network, http://www.edliberation.org/

    The Education Liberation Network is a collection of students, teachers, and activists who “believe a good education should teach people—particularly low-income youth and youth of color—how to understand and challenge the injustices their communities face.” They host EdLib Lab, an online collection of shared resources about educating for social justice, publish the quarterly magazine Voices in Urban Education, and hold the annual Free Minds, Free People Conference for practitioners and researchers to share best practices.

    Engaged Department Toolkit, http://www.e2e-store.com/compact/compact-product.cgi?category_id=&product_id=136

    This publication, available on the Campus Compact site, is part of Campus Compact’s Engaged Department Initiative. It is meant to be a starting point for transforming into an engaged academic department. This toolkit includes practical information for faculty who want to incorporate service-learning and community engagement into their courses and scholarships, as well as into the departmental cultures, curriculum, learning outcomes, and assessments. It also includes sample action plans and assessment strategies in addition to a section on helpful strategies and avoiding common barriers.

    Engagement Scholarship Consortium (ESC), http://engagementscholarship.org/

    This member organization of institutions of higher learning is committed to building strong community-university partnerships while promoting rigor in scholarship and building community capacity. The organization was born out of the National Scholarship Conference when Pennsylvania State University, Ohio State University, and University of Wisconsin–Extension came together to share ideas about their community programs. ESC’s scholarly agenda includes conducting international research on scholarship of engagement; facilitating collaboration between individuals interested in promoting engaged scholarship as criteria for faculty evaluation; conducting national and international institutes, conferences, and meetings; advancing research on community-campus partnerships; and publishing and disseminating research on engagement. The organization hosts an annual conference for all stakeholders engaged in service-learning and community engagement, hosts workshops of emerging scholars, facilitates a network forum for outreach and community engagement staff, and hosts an academy of community engagement scholarship.

    Freedcamp, https://freedcamp.com/

    Freedcamp is a free online project management tool with upgrade potential for partners and institutions.

    Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/ijcre/index

    An annual open-access international journal for all stake-holders, including practitioners, academics, and community partners, to explore and reflect on issues relating to community engagement. This publication offers four different sections: refereed research articles; nonrefereed, practice-based articles; nonrefereed snapshots highlighting works of all stakeholders; and a review section on books and media.

    Generator School Network (GSN), https://gsn.nylc.org/plan

    This online community of youths and adults is a resource for networking and sharing focused on service-learning professional development. This site now hosts the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse library of service-learning resources; provides a centralized spot for sharing resources for faculty, staff, students, and community; and offers a forum for sharing and collaborating with partners on projects.

    IMPACT National Conference, http://www.impactconference.org

    This annual conference has existed under various names since 1985 and offers presentations on social action, service-learning, and civic engagement.

    International Partnership for Service-Learning, http://www.ipsl.org/

    This organization offers undergraduate and graduate programs that integrate academic studies, community service, and cultural immersion to give students a full and authentic study-abroad experience. The goal is to empower students to be civically engaged with people around them. It also offers a graduate program in international development and service. This organization could be a resource for those seeking placements in various countries.

    Indiana University Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning: Service-Learning Program, http://citl.indiana.edu/programs/serviceLearning/ResourcesforService-Learning.php

    Among other resources, this center offers a number of service-learning documents, such as reflection questions and a guide for community partners.

    International Association for Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement (IARSLCE), http://www.researchslce.org/

    This international organization promotes advancement in research on community engagement. It is committed to exchanging research ideas and experiences, providing a forum for scholarly dialogue through publications and conferences, supporting scholars new to the field, and initiating programs and activities that advance service-learning and community engagement. It hosts a conference on service-learning and community engagement and publishes articles in its online, peer-reviewed journal, International Journal of Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement (IJRSLCE).

    International Journal for Service-Learning in Engineering, Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship, http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/ijsle/index

    This is a valuable resource that supports colleagues in the engineering-related fields. The journal offers original works that link engineering and social entrepreneurship with issues within the community. The manuscripts in this journal provide program models, assessment efforts, and best practices solidly rooted in service-learning and engineering.

    Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education (JALHE), http://www.missouriwestern.edu/appliedlearning/journal/

    This open-access international and interdisciplinary journal focuses on scholarship of applied learning at institutions of higher education. Missouri Western State University publishes the journal annually in the fall and offers free online access to the publication. See also the Conference on Applied Learning in Higher Education.

    Journal for Civic Commitment, The (JCC), http://ccncce.org/journal/issue22

    A free, biannual publication from the Community College National Center for Community Engagement, the JCC provides an outlet for pieces about service-learning across all disciplines.

    Journal of Community Practice, http://www.acosa.org/joomla/journalinfo

    The Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) sponsors this journal. The organization rooted in social work practice provides an academic forum for academics and practitioners, especially from the social sciences, to explore contemporary issues in community practice.

    Journal of College Student Development, http://www.myacpa.org/journal-college-student-development

    The American College Personnel Association produces this bimonthly national and international journal containing a wide variety of topics associated with undergraduate and graduate education.

    Journal of Democracy, https://journalofdemocracy.wordpress.com/

    The private, nonprofit National Endowment for Democracy has published this quarterly journal since 1990. The journal focuses on democracy issues around the world.

    Journal of Experiential Education (JEE), http://jee.sagepub.com/

    The quarterly JEE, published by the Association for Experiential Education, offers members scholarly articles on issues relating to service-learning, outdoor education, and environmental education.

    Journal of Higher Education, The (JHE), http://www.ashe.ws/?page=186

    Since 1930, the bimonthly JHE has published research on theory and practice in higher education. It is affiliated with the Association for the Study of Higher Education.

    Journal of Higher Education Outreach & Engagement (JHOE), http://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/index.php/jheoe/index

    This peer-reviewed journal serves to advance scholarship in outreach and engagement. It encourages publications that focus on trends, issues, challenges, innovative strategies, and opportunities in community engagement. It highlights pieces that illustrate the effectiveness of engaged research, community-based research, and service-learning and action research. The journal encourages manuscripts in six different areas: research articles, reflective essays, projects with promise, practice stories from the field, book reviews, and dissertation overviews.

    Journal of Planning Education and Research, http://jpe.sagepub.com

    Although primarily concerned with urban planning, this journal includes pieces that deal with civic engagement and service-learning approaches.

    The Journal of Public Scholarship in Higher Education, http://jpshe.missouristate.edu

    An annual publication, this journal offers a higher education focus for practitioners of community engagement.

    Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (JOSOTL), http://josotl.indiana.edu/index

    This peer-reviewed publication provides a medium for disseminating research on teaching and learning in institutions of higher learning. It offers publications that are theory based and supported with evidence. Key words emanating from this open-access journal include active learning, collaborative teaching, experiential learning, reflective practice, and student activism.

    Journal of Service-Learning in Higher Education, http://journals.sfu.ca/jslhe/index.php/jslhe/index

    This international, peer-reviewed, online journal offers articles focusing on effective institutional community partnerships. It is a subscription-free journal housed within the University of Louisiana System.

    Liberal Education, http://www.aacu.org/liberaleducation

    The flagship journal of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU), Liberal Education presents articles on undergraduate education and liberal learning.

    Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning (MJCSL), http://ginsberg.umich.edu/mjcsl/about

    This reputable peer-reviewed journal shares research publications rooted in growing and sustaining the scholarship of community engagement and its educators and practitioners. The publications are also aimed at promoting and legitimizing research in civic engagement, service-learning, and public scholarship.

    National Association of Multicultural Education (NAME), http://nameorg.org

    This is a premier national and international organization fully dedicated to the full infusion of multicultural education in schools’ curriculum. The organization provides a medium for the K–20 schools and communities to engage in opportunities and dialogue that will impact policies and reform that advances political, social, economic, and educational equity. The organization has chapters in various parts of the world. NAME sponsors an annual conference, publishes a quarterly journal, Multicultural Perspectives, and hosts a listserv. This organization is extremely beneficial for all partners interested in collaborating with partners in culturally and linguistically diverse communities.

    National Collaborative for the Study of University Engagement (NCSUE), http://ncsue.msu.edu/

    NCSUE is an organization that strives to advance understanding of how university engagement improves community progress and scholarship among faculty. Housed at Michigan State University, it brings together community stakeholders and scholars to explore various ways to build collaboration. The website is a great resource for partners interested in tools of engagement, assessment ideas, and resources for promotion and tenure.

    National Conference on Volunteering and Service, http://www.volunteeringandservice.org

    Promoted by the Points of Light organization, this conference offers attendees from private and public organizations an opportunity to network and learn about initiatives and approaches to community engagement and volunteerism.

    National Service-Learning Conference, http://servicelearningconference.org

    This international conference brings together youths and adults from all over the world to engage in critical dialogues about community engagement. It offers participants resources, tools, and ideas that can be applied back in their home communities.

    National Society for Experiential Education Annual Conference, http://www.nsee.org

    The nonprofit National Society for Experiential Education (NSEE) offers this conference to those interested in experiential education.

    National Youth Leadership Council (NYLC), http://www.nylc.org/about

    The National Youth Leadership Council provides programs and services that develop young leaders, support educators, and advance the field of service-learning.

    New Directions for Higher Education (NDHE), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1536-0741

    A quarterly journal, NDHE provides a venue for the latest developments in higher education.

    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, http://nvs.sagepub.com

    An international, interdisciplinary publication that offers research, discussion, and analysis of the nonprofit and voluntary fields.

    Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, http://www.partnershipsjournal.org

    Partnerships offers open access to multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed articles on a wide array of topics of interest to all stakeholders involved in community engagement.

    Principles of Good Practice for Combining Service and Learning: A Wingspread Special Report, http://www.nationalserviceresources.gov/online-library/items/r4174#.VE6KuOc3eTg

    The 10 principles outlined in this report were generated based on collaboration with the National Society of Experiential Education, the Johnson Foundation, and more than 70 organizations. The report lays out and offers examples of principles of good practice.

    Reflections: A Journal of Public Rhetoric, Civic Writing, and Service Learning, http://reflectionsjournal.net

    This peer-reviewed journal publishes research, essays, and interviews. Policy and practice are major topics of interest.

    Rethinking Schools, http://www.rethinkingschools.org

    Rethinking Schools has grown from a group of teachers to being one of the premier sources in the country for social justice curriculum. It is committed to equity in all schools, although there is an emphasis on issues of race and urban education. Rethinking Schools publishes a journal and is spearheading Teaching the People’s History, the Howard Zinn Project aimed at teaching history from multiple perspectives. Publications include Rethinking Our Classrooms, Rethinking Columbus, and Teaching for Joy and Justice. This is a valuable resource for any educator searching for accessible classroom resources.

    Service-Learning Management Software, http://mncampuscompact.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/SL-mgmt-tech-overview.pdf

    Those who seek a management system to facilitate service-learning projects may wish to read this preliminary, non-exhaustive survey of systems from the Minnesota Campus Compact.

    The Milwaukee Idea at University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, http://www4.uwm.edu/milwaukeeidea/elements/wingspread.pdf

    The Milwaukee Idea is a 1999 community-engagement initiative that emerged out of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to build community partnerships that support learning. This initiative brings together various stakeholders to address community issues.

    Theory Into Practice, http://tip.ehe.osu.edu

    Since 1962, Theory Into Practice has offered peer-reviewed, quarterly thematic issues on topics relating to current and future educational practice (e.g., bullying, assessment).

    Trello, https://trello.com

    Trello is a free Web-based project organization approach. Institutions may want to consider upgrading for greater functionality.

    Wingspread Declaration on Renewing the Civic Mission of the American Research University, http://www.compact.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/wingspread_declaration.pdf

    This is a must-have document for all engaged in the scholarship of community engagement. It is the result of a 1998 Wingspread conference of university presidents, provosts, deans, faculty members, professional associations, civic organizations, and private foundations. The report shares a vision of public engagement that institutions of higher learning could infuse into their mission. The document shares how all partners in IHEs could be filled with the democratic spirit from the student level to the institutional level. Additional reports include Calling the Question: Is Higher Education Ready to Commit to Community Engagement?, a report from the 2004 Institutionalizing University Engagement conference, which can be accessed at http://www4.uwm.edu/milwaukeeidea/elements/wingspread.pdf..

    W.K. Kellogg Foundation, http://www.wkkf.org/what-we-do/community-and-civic-engagement

    Established in 1930 by cereal company founder W. K. Kellogg, the foundation administers funds to programs that promote the education, health, and welfare of children and young adults. The organization emphasizes community and civic engagement because it believes in empowering communities to solve their own challenges. This is a valuable resource for those seeking funding for programs that support marginalized or vulnerable populations.

    Glossary

    These definitions are written specifically to describe the terms in the context of service-learning.

    academic service-learning

    A teaching and learning pedagogy. See “service-learning” for a full definition.

    advisory council

    A diverse group of individuals representing various curricula and co-curricular areas dedicated to service-learning as a curricular approach. Also referred to as a committee or council, this collegewide group provides counsel and guides the institution on rules, policies, and practices relating to service and civic engagement.

    African Americans

    Refers to individuals who are from Black racial groups, of African descent, and are citizens of the United States.

    Asian Americans

    Refers to citizens of the United States with origins to countries in the Asian continent. Some people within this group tend to identify themselves with their specific ethnic origins (e.g., Chinese American or Japanese American).

    assessment

    The act of completing a form of evaluation or judgment. Assessment varies by field but always contains some form of evaluation.

    assets

    The strengths, talents, and resources that communities possess.

    authentic partnerships

    Longstanding relationships that are developed and nurtured between all partners based on reciprocity, mutual trust, openness, and respect. In authentic partnerships, all partners have equal roles in the decision-making process.

    bicultural

    Refers to individuals who can comfortably exist within two cultures, or move from one culture to another.

    bilingual

    Refers to the ability to understand two languages.

    charity

    Refers to when giving is one sided and is controlled by the giver; there is a power differential between the giver and the receiver.

    civic engagement

    An approach that involves taking action to examine and address public issues and results in improving the quality of life for individuals and the community.

    co-educators

    Refers to all partners involved in the community engagement process. For example, the community residents and agencies become co-educators as they possess and hold the expertise, skills, and knowledge needed to support student and faculty learning.

    community

    Can be based on geographic, regional, linguistic, or group affiliation. For example, a K–12 school could consider itself a community, while a neighborhood considers itself the same. Community is bound by shared, mutual goals but may also be characterized by multiple perspectives.

    community-based learning

    A pedagogical approach that positions the community to have a critical and integral role in the teaching and learning process. Some institutions prefer to use this term instead of service-learning to emphasize the significant role of the community. This pedagogy is intentional, structured, and connects course activities and objectives to practice with community involvement. It also empowers learning within the community as faculty and students are partnering with the community in fulfilling community needs from the perspectives of the community. Those who subscribe to this terminology emphasize the critical role the community plays in the teaching process as they are experts about their own issues and needs. Also called academic community-based learning or community-engaged learning.

    community-based participatory research

    A collaborative service-learning research method that emphasizes using the community as partners in conducting research to address community issues. This approach thrives on collaboration as faculty, students, and the community partner together from the beginning to explore and identify the research issue(s), design the project, set research goals, determine the methodologies and timeline, and disseminate the findings.

    community needs

    Areas that are of particular concern to the community partners.

    community service

    An approach that refers to individuals volunteering in activities that are not necessarily linked to a course’s goals or objectives. The focus is on doing for the community rather than doing with the community.

    community service-learning

    Used interchangeably with service-learning, but in this case, community is attached to emphasize the role of the community, implying that service-learning is impossible without the community component.

    contracts

    Formal agreements developed with and between partners that outline and specify the roles, expectations, duties, responsibilities, and duration of community engagement. Many institutions are moving toward referring to these contracts as a memorandum of agreement or understanding (MoA/MoU).

    credit-bearing

    Suggests that courses with a service-learning component must have actual credits attached to them in order to be legitimately considered service-learning. Credit-bearing is a critical factor that helps to differentiate between service-learning and community service.

    critical reflection

    Reflection that engages, pushes, challenges, and empowers students to think critically and reflect on service experiences and about issues that emerge while engaging in the community in order to connect those issues to course goals and their own evolving personal, social, and emotional development.

    critical service-learning

    A service-learning approach that engages students to interrogate, challenge, examine, and explore institutional inequities and systems of oppression impacting the community, including racism, sexism, and classism. Students become critically conscious and informed of these issues and, in the process, become civically engaged and empowered to collaborate with the community to dismantle these oppressive systems.

    critical thinking

    The intellectual process of questioning and analyzing in order to problem solve or engage in creative activity.

    deficits

    Stigmas that some participants may label communities as having, such as challenges, weaknesses, and problems. Participants who regard the community as having these issues tend to position themselves as knowing and solving the problems of the community.

    direct service

    Means participants are directly involved, engaged, or interacting with the community.

    disenfranchised

    A person or a group of people who do not have the rights, privileges, or power to participate fully or equally in society.

    disposition

    Participants’ attitudes, habits, or moods and how they display these attitudes to others.

    diversity

    In this context, relates to various people, beliefs, values, community groups, organizations, perspectives, cultural groups (e.g., race, gender, sexual orientation, ages, exceptional needs, family unit). Diversity is created through differences between various groups, perspectives, and views.

    do-gooder effect

    A term used when some partners engaged in service-learning opportunities assume the role of saviors and experts in the community they are serving and assert the role of saving this community.

    evaluate

    Assess the goals and impact of a project or practice.

    experiential education

    An educational philosophy where participants are engaged in the learning process outside of the typical traditional classroom. There are different types of experiential education, including service-learning, civic engagement, practicum, and immersion experiences.

    goals

    Participants/groups setting the end result of what they wish to achieve and then working toward that end.

    Hispanic

    In the United States, Hispanic is used interchangeably with Latina/o. However, groups interpret the terms differently: Hispanic refers to people from a Spanish-speaking background, while Latino/a applies to those with roots in South and Central America as well as the Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands.

    Hurricane Katrina

    A major 2005 storm that struck New Orleans and the Gulf Coast and caused significant damage to political and social infrastructures, including shutting down schools and displacing communities.

    immersion trip

    Designates an experience that includes a home-stay or other close cultural contact in the place visited. The participants generally live, work, eat, and mingle in the community.

    impact

    Accrued results of a service-learning opportunity outcome.

    institutionalize

    To establish a particular practice or approach as the “norm” at an institution.

    interdisciplinary studies

    Programs that incorporate courses from across multiple disciplines to study a topic or topics that do not fit neatly into a single discipline.

    international service-learning

    Service-learning with partners outside of the home country.

    intersectionality

    Effects of the overlap between and among various cultural groups (race, gender, class) and how they result in “different” experiences for various people, for example, African American women versus African American males. The experiences and interaction of both groups will be different based on race and gender.

    IRB

    Short for institutional review board, the board that examines research studies to determine ethical or potentially harmful impacts on the subjects of the study.

    K–12

    Refers to kindergarten through 12th-grade level. It sometimes may be referred to as P–12 to include the pre-school levels.

    Latina/o:

    People of Latin American descent. Latina refers to females, and Latino to males.

    marginalization

    Attaching a lesser status to a group in relation to a higher status group. Marginalized groups often have less power and access to resources than the in-power group.

    meaningful service

    Service that is grounded in the core principles of service-learning, including connecting course objectives to practice in the community by addressing community needs from the perspectives of the community; shared and mutual goals, power, and resources; reciprocity; and that the service be meaningful to all partners.

    memorandum of agreement (MoA)

    Official and documented agreement that outlines the roles, responsibilities, and expectations of all partners. Its contents are mutually developed and agreed upon. Also called memorandum of understanding (MoU).

    multicultural education

    A curricula, teaching, and learning approach that acknowledges, values and legitimizes the diversity of our society. It seeks to affirm cultural pluralism and emphasizes that all cultural groups (i.e., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, exceptional needs, language, etc.) receive equal proportional attention in the curriculum. This approach thrives on social justice, anti-racist education, and critical pedagogy.

    multicultural service-learning

    Legitimizes and infuses multicultural perspectives in the community engagement process. This approach is used when engaging in opportunities or service with historically underrepresented groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics/Latinas/Latinos, Native Americans/American Indians, working families [low income]; Deaf communities).

    National and Community Service Trust Act (NCSTA) of 1993

    Set up the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) to administer federally funded national service programs. The act also created AmeriCorps to support community service efforts.

    Native Americans

    Peoples who are indigenous to what is now called the United States. Some prefer to identify themselves as Native, American Indian, or First Nations.

    objectives

    Specific accomplishment set out to be achieved that must contain an assessment component.

    opportunities

    Activities engaged in within the communities that should be viewed as opportunities: opportunities for learning, opportunities for engaging in authentic partnerships, opportunities for sharing and acquiring knowledge and skills.

    oppression

    The deliberate marginalization of a group or groups through the use of institutions or cultural practices.

    outcomes

    Visible, noticeable, and documented changes in the community as a result of the service-learning opportunity.

    P–20

    Preschool through high school to undergraduate and graduate education. Some refer to it as P–16 to only include high school and four years of undergraduate schooling.

    PARE:

    A service-learning model developed by the University of Maryland and widely adopted by institutions to ensure a quality experience for all partners. It includes the core elements of preparation, action, reflection, and evaluation (PARE). Some have adopted a PARE-C model to include complete and celebrate.

    partners

    Individuals who come together for the same purpose to address and fulfill community needs. Their collaboration is based on mutual goals, shared governance, planning and respect for each other, equal roles, joint decision making, transparent communication, and resource sharing. Used interchangeably with stakeholders.

    partnership

    In the context of service-learning, this term is different from relationship as it is formal and long term in nature and results from the collaboration derived from being partners. It is based on mutual trust and joint decision making, along with the factors mentioned in the partners definition.

    policy

    Established rules that are integrated, applied, and implemented into an institution’s culture and practices that guide service-learning and civic engagement.

    power relations

    Involve unequal interactions between low- and high-status groups.

    practitioner-scholar

    A person who integrates community involvement with academic practices and thought.

    preflection

    Structured opportunity to reflect on anticipated service experience prior to getting into the community and sharing one’s thoughts, feelings, assumptions, opinions, beliefs, ideas, anticipations, fears, and excitement prior to engaging in the community. It also can involve exploring one’s personal values, biases, and ethics.

    privilege

    The invisible and visible set of rights and/or advantages given to one group, or individuals within a group, that are generally earned merely by membership in the group.

    racial identity development

    How individuals perceive themselves as racial beings in comparison to the dominant racial group in society.

    reciprocity

    Shared and mutual taking, receiving, and giving between all partners in community engagement. An authentic form of any community engagement model must include reciprocity. When reciprocity is present, all parties view themselves as partners with shared and mutual goals and a balance of power.

    reflections

    Intentional and structured methods used to determine a partner’s thoughts and experiences. Can be formal or informal. As this is a critical component in community engagement, it should be intentional and mediated.

    relationship

    Informal interaction between individuals that is limited to a short-term basis.

    risk assessment

    Examining, exploring, and identifying potential hazards or risks as a result of engaging in a community opportunity. This also entails putting measures in place to control, prevent, or manage these hazards and risks (see also “risk management”).

    risk management

    Identifying the risks associated with sending students into the community and implementing approaches to mitigate those risks.

    savior mentality:

    A potential problem of service-learning where the participants may consider themselves “saviors” or rescuers of the community with which they engage (see also do-gooder effect).

    service provider

    The community organization with which the service-learning course works.

    service-learning

    An intentional, structured teaching and learning approach that allows students to engage in activities in the community by linking and applying course content with activities meaningful to the community. It is credit-bearing, guided by teaching faculty, rooted in the academic curriculum, and supported with structured preflections and postreflections.

    social justice

    The idea that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to participate in society as they so choose as opposed to how others choose for them.

    stakeholders

    Individuals who come together for the same purpose to address and fulfill community needs. Their relationship is based on mutual goals, shared governance and respect for each other, equal roles, transparent communication, and sharing of resources and power. Used interchangeably with partners to emphasize that each entity has a stake in the entire process.

    STEM

    The infusion of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in the curriculum. Some prefer to include the arts and refer to it as STEAM, while others include arts and reading and refer to it as STREAM.

    strengths

    Refers to the assets that the community possesses, including its people, resources, values, and neighborhood.

    sustainable/sustainability

    Derived from ideas found in the interdependence of biological systems. When applied to social justice, it refers to the interdependence of communities, countries, and individuals to work together to sustain life. In terms of programs, it refers to the institution’s ability to make the service-learning experience viable (for both budgetary and personnel support) over the long term.

    unpacking

    Scrutinizing the assumptions and “lenses” inherent in interactions between various groups. The term was popularized in the 1988 Peggy McIntosh article “White Privilege and Male Privilege.”

    Volunteer Protection Act of 1997

    Also referred to as VPA, the application of the law varies widely from state to state. The actual application of the act is appropriate to “volunteers” who do not receive anything of value (in lieu of compensation) in excess of $500 per year. Some would argue that receiving college credit for service-learning would invalidate the application of the VPA to service-learners. Additionally, the VPA provides immunity for volunteers (but not the nonprofits or universities themselves) serving 501(c)(3) organizations or governmental entities under very specific conditions: for harm caused by their acts or omissions provided that the volunteer was acting within the scope of responsibilities; appropriately licensed or certified (if applicable); did not cause the harm willfully, criminally, recklessly, or with gross negligence; and was not operating a motor vehicle, vessel, or aircraft. Because of additional conditions and exceptions incorporated within state statutes, many volunteers remain fully liable (see http://www.nonprofitrisk.org for information and support). In fact, some states only allow limited liability if the organization adhered to risk management procedures, including required training of volunteers. Within this interpretation, the VPA is not a substitute for an institutional risk management strategy for service-learning.

    volunteerism

    The practice of giving time, expertise, or physical work to an educational, charitable, or community organization.

    Volunteers in Service to America

    Also called VISTA, the group was incorporated into AmeriCorps in 1993 as part of the National and Community Service Act.

    White privilege

    The set of conditions that enables White people to move through daily life (shopping, workplace, intercultural relationships) without having to scrutinize their interactions or behaviors.

    Whites

    Often used in the United States to designate people of European descent, although the U.S. Census also uses it to refer to people of Middle Eastern and North African origins.


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