The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Management: Theories, Concepts and Disciplinary Approaches to Tourism
Publication Year: 2018
The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Management is a critical, state-of-the-art and authoritative review of tourism management, written by leading international thinkers and academics in the field. With a strong focus on theories, concepts and disciplinary approaches to tourism studies, the chapters in this volume are framed as critical synoptic pieces covering key developments, current issues and debates, and emerging trends and future considerations for the field. Part One: Researching Tourism Part Two: Social Analysis Part Three: Economic Analysis Part Four: Technological Analysis Part Five: Environmental Analysis Part Six: Political Analysis This handbook offers a fresh and definitive look at tourism management, making it an essential resource for academics, researchers and students.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: RESEARCHING TOURISM
- Chapter 2: Qualitative Research and Tourism Studies
- Chapter 3: Quantitative Research Approaches to Tourism
Part II: SOCIAL ANALYSIS
- Chapter 4: Economic Geographies of Tourism: A Critical and Contested Discourse
- Chapter 5: Tourism Histories
- Chapter 6: Key Milestones and Changing Directions in the Sociology of Tourism
- Chapter 7: Psychology of Tourism
- Chapter 8: Anthropology of Tourism
- Chapter 9: Tourism Ethics
- Chapter 10: Network Analysis: Quantitative Methods in Tourism
Part III: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
- Chapter 11: Economics of Tourism
- Chapter 12: Tourism Data Sources: From Official Statistics to Big Data
- Chapter 13: Analysing and Forecasting Tourism Demand
- Chapter 14: Tourism Supply Side Analysis
- Chapter 15: Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research in Tourism: A Review and Comment
- Chapter 16: Tourism Human Resources
- Chapter 17: Service Management and Tourism
Part IV: TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
- Chapter 18: Tourism and Surface Transport
- Chapter 19: Aviation and Tourism
- Chapter 20: The Digital Economy of Tourism
- Chapter 21: Tourism and Knowledge Management
- Chapter 22: Business Model Innovation in Tourism: Opportunities and Challenges
Part V: ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
- Chapter 23: The Tourism–Environment Relationship
- Chapter 24: Sustainability and Resilience: Two Sides of the Same Coin?
- Chapter 25: Climate Change and Tourism: Mitigation and Global Climate Agreements
- Chapter 26: Tourism and Biodiversity
- Chapter 27: Researching the Nexus of Protected Natural Area Tourism Management: Milestones and Future Directions
- Chapter 28: Tourism, Energy, Oil and Water
Part VI: POLITICAL ANALYSIS
- Chapter 29: Tourism Institutions and Agencies
- Chapter 30: Tourism Policy
- Chapter 31: Tourism Governance
- Chapter 32: Tourism Planning: Evolution and Trends for the Future
- Chapter 33: Foreign Direct Investment and Tourism Development: A Theoretical and Empirical Review
- Chapter 34: Globalization, Supranationalism and Tourism
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Editor: Matthew Waters
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Printed in the UK
Chapter 1 © Chris Cooper, William C. Gartner, Noel Scott and Serena Volo 2018
Chapter 2 © Gayle R. Jennings 2018
Chapter 3 © Josef A. Mazanec 2018
Chapter 4 © Keith Debbage 2018
Chapter 5 © Kevin James 2018
Chapter 6 © Scott A. Cohen and Erik Cohen 2018
Chapter 7 © Philip L. Pearce 2018
Chapter 8 © Tim Wallace and Valene L. Smith 2018
Chapter 9 © Valerie Sheppard and David Fennell 2018
Chapter 10 © Rodolfo Baggio 2018
Chapter 11 © Larry Dwyer 2018
Chapter 12 © Serena Volo 2018
Chapter 13 © Anyu Liu, Vera Shanshan Lin and Haiyan Song 2018
Chapter 14 © Tadayuki Hara, Sachiyo Asahi and Morihiko Kinjo 2018
Chapter 15 © Rhodri Thomas and Neil Ormerod 2018
Chapter 16 © Adele Ladkin 2018
Chapter 17 © David Solnet and Maria Golubovskaya 2018
Chapter 18 © Bruce Prideaux 2018
Chapter 19 © Bojana Spasojevic and Gui Lohmann 2018
Chapter 20 © Miha Bratec 2018
Chapter 21 © Lisa Ruhanen 2018
Chapter 22 © Anne-Mette Hjalager and Einar Lier Madsen 2018
Chapter 23 © Andrew Holden 2018
Chapter 24 © R. W. Butler 2018
Chapter 25 © Debbie Hopkins and James Higham 2018
Chapter 26 © Stefan Gössling 2018
Chapter 27 © Michael Hughes, Dave Newsome and Kate Rodger 2018
Chapter 28 © Jonathon Day and Natalie Chin 2018
Chapter 29 © Haywantee Ramkissoon and Dean Hristov 2018
Chapter 30 © John Jenkins 2018
Chapter 31 © Lindemberg Medeiros de Araujo and Noel Scott 2018
Chapter 32 © Carlos Costa and Filipa Brandão 2018
Chapter 33 © Robin Nunkoo and Boopen Seetanah 2018
Chapter 34 © Dallen J. Timothy 2018
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2018930292
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
List of Figures[Page viii]
- 10.1 An undirected unweighted network (left) and its adjacency matrix (right) 154
- 10.2 The degree distributions for a random (A) and a scale-free network (B) 155
- 10.3 The network of a tourism destination with its degree distribution (panel B) 158
- 10.4 Modules identified algorithmically in a destination (the same as Figure 10.3) 159
- 10.5 Infection curves for the simulations performed on a random (ER) network, a scale-free network and the rewired version 163
- 13.1 Quarterly forecasts of visitor arrivals from key source markets to Hong Kong (in thousands) 214
- 17.1 Forces stimulating the development of the service economy 272
- 17.2 The experience economy – demonstrating that engaging experiences can provide greater economic value 282
- 17.3 The service-profit chain 286
- 19.1 Thematic map of air transport and tourism research in the period 2000–14 317
- 19.2 Air transport and tourism research publications trend in the period 2000–14 318
- 19.3 Evolution of air transport and tourism research themes publications 319
- 20.1 Worldwide digital travel sales in USD billions 337
- 20.2 The difference between guest-paid and hotel-collected US revenues in 2014 and 2015 337
- 20.3 Gross sales volumes of main online travel agencies (OTAs) in USD billions for 2015 339
- 20.4 Median ratio of direct to indirect (OTAs generated) US bookings between 2011 and 2015 340
- 20.5 The share of Airbnb room nights in hotel room nights in the United States 346
- 21.1 Knowledge processes required for innovation 360
- 22.1 Innovation-active tourism enterprises by innovation form and sub sector 375
- 22.2 Osterwalder and Pigneur’s business model canvas 379
- 25.1 Graph of academic publications on the topic of tourism and climate change 424
- 27.1 Butler’s tourism destination lifecycle 453
- 30.1 Types of public policy making 505
- 30.2 Framework for understanding tourism policy and planning 506
- 32.1 Tourism futures framework 541
- 32.2 Static and dynamic elements of tourist attraction 542
- 32.3 Donald Getz’s rational tourism planning model 544
- 32.4 The Alberta model 545
- 32.5 Leiper’s systemic model 546
- 32.6 Inskeep’s tourism planning model 547
- 32.7 PASOLP (Product Analysis Sequence for Outdoor Leisure Planning) model 548
- 32.8 Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle model 549
- 32.9 Mill and Morrison’s strategic management tourism model 550
- 32.10 Tourism planning and organisation: the ‘Product-Space’ model 550
List of Tables[Page ix]
- 2.1 Movements in episodes/moments in qualitative research based on the writings of Denzin and Lincoln 9
- 2.2 Overview of paradigms that inform tourism research 17
- 9.1 Summary of animal ethics theories 142
- 13.1 Unit root test results using ADF and PP tests 209
- 13.2 Bounds test results 210
- 13.3 Demand elasticities and diagnostic test results 211
- 13.4 Annual forecasts of visitor arrivals to Hong Kong (in thousands) 213
- 13.5 Growth rate (%) of annual visitor arrivals to Hong Kong 213
- 14.1 Categories of tourism characteristic consumption products and tourism characteristic activities (tourism industries) 226
- 14.2 Publication results of Culture Satellite Accounts (CSAs) in the world 230
- 14.3 Production side measurements for cultural sectors 234
- 14.4 Current status of selected Satellite Accounts (SAs) and participating numbers of countries 235
- 15.1 Orientation and progress in researching small tourism firms 241
- 15.2 Broad research themes relating to small and medium sized firms in tourism in a selection of tourism and hospitality journals (2011–16) 242
- 15.3 An indicative research agenda on small firms in tourism: a review (2011–2016) 243
- 17.1 Comparison of the product-centric and customer-centric approaches 279
- 19.1 Themes and associated references on aviation and tourism published between 2000 and 2014 (n = 157) 315
- 19.2 The most common keywords for the papers associated with the themes: airlines, environment, management, passenger, regulations and tourism destinations 322
- 22.1 Managerial measures to stimulate business model innovations in tourism organizations 387
- 27.1 Key types of tourism in protected areas 449
- 27.2 Core elements of visitor planning frameworks 455
- 27.3 Summary of key protected area tourism management issues identified in a sample of publications on protected natural area management 457
- 29.1 Tourism governance structures: EU and UK 494
- 30.1 Influential thinkers in the social sciences, economics and government 508
- 30.2 Problematisation of tourism planning and policy issues 515
- 31.1 Questions associated with the 2008 global financial crisis 526
- 31.2 Key characteristics of governance 528
- 32.1 Epistemology of planning paradigms 543
- 32.2 Smart tourism destination characteristics 553
- 33.1 Key empirical literature on foreign direct investment and tourism 560
Notes on the Editor and Contributors[Page xi]The Editors
Chris Cooper holds a Bachelor's and PhD from University College London. He is Professor in the School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management at Leeds Beckett University, UK. He was Chair of the UN World Tourism Organization Education Council (2005–07) and was awarded the United Nations Ulysses Prize for contributions to tourism education and policy in 2009. He co-edits Current Issues in Tourism and sits on editorial boards for leading tourism, hospitality and leisure journals. He has authored a number of leading textbooks and is the co-series editor of Channel View's influential book series ‘Aspects of Tourism’.
Serena Volo is Associate Professor of Tourism Marketing and currently Director of the Tourism, Sport and Event Management Bachelor Program at the Faculty of Economics and Management of Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy. She is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. She has chaired several editions of the Consumer Behaviour in Tourism Symposium, which is held annually at the Bruneck Campus of the Free University of Bozen, where she is also vice-director of TOMTE, the Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics. Her research interests include consumer behaviour, tourism innovation, tourism statistics and destination competitiveness.
William C. Gartner is Professor in the Applied Economics Department at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, St. Paul. His research interests include branding, image, economic impact, and tourism development. He has worked extensively in Asia, Europe, Latin America and Africa and holds Visiting Professor positions at four international universities. Dr Gartner has conducted economic impact, baseline monitoring, policy analysis and branding studies for the grape and wine industry in twelve US states as part of the Northern Grapes Project. He is the past President of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism.
Noel Scott is Professor in the Griffith Institute for Tourism at Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia. His research interests include the study of tourism experiences, destination management and marketing, and stakeholder organization. He is a frequent speaker at international academic and industry conferences. He has published more than 210 academic articles and 13 books. He has supervised 20 doctoral students to successful completion of their theses. He is on the Editorial Board of several journals and a Fellow of the Council of Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Educators. Prior to his academic career, Noel worked as a senior manager in a variety of leading businesses including as Manager of Research and Strategic Services at Tourism and Events Queensland.[Page xii]The Contributors
Lindemberg Medeiros de Araujo has a PhD in Tourism Management from Sheffield Hallam University, UK. He teaches Geography of Tourism and Environmental Analysis at the Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL) in Brazil. He also teaches a course on Tourism, Space and Development and supervises masters and doctoral candidates in two of UFAL's post-graduation programmes: Geography, and Architecture and Urbanism. He has written and contributed to a number of books and has published papers in tourism and geography-related journals. His current tourism research activities focus on coastal zones, public policies, territory dynamics, governance and sustainable development.
Sachiyo Asahi is currently Professor in the Department of Law and Economics, Faculty of Humanities, Law and Economics at Mie University, Japan. She gained an MA in Social Sciences at Mie University. She has experience working for Yokkaichi Economic Research Institution, Yokkaichi University, and Nikkei Inc. She was appointed as Professor in the Department of Tourism Policy of the Faculty of Economics in Yamaguchi University. She has promoted the tourism economic management research project of Yamaguchi University. There, she played an important part in the international conference of the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) held for the first time in Japan. Her main fields of research include the economic analysis of tourism (TSA, R-TSA), regional issues, and environment utilizing regional input–output analysis. She served as an advisory committee member on Tourism Statistics at the Japan Tourism Agency, and a member on the Input-Output Technology Council for the Ministry for Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan.
Rodolfo Baggio holds a Master degree in Physics and a PhD in Tourism Management. After having worked for leading information technology corporations for over 20 years, he joined Bocconi University where he is in charge of the Market Analysis and Digital Strategies area at the Master in Economics and Tourism and is Research Fellow at the Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics and Public Policy. Rodolfo has been involved in several international research projects and actively researches and publishes on the use of information technologies in tourism and on the interdisciplinary applications of complexity and network science methods to the study of tourism destinations.
Filipa Brandão holds a PhD in Tourism and an MSc in Tourism Management and Development, both from the University of Aveiro. She is currently Assistant Professor at the School of Hospitality and Tourism of the Polytechnic of Porto, and at the University of Aveiro. She is Associate Editor of Tourism & Development Journal, the scientific journal of the Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism of the University of Aveiro, reviewer of scientific publications in the tourism field, and is frequently involved in tourism and leisure consultancy or applied research projects. Her research interests include territorial innovation in tourism, innovation networks, destination planning and development, and sociometric analysis. She is a full member of the Tourism & Development group of GOVCOPP – Research Unit in Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies of the University of Aveiro and coordinator of the Research Group in Tourism and Hospitality of the School of Hospitality and Tourism of the Polytechnic of Porto.[Page xiii]
Miha Bratec joined the Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia as a teaching assistant and PhD candidate following his international industry experience in e-tourism working for corporate e-distribution giants such as Booking.com and Bookassist. His research interests include hospitality management and operations, e-commerce, e-marketing and e-distribution, ICT adoption in tourism, revenue management, competitiveness and sustainability issues in tourism and hospitality, sharing economy, disruptive technologies, gastronomy and wine tourism.
R.W. Butler is Emeritus Professor at the University of Strathclyde Business School. He trained as a geographer and has held positions at the University of Western Ontario, Surrey University in the UK, NHTV Breda in the Netherlands, and Centro Internazionale Studi Economi Turistica (CISET) Venice. He has acted as a consultant for governments in Canada and the UK, and for the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), as well as for several private agencies and organizations. He has edited twenty books on tourism and contributed many articles to journals and chapters to books. His main research interests are in destination development, the impacts of tourism, and sustainability and resilience in tourism destination environments. He is a past President of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, and of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, and was appointed UNWTO Laureate in 2016 for contributions to the creation and dissemination of tourism knowledge.
Natalie Chin is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. She received her PhD in Agricultural and Biological Engineering from Purdue University and Masters in Public Policy from George Mason University. Her research interests include hydroclimatological modeling focused on the Great Lakes and Midwestern United States and understanding how to create actionable science for stakeholders in the tourism and forestry sectors to assist with climate change adaptation planning.
Erik Cohen is the George S. Wise Professor of Sociology (emeritus) at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he taught between 1959 and 2000. He has conducted research in Israel, Peru, the Pacific Islands and, since 1977, in Thailand. Erik is a founding member of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. He was awarded the UN World Tourism Organization's Ulysses Prize for 2012. He presently lives and does research in Thailand.
Scott A. Cohen is Head of the Department of Tourism & Events and Deputy Director of Research in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at the University of Surrey. Scott's research is primarily focused on societal issues in the contexts of travel, mobility and transport, with particular interests in sustainable mobility, hypermobility and in business and lifestyle travel.
Carlos Costa is Full Professor and Head of the School of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism of the University of Aveiro. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Tourism & Development Journal, Associate Editor of Tourism Review and member of the Editorial Board of Journal of Destination Marketing and Management. He holds a PhD and MSc on Tourism Management (University of Surrey, UK), and a BSc on Urban and Regional Planning. He is the [Page xiv]leader of the PhD Tourism Programme of the University of Aveiro and head of the Tourism & Development Research Group of the Research Unit in Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies of the University of Aveiro (GOVCOPP). His research interests focus on tourism networks, tourism planning and development, governance, policy, innovation, education, and gender in tourism.
Jonathon Day is Associate Professor in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, Indiana, with more than 20 years’ experience in destination management. An award winning marketer, Jonathon has worked with destinations marketing organizations in Australia, New Zealand and the United States and is committed to ensuring tourism is a force for good in the world. He is the author of more than 25 peer-reviewed articles in journals including Tourism Analysis, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, Annals of Tourism Research, and the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. He is the author of An Introduction to Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Travel. He is Chair of the Tourism Innovation Partnership for Social Entrepreneurship, Chair of the Global Sustainable Tourism Council's Communication and Membership Workgroup, and a member of the executive of Tourism Education Futures Initiative. Jonathon's research interests focus on sustainable tourism, responsible travel, and strategic destination governance within the tourism system. He is interested in the role of business in solving grand challenges through corporate social responsibility programs and social entrepreneurship.
Keith Debbage is Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro with research interests in the economic geography of tourism, airline networks and urban economic development. He is the author of more than 70 research publications in book chapters, contracted reports and various academic journals including the Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Air Transport Management, Journal of Transport Geography, Policy Studies Review, Regional Studies, Tourism Management, Transportation Quarterly, and Urban Geography. Keith is on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Air Transport Management and Tourism Geographies. He has been quoted in Business Week, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and USA Today. He received his PhD from the University of Georgia.
Larry Dwyer is Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Adjunct Professor Griffith Institute for Tourism (GIFT), Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, and Honorary Professor in the School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney of Travel and Tourism Economics in the School of Marketing, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales. Dr Dwyer publishes widely in the areas of tourism economics, management, policy and planning and has more than 200 publications in international journals, books, book chapters, government reports and monographs. He is past President and current Board Chair of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism. He is past President of the International Association for Tourism Economics, and currently serves on its International Advisory Board.
David Fennell researches mainly in the areas of ecotourism, tourism ethics, and moral issues tied to the use of animals in the tourism industry. A major thrust of his research involves the use of theory from other disciplines (e.g., biology, philosophy) to gain traction on many of tourism's most persistent issues and problems. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Ecotourism and is an active member on editorial boards of many academic journals.[Page xv]
Maria Golubovskaya is a PhD candidate at the University of Queensland (UQ) Business School, Australia. She completed her Master's in International Hotel and Tourism Management at UQ in 2013, earning Dean's List commendations in every semester (6.7/7.0 GPA). She is also a Qualified Management Accountant as certified by CPA Australia. Her core research areas of interest include understating attitudes and behaviours of young frontline service workers, and positive organizational behaviour/positive psychology. She was awarded first prize and gained international recognition in a global Young Talent Programme at the World Tourism Forum in 2013. Maria is heavily engaged in a range of academic activities, including tutoring, student coaching and research support. Her expertise in service management teaching has come through four years of teaching support and through her active role in developing a leading service management textbook (Service Management Principles for Hospitality and Tourism by Kandampully and Solnet, 2015, Kendall Hunt). She also has a strong operational background in the hotel industry having worked in a number of premium hotel brands and consulting for a number of Queensland-based companies.
Stefan Gössling is Professor at the School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, and the Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University, both in Sweden. He is also the research coordinator at the Western Norway Research Institute. He is interested in all interrelationships of tourism with sustainability.
Tadayuki Hara, Associate Professor and Senior Research Fellow at the Dick Pope Sr. Institute for Tourism Studies, University of Central Florida (UCF), joined the UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management in 2005 from the School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University. From 2008–10, he served as Interim Associate Dean, and in 2010 was named Associate Dean of Finance and Administration for a 5-year term. Before his career in academia, he spent 19 years working in global investment banking and foreign services. He has offered a MOOC on tourism statistics and tourism satellite accounts to global participants four times since 2013, making it the first MOOC in the tourism and hospitality management field. He teaches full-streaming video courses. He has been a consultant for UNWTO, UNESCO and ICAO in the area of satellite accounts, and currently serves on Technical Advisory Board (TAB ) members for UNESCO's Culture Satellite Account (CSA) and ICAO's Aviation Satellite Account (ASA) respectively
James Higham is Professor at the University of Otago, New Zealand, and Visiting Professor at the University of Stavanger, Norway. He is co-editor of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism. James’ research interests span tourism and environmental change, sport tourism and wildlife tourism. He has ongoing research focusing on air travel, behaviour change and climate policy, as well as the climate concern of tourists.
Anne-Mette Hjalager is Professor at the University of Southern Denmark, Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management. Her research and teaching interests include innovation in tourism, economic and labour market issues, food and gastronomy. The research embraces spatial aspects, in particular rural and coastal. She has participated in international research collaboration, for example Nordic tourism projects about wellbeing tourism, and in European collaborations about sustainability and ecosystems services. Anne-Mette has published widely in all of these fields. She served in counselling capacities for regional, national, and EU policy bodies and in the educational system, and she works for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Currently she is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism.[Page xvi]
Andrew Holden is Professor of Environment and Tourism and recent Director of the Institute for Tourism Research (INTOUR) at the University of Bedfordshire, UK. His research focuses on the interaction between human behaviour and the natural environment with a particular focus on sustainable development and environmental ethics. He has written several academic texts including Environment and Tourism, Tourism, Poverty and Development, and Tourism and the Social Sciences, all published by Routledge. He has published more than 50 academic articles and book chapters and is a member of several editorial boards of academic journals, including the Annals of Tourism Research. Andrew has undertaken research and consultancy work in Indonesia, Nepal, Turkey, Russia and Cyprus, alongside the UK. He is an experienced doctoral supervisor and supervises research students working in the areas of poverty reduction, protected areas, climate change, sustainable development, ecotourism and environmental ethics.
Debbie Hopkins is a Departmental Research Lecturer jointly appointed by the Transport Studies Unit and School of Geography and the Environment, and a Junior Research Fellow at Mansfield College, University of Oxford. Debbie works with the Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand and is broadly interested in systemic low-carbon, low-energy transitions as a way to mitigate climate change. Her research spans daily, leisure and tourism mobilities, passenger and freight transport, and motorized as well as non-motorized transport modes. Debbie is interested in the spatial dimensions of mobilities, behaviour change and innovation.
Dean Hristov is Global Talent Research Analyst at Bournemouth University, UK. He has been engaged in the co-delivery of global higher education (HE) projects and provides research outputs related to the employability agenda, campus internationalization, global talent and international alumni networks. Dean has published more than 15 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. He is also a peer reviewer for The International Journal of Management Education and Current Issues in Tourism. He has contributed to and has been featured in various publications in popular HE outlets, such as Times Higher Education, Guardian Students, University World News and QS Digital. Dean is a member of the British Academy of Management and the Society for Research into Higher Education.
Michael Hughes is Senior Lecturer in Environmental Management at Murdoch University in Perth, Western Australia. He has a research background in biology, natural resource management, nature-based tourism and protected area management. Michael conducts a range of research projects related to managing people in natural areas including use of natural resources and access to protected natural areas. His current research interests include how people perceive and experience natural areas, urban green space and urban fringe natural areas and values attributed to natural area tourism and recreation.
Kevin James is Professor of History at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, where he is founding director of the Tourism History Working Group. His publications include Tourism, Land, and Landscape in Ireland: The Commodification of Culture (Routledge, 2014). He has held research awards from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and The Strathmartine Trust, and research fellowships at the Harry Ransom Centre, University of Texas at Austin, the University of St Andrews Library Special Collections Department, and the Moore Institute at the National University of Ireland, Galway. His research focuses on modern British and Irish tourism and hotel history, with a focus on the visitors’ book as a textual artefact of travel, and on the hotel in wartime since 1815.[Page xvii]
John Jenkins Since completing his PhD in 1996, John has held appointments at several universities including the University of Canberra (1994–1998), The University of Newcastle (1998–2007), and now Southern Cross University, Australia. John's research in leisure and tourism studies of some 20 years has been inspired and informed by the disciplines of human geography and public policy, by scholars working at the intersections of those disciplines, and by a lifetime of participation in diverse leisure and outdoor recreation activities. John was co-editor (2001–2003) and then managing editor (2004–2012), Annals of Leisure Research, which is published by Taylor and Francis.
Gayle R. Jennings is the Director of Research, Imagine Consulting Group International Pty Ltd. Her research agenda focuses on qualitative methodologies, research training and education as well as practical and applied research for business and industry. Gayle has a variety of experiences across sectors associated with research, education, and training. She is also an Adjunct Professor of Tourism Management, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Australia. She has been the sole author and editor of a number of books, and has written book chapters and journal articles across a range of topics relating to theoretical paradigms that inform research processes, education, water-based tourism and quality tourism experiences.
Morihiko Kinjo is Professor of Tourism Economics and Statistics at the Faculty of Tourism Sciences and Industrial Management at the University of the Ryukyus in Japan. He is an expert on account-based models such as tourist satellite accounts (TSAs), input–output (IO), social accounting matrices (SAM) and computable general equilibrium (CGE). He received his doctorate in International Development from Nagoya University in 1998. After graduation, he was Professor of Environmental Economics at the Department of Economics of Tokai University for almost 15 years. Therefore, his current interests lie not only in economics but also in the environmental impacts caused by tourism development and he has written many papers related to these two aspects. He is especially interested in the case of island economies like Okinawa, Japan, being born there in 1964.
Adele Ladkin is Professor of Tourism Employment in the Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, UK. She gained her PhD at the University of Surrey, UK, in 1995. Her research interests and publications are in tourism employment and education, human resources management, employee wellbeing, labour migration and mobility, and the use of digital technologies for work–life balance whilst working on the move. She has conducted Research Council UK-funded research relating to mobile workers. Adele was joint Editor-in-Chief for the International Journal of Tourism Research from 2003–9, and she serves on the Editorial Board for Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Economics, the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, ACTA Turistica, the Journal of Convention & Event Management and the International Journal of Event Management Research. She is an Honorary Professor at the Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong.
Vera Shanshan Lin is Associate Professor in the School of Management at Zhejiang University, China. She obtained her PhD in 2013 from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. She received her Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Economics from Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, China in 2006 and 2008, respectively. Her major research interests include tourism demand modelling and forecasting and Chinese tourist behaviour. Her research [Page xviii]has been published in top forecasting and tourism journals such as International Journal of Forecasting, Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management and Journal of Travel Research and she serves on the editorial boards of a number of journals. She has been involved in a number of research/consultation projects related to tourism forecasting and tourist satisfaction indexes, including the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA); Tourism Commission, Commerce and Economic Development Bureau; Hong Kong Tourism Board; Ocean Park Hong Kong; Hong Kong Disneyland; and Shanghai Disneyland.
Anyu Liu is Lecturer in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at University of Surrey. He obtained his PhD in Tourism and Hospitality Management in 2016. His main research interests include applied economics in tourism and hospitality fields and the application of big data in tourism and hospitality. He has been involved in more than ten consultancy projects funded by the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), the Tourism Administration of Guangdong, China, Hong Kong Disneyland, and Shanghai Disneyland. He is also the co-investigator of two grants funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China.
Gui Lohmann is Associate Professor in Air Transport and Tourism Management and Head of the Aviation Discipline at Griffith University's Aviation Department, Queensland, Australia. He has authored several books, including the co-authored Tourism Theory: Concepts, Models and Systems (2016, CAB International), and peer-reviewed journal articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese on transport and tourism-related topics. He has worked as a consultant for the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, the World Tourism Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, in addition to providing consulting to Adelaide Airport, Brisbane Airport Corporation and Queensland Airport Ltd. Gui is the founder and previous Executive Director of ABRATUR, the International Academy for the Development of Tourism Research in Brazil.
Einar Lier Madsen received his PhD from Bodø Graduate School of Business, University of Nordland, Norway. He is Senior Researcher at Nordland Research Institute, Bodø, where he has been employed since 1991 both as research director and as researcher. He is conducting research within the field of entrepreneurship, strategic management and small business studies and has varied experience from evaluation of public means for small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs) and has published in various national and international journals and contributed to textbooks. Currently he is doing research on innovation and value creation within the tourism industry and is project manager for the large tourism research project Northern Insights (www.opplevelserinord.no) (2009–17). Einar has been president of the Norwegian Evaluation Society and chairman of a public pension fund. He has previously held positions in other organizations as managing director, finance manager, project supervisor and local politician.
Josef A. Mazanec is Professor Emeritus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) and Full Professor at the Department of Tourism and Service Management of MODUL University Vienna. He functioned as Head of the Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies of WU (1981–2010). In 1992 he was a Visiting Scholar at the Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, MIT. During 1997–2002 he served as the Vice-Rector for Research of WU and in 1997–2000 as the Speaker of the Joint Research Program on ‘Adaptive Models and Systems in Economics and Management Science’ (comprising researchers from WU, Vienna University of Technology, and University of Vienna). He is a founding member of the International [Page xix]Academy for the Study of Tourism and an editorial board member for numerous tourism and marketing journals. His research interests are in consumer behaviour, multivariate methods, decision-support systems, and marketing and management science applications in hospitality and tourism.
Dave Newsome's research interests focus on nature-based tourism with a particular emphasis on the environmental impacts of recreation and tourism, the sustainability of tourism in national parks and nature reserves, evaluation of the quality of ecotourism operations, sustainable trail management, geological tourism and wildlife tourism. He is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPAs) and has a particular interest in undertaking projects that will aid in the development of sustainable tourism in the Asian region.
Robin Nunkoo is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Law and Management and the Head of the International Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality at the University of Mauritius; a visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Faculty of Management at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa; and an Adjunct Professor at Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University, Australia. He holds a PhD from the University of Waterloo, Canada. He is Associate Editor for Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, a resource editor for Annals of Tourism Research, and the Regional Editor (Africa) for Journal of China Tourism Research and has published widely in leading tourism and hospitality journals.
Neil Ormerod is a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH) at Leeds Beckett University, UK, specializing in evaluation studies within the fields of events, tourism, business and leisure. Neil joined ICRETH from the University of Exeter, UK, in 2014, after completing his Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) CASE Studentship PhD. His study, An Examination of the Challenges of Capturing the Value of Adventurous Off-road Cycling: A Perspective from South West England, examined the socio-economic value of off-road cycling at a purpose-built site. Since joining ICRETH Neil has collaborated on twelve evaluation projects including: socio-economic impact studies on behalf of Meetings Professional International (MPI) and the Rugby Football League (RFL); three programme evaluations for the ESRC; and social impact assessments for Sport Wales, Yorkshire Cricket Partnership and Yorkshire Wildlife Trust. Most recently, Neil has contributed to a Leeds City Council-commissioned problem gambling study.
Philip L. Pearce has written books on tourist behaviour (1982, 1988, 2005, and 2011), positive psychology and tourism (2011, 2014), and tourism and humour (2015). He has a doctorate from the University of Oxford and was appointed as the first Professor of Tourism in Australia. His published papers are in the areas of tourist experience, emerging markets, and communities and tourism. He has developed models of tourist motivation and experience, and uses both quantitative and qualitative research methods. He has concentrated recently on Asian tourism topics. He is an active PhD supervisor with more than 40 successful doctoral graduates and a current team of students from 6 countries. He particularly enjoys work with his students on fresh approaches to tourist experience design, emotions, satisfaction, and the management of tourists’ behaviour. He was awarded the title Distinguished Professor at James Cook University, Queensland, in 2016, the first social scientist to achieve this accolade.[Page xx]
Bruce Prideaux is Professor and the Director of the Centre for Tourism and Regional Opportunities at Central Queensland University Cairns, and Program Director of the Masters of Sustainable Tourism Management. He has a wide range of research interests including tourism transport, protected area tourism, rural tourism, remote area tourism and climate change. Other active areas of research include tourism in coral reef destinations, rainforest destinations, innovation and Indigenous tourism.
Haywantee Ramkissoon is Associate Professor Curtin Business School and Monash Business School in Australia. She has served as Director of the Tourism Research Cluster at Curtin University. Ramkissoon was honoured with the Emerging Scholar of Distinction award from the International Academy for the Study of Tourism for her contribution to innovative and ground-breaking tourism research. She holds two doctoral degrees in Tourism and Applied Environmental Psychology. Her postdoctoral experience focused on Societal Innovation and Behaviour Change. She publishes in leading tourism journals such as Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management, Journal of Travel Research, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, and Journal of Business Research. She serves on 15 editorial boards of high quality journals and as a reviewer for more than 45 journals. She is the book review editor for Current Issues in Tourism and research note editor for Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management.
Kate Rodger has a background in wildlife conservation. Her research areas of interest explore the social aspects of biodiversity conservation including governance and protected area planning and management. Past projects include human–wildlife interactions in the marine and terrestrial environment, identifying and minimizing visitor impacts through visitor management techniques in protected areas, improving links between science and policy, and integrating ecological and social sciences in nature-based tourism research. Kate has extensive experience in collaborating closely with the park agencies and a key focus of her work now focuses on exploring human values, perceptions and attitudes, all of which are of particular importance to the sustainable management of our natural areas.
Lisa Ruhanen is Associate Professor in Tourism and Director of Education with the UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Australia. Her research areas include Indigenous tourism, sustainable tourism destination policy and planning, knowledge management, and climate change. She has been involved in more than 30 academic and consultancy research projects in Australia and overseas. Lisa has worked extensively as a consultant, external collaborator and executive committee member with a variety of divisions of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
Boopen Seetanah is Associate Professor and currently the Faculty Research Advisor at the Faculty of Law and Management, University of Mauritius. His research interest is in tourism economics, transport economics, and international economics and finance. Dr Seetanah is also the co-Chair of the World Trade Organization Chairs Programme and the Director of Research of the International Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality (ICSTH) at the University of Mauritius.
Valerie Sheppard is Associate Professor and Director of the PhD in Tourism Management in the School of Tourism & Hospitality at Universidade Europeia, Lisbon, Portugal. Her research interests lie in the interconnected areas of tourism sustainability, resilience, and ethics. Valerie is an active reviewer for a number of academic journals and is a Field Note Editor for the Journal of Ecotourism.[Page xxi]
Valene L. Smith is Professor Emerita of Anthropology, Department of Anthropology at California State University, Chico, where she taught courses in anthropology and tourism. She was the owner of a travel agency, led numerous tours around the world, and even today continues to travel frequently. She is the editor of one of the first, seminal anthologies in the anthropology of tourism, Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (first published in 1977, University of Pennsylvania Press). She is a founding member of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, and an active member of the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology in which she has a named, endowed student award, the Valene Smith Applied Tourism Poster Award.
David Solnet is Associate Professor and Tourism Discipline Leader within the UQ Business School, University of Queensland. He comes from a hospitality industry background, with nearly 20 years of experience in industry, including senior management roles in the United States and Australia. Prior to arriving in Australia, David worked with a number of large US-based restaurant companies, including Brinker International (Romano's Macaroni Grill) and General Mills (Olive Garden Restaurant). He has consulted too many restaurants and retail firms helping improve customer experience and profitability across Australia over the past ten years. David has published over 40 peer-reviewed journal articles in high-quality academic journals, including the Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Travel Research, International Journal of Hospitality Management, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Journal of Service Theory and Practice and the Journal of Service Management. His core research focuses on the tourism and hospitality worker and workforce, organizational and social psychology, service climate, service culture and managing Generation Y workers. He is co-author of the textbook, Service Management Principles for Hospitality and Tourism (2015, Kendall Hunt) with Professor Jay Kandampully from Ohio State University.
Haiyan Song is Mr and Mrs Chan Chak Fu Professor in International Tourism and Associate Dean in the School of Hotel and Tourism Management at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. His research interests are in the areas of tourism demand modelling and forecasting, tourism supply chain management, and the tourism service quality studies, and he has been engaged in numerous consultancy projects related to tourism forecasting and tourist satisfaction studies. He has been published in such journals as Tourism Management, Annals of Tourism Research and Journal of Travel Research.
Bojana Spasojevic is Lecturer in Aviation Management and PhD candidate at Griffith University, Queensland, within the field of air transport and tourism. Her research focuses on stakeholder engagement, governance and leadership during the process of air route development. She is also a member of the Griffith Institute for Tourism. Some of her industry experience includes undertaking consulting projects for Brisbane Airport Corporation and Adelaide Airport.
Rhodri Thomas is Professor of Tourism and Events Policy and Dean of the School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management at Leeds Beckett University, UK. Originally trained as an economist, he now engages in interdisciplinary policy-related research in the context of the tourism, hospitality and events sectors. Rhodri has acted as a ‘specialist expert’ on small business policy and tourism for the OECD, the European Commission and for government departments and other agencies in the UK and elsewhere. He has completed several Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) grant and non-grant-funded projects and is a member of their Peer Review College.[Page xxii]
Dallen J. Timothy is Professor of Community Resources and Development and Research Fellow with the Center for Sustainable Tourism at Arizona State University. He is also Senior Sustainability Scientist at the Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, Senior Research Associate at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa, and currently holds visiting professorships in Italy, Spain, China and Indiana (US). Dallen is Editor of the Journal of Heritage Tourism, serves on the editorial boards of 22 academic journals and is commissioning editor for four book series with Routledge and Channel View Publications. He has published widely on various aspects of cultural heritage, food and culture, religious tourism, shopping, geopolitics and human mobility, community-based tourism and empowerment, migration, and globalization. He has worked in various capacities in more than 100 countries and has ongoing research projects in North America, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe and the Middle East on different aspects of heritage tourism, geopolitics and religious tourism.
Tim Wallace is Director and Associate Professor of the Anthropology Program in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, where he has taught since 1974. He is also the Director of the NCSU Ethnographic Field School, now in its 25th year and located in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala. He is a recent past president of the National Association for the Practice of Anthropology (NAPA) and founding chair of the Society for Applied Anthropology's Tourism and Heritage Topical Interest Group. Recent published research concerns issues of tourism micro-entrepreneurship and ecotourism in Colombia and Maya heritage tourism in Guatemala.