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Edith de Leeuw & Nejc Berzelak

In: The SAGE Handbook of Survey Methodology

Chapter 11: Survey Mode or Survey Modes?

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Survey Mode or Survey Modes?
Survey mode or survey modes?
Edith de LeeuwNejc Berzelak
FROM SINGLE-MODE TO MIXED-MODE

The single-mode paradigm, which implies that one data collection method fits all respondents equally well, no longer applies in the twenty-first century. In the first half of the twentieth century, the golden standard and main survey mode was the face-to-face interview. Although the high costs are challenging the applicability of face-to-face interviews today, the face-to-face interview is still seen as ‘the queen of data collection’ and is used as the preferred reference mode for the comparison and evaluation of alternative data collections methods.

Additionally to the early face-to-face interviews, postal (paper mail) surveys were used, but they were seen as a fall-back method for researchers with very limited budgets, and ...

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