The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods
Publication Year: 2008
The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods is a must for every social-science researcher. It charts the new and evolving terrain of social research methodology, covering qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods in one volume.
The Handbook includes chapters on each phase of the research process: research design, methods of data collection, and the processes of analyzing and interpreting data. The volume maintains that there is much more to research than learning skills and techniques; methodology involves the fit between theory, research questions research design and analysis. The book also includes several chapters that describe historical and current directions in social research, debating crucial subjects such as qualitative versus quantitative paradigms, how to judge the credibility of types of research, and the increasingly topical issue of research ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 2: The End of the Paradigm Wars?
- Chapter 3: The History of Social Research Methods
- Chapter 4: Assessing Validity in Social Research
- Chapter 5: Ethnography and Audience
- Chapter 6: Social Research and Social Practice in Post-Positivist Society
- Chapter 7: From Questions of Methods to Epistemological Issues: The Case of Biographical Research
- Chapter 8: Research Ethics in Social Science
- Chapter 9: The Core Analytics of Randomized Experiments for Social Research
- Chapter 10: Better Quasi-Experimental Practice
- Chapter 11: Sample Size Planning with Applications to Multiple Regression: Power and Accuracy for Omnibus and Targeted Effects
- Chapter 12: Re-Conceptualizing Generalization: Old Issues in a New Frame
- Chapter 13: Case Study in Social Research
- Chapter 14: Longitudinal and Panel Studies
- Chapter 15: Comparative and Cross-National Designs
- Chapter 16: Modern Measurement in the Social Sciences
- Chapter 17: Natural and Contrived Data
- Chapter 18: Self-Administered Questionnaires and Standardized Interviews
- Chapter 19: Qualitative Interviewing and Feminist Research
- Chapter 20: Biographical Methods
- Chapter 21: Focus Groups
- Chapter 22: An Introduction to the Multilevel Model for Change
- Chapter 23: Latent Variable Models of Social Research Data
- Chapter 24: Equating Groups
- Chapter 25: Discourse Analysis and Conversation Analysis
- Chapter 26: Analyzing Narratives and Story-Telling
- Chapter 27: Reconstructing Grounded Theory
- Chapter 28: Documents and Action
- Chapter 29: Video and the Analysis of Work and Interaction
- Chapter 30: Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data
- Chapter 31: Secondary Analysis of Quantitative Data Sources
- Chapter 32: Conducting a Meta-Analysis
- Chapter 33: Synergy and Synthesis: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data
- Chapter 34: The Analytic Integration of Qualitative Data Sources
- Chapter 35: Combining Different Types of Data for Quantitative Analysis
- Chapter 36: Writing and Presenting Social Research
Editorial arrangement and Introduction © Pertti Alasuutari, Leonard Bickman, Julia Brannen 2008
Chapter 2 © Alan Bryman 2008
Chapter 3 © Marja Alastalo 2008
Chapter 4 © Martyn Hammersley 2008
Chapter 5 © Karen Armstrong 2008
Chapter 6 © Pekka Sulkunen 2008
Chapter 7 © Ann Nilsen 2008
Chapter 8 © Celia B. Fisher and Andrea E. Anushko 2008
Chapter 9 © Howard S. Bloom 2008
Chapter 10 © Thomas D. Cook and Vivian C. Wong 2008
Chapter 11 © Ken Kelley and Scott E. Maxwell 2008
Chapter 12 © Giampietro Gobo 2008
Chapter 13 © Linda Mabry 2008
Chapter 14 © Jane Elliott, Janet Holland and Rachel Thomson 2008
Chapter 15 © David de Vaus 2008
Chapter 16 © James A. Bovaird and Susan E. Embretson 2008
Chapter 17 © Susan A. Speer 2008
Chapter 18 © Edith de Leeuw 2008
Chapter 19 ©Andrea Doucet and Natasha Mauthner 2008
Chapter 20 © Joanna Bornat 2008
Chapter 21 © Janet Smithson 2008
Chapter 22 © Suzanne E. Graham, Judith D. Singer and John B. Willett 2008
Chapter 23 © Rick H. Hoyle 2008
Chapter 24 © Stephen G. West and Felix Thoemmes 2008
Chapter 25 © Charles Antaki 2008
Chapter 26 © Matti Hyvärinen 2008
Chapter 27 © Kathy Charmaz 2008
Chapter 28 © Lindsay Prior 2008
Chapter 29 © Christian Heath and Paul Luff 2008
Chapter 30 © Janet Heaton 2008
Chapter 31 © Angela Dale, Jo Wathan and Vanessa Higgins 2008
Chapter 32 © Erika A. Patall and Harris Cooper 2008
Chapter 33 © Jane Fielding and Nigel Fielding 2008
Chapter 34 © Ann Cronin, Victoria D. Alexander, Jane Fielding, Jo Moran-Ellis and Hilary Thomas 2008
Chapter 35 © Manfred Max Bergman 2008
Chapter 36 © Amir Marvasti 2008
First published 2008
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Notes on Contributors[Page ix]
Marja Alastalo is post-doctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, University of Tampere, Finland. She is interested in history of research methods and sociology of knowledge and science. Currently she is doing research on the processes of harmonizing social statistics in the European Union.
Pertti Alasuutari, PhD, is Professor of Sociology and Director of the International School of Social Sciences at the University of Tampere, Finland. He is editor of the European Journal of Cultural Studies, and has published widely in the areas of cultural and media studies and qualitative methods. His books include Desire and Craving: A Cultural Theory of Alcoholism (SUNY Press, 1992), Researching Culture: Qualitative Method and Cultural Studies (SAGE, 1995), An Invitation to Social Research (SAGE, 1998), Rethinking the Media Audience (SAGE, 1999), and Social Theory and Human Reality (SAGE, 2004).
Victoria D. Alexander is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Surrey, and is interested in sociology of the arts, sociology of cultural organizations, and visual methods. She is author of Museums and Money (Indiana University Press, 1996), Sociology of the Arts (Blackwell, 2003), and co-author of Art and the State (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
Charles Antaki, PhD, is Professor of Language and Social Psychology at the University of Loughborough, where he is a member of the Discourse and Rhetoric Group. He is Associate Editor of Research on Language and Social Interaction, and among his books are Identities in Talk (SAGE, 1998; with Susan Widdecombe) and Conversation Analysis and Psychotherapy (CUP, 2007; with Anssi Perakyla, Sanna Vehvilainen, and Ivan Leudar). He has published widely on language and interaction.
Andrea E. Anushko, MA is a graduate student in the applied developmental psychology program at Fordham University and the project coordinator for the Fordham Resident Alcohol Prevention Program at the Center for Ethics Education. Her research interests include language development and early education.
Karen Armstrong is Professor of Cultural Anthropology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Her research focuses on politics and the narrative construction of national identity. She is the author of Remembering Karelia (Berghahn, 2004), and is currently doing research on the relation of American Samoa to the US nation-state.
Manfred Max Bergman is Professor of Sociology at Basel University, Switzerland. His areas of specialization are political sociology and research methods. His research interests relate to [Page x]stratification, identity, and inter-group relation, and his recent publications focus on poverty, stratification and mobility, mixed methods research, and data quality.
Leonard Bickman, PhD, is Professor of Psychology, Psychiatry and Public Policy. He is Associate Dean for Research and Director of Center for Evalution and Program Improvement, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.
Howard S. Bloom, Chief Social Scientist for MDRC, specializes in the design and analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies of causal effects. He has conducted a number of such studies and has written widely on methodologies for them.
Joanna Bornat is Professor of Oral History in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the Open University. She has researched and published in the areas of oral history and ageing for a number of years. Her current research interests include the secondary analysis of archived data.
James A. Bovaird is Assistant Professor of Quantitative, Qualitative, and Psychometric Methods (QQPM) in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. As a quantitative psychologist (University of Kansas, 2002), his research focuses on the application of latent variable methodologies to novel substantive contexts and the evaluation of competing latent variable methodologies in situations of limited inference.
Julia Brannen is Professor of the Sociology of the Family, Institute of Education, University of London. Her main interests are in research methodology; the family lives of parents, children, and young people; and the relation between paid work and family life. She is a co-founder and co-editor of the International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Books include: Mixing Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Research (Ashgate, 1992), Connecting Children: Care and Family Life in Later Childhood (Falmer, 2000), Young Europeans, Work and Family (Routledge, 2002), Rethinking Children's Care (OUP, 2003), Working and Caring over the Twentieth Century (Palgrave, 2004), and Coming to Care (Policy Press, 2007).
Alan Bryman is Professor of Organisational and Social Research, Management Centre, University of Leicester. His main research interests lie in research methodology, leadership, organizational analysis, and Disneyization. He is author or co-author of many books, including: Quantity and Quality in Social Research (Routledge, 1988), Social Research Methods (OUP, 2001, 2004), Business Research Methods (OUP, 2003), and Disneyization of Society (SAGE, 2004). He is co-editor of The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research (SAGE, 2004), Handbook of Data Analysis (SAGE, 2004), and the forthcoming Handbook of Organizational Research Methods (SAGE, 2008).
Kathy Charmaz is Professor of Sociology and Coordinator of the Faculty Writing Program at Sonoma State University. Her books include Good Days, Bad Days: The Self in Chronic Illness and Time (Rutgers, 1993) and Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis, published by SAGE, London, and has co-edited the forthcoming The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory. She received the 2006 George Herbert Mead award for lifetime achievement from the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction.
Thomas D. Cook has a BA from Oxford and a PhD from Stanford and is a Professor of sociology, psychology, education and social policy, and Joan and Serepta Harrison Chair in Ethics and Justice at Northwestern University. His main interests are in social science methodology and contextual influences on adolescent development.
[Page xi]Harris Cooper is Professor of psychology and Director of the Program in Education at Duke University. His research interests include research synthesis methodology and applications of social psychology to education policies and practices.
Ann Cronin, BSc, PhD (Surrey) is Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Surrey. She teaches a variety of courses relating to social theory, methodology, and the substantive topics of gender and sexuality. Her research interests lie in the social construction of sexual identities and qualitative methodologies.
Angela Dale is Professor of Quantitative Social Research at the Centre for Census and Survey Research, University of Manchester. She is Director of the ESRC's Research Methods Programme and heads a team providing support for government datasets as part of the UK's Economic and Social Data Service. From 1993 to 2003, she led the academic team responsible for the development and dissemination of samples of microdata from the UK Census of Population.
Andrea Doucet is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. She is the author of Do Men Mother? (University of Toronto Press, 2006) and over two dozen book chapters and articles on mothering and fathering, gender equality and gender differences, and methodology and epistemology.
Jane Elliott, PhD, is reader of Research Methodology and Principal Investigator of the 1958 and 1970 British Birth Cohort Studies at the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. She has a long-standing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies and has published in the areas of methodology, gender, and employment. Her book Using Narrative in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches was published by SAGE in 2005.
Susan E. Embretson is a Professor of psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her interests span modern psychometric methods (e.g. item response theory), cognitive and intelligence, and quantitative methods, and her main research program has been to integrate cognitive theory into psychometric models and test design.
Jane Fielding is Senior Lecturer in Quantitative Sociology, University of Surrey, and teaches statistics and computing at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Recent research projects, supported by funding from the Environment Agency, include flood warning for vulnerable groups and the public response to flood warning and, more recently, a study of environmental inequalities. Her particular interest is in mapping and measuring environmental inequalities using geographical information techniques. She was also a co-holder on an ESRC Methods Programme project (2002–2005) exploring the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in an investigation of the concept of vulnerability.
Nigel Fielding is Professor of Sociology and co-Director of the Institute of Social Research, University of Surrey. His research interests are in qualitative research methods, mixed methods research design, and new technologies for social research. His books include Linking Data (SAGE, 1986; with Jane Fielding), a study of methodological integration; Using Computers in Qualitative Research (SAGE, 1991; edited with Raymond M. Lee), an influential book on qualitative software; Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research (SAGE, 1998; with Raymond M. Lee), a study of the role of computer technology in qualitative research; and Interviewing (SAGE, 2002; editor), a four volume set; he is currently co-editing the Handbook of Online Research Methods (SAGE).
[Page xii]Celia B. Fisher holds the Marie Doty Chair in Psychology at Fordham University where she also directs the Center for Ethics Education. Her professional interests are in developing ethical standards for the discipline of psychology and federal guidelines for the protection of vulnerable populations in research.
Giampietro Gobo, PhD, is Associate Professor of Methodology of Social Research and Evaluation Methods, and Director of the ICONA (Centre for Innovation and Organizational Change in Public Administration) at the University of Milan, Italy. Among the founders of the Qualitative Methods research network of ESA (European Sociological Association), he has been its first chair. Associate Editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Research in Work and Organizations, member of the editorial boards of Qualitative Research and International Journal of Social Research Methodology, he has published over fifty articles in the areas of qualitative and quantitative methods. His books include Ethnography into Practice (SAGE, 2007), and he has co-edited Qualitative Research Practice (SAGE, 2004; with Clive Seale, Jaber F. Gubrium, and David Silverman).
Suzanne E. Graham is an Assistant Professor at the University of New Hampshire. She is interested in applying methods of longitudinal data analysis to questions about mathematics course taking and achievement among secondary school and college students.
Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at the Open University. His early research was in the sociology of education. Much of his more recent work has been concerned with the methodological issues surrounding social and educational enquiry. His most recent books are Taking Sides in Social Research (Routledge, 2000); Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Paul Chapman, 2002); and Media Bias in Reporting Social Research? The Case of Reviewing Ethnic Inequalities in Education (Routledge, 2006). He is currently working on the issue of research ethics.
Christian Heath is Professor at King's College London, and leads the Work Interaction and Technology research group. He specializes in video-based studies of social interaction drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. He is currently undertaking projects in areas that include health care, museums and galleries, and auctions.
Janet Heaton, BA (Hons), is Research Fellow at the Social Policy Research Unit, University of York. She is the author of Reworking Qualitative Data (SAGE, 2004), and has published a number of articles based on her mainly qualitative research on health and social care services for patients and their families in the UK.
Vanessa Higgins is based at the Centre for Census and Survey Research, University of Manchester, where she works for ESDS Government, providing support for research and teaching using the large-scale government datasets. Prior to this, Vanessa worked at the Office for National Statistics and also on a number of policy-led research projects within academic settings.
Janet Holland is Professor of Social Research and co-Director of the Families and Social Capital ESRC research group at London South Bank University. She also co-directs Timescapes: Changing Relationships and Identities through the Life Course, a multi-university, large-scale qualitative longitudinal study. Research interests cover youth, education, gender, sexuality and family life, and methodology, and she has published widely in these areas. Examples are Sexualities and Society (Polity Press, 2003; edited with Jeffrey Weeks and Matthew Waites); [Page xiii]Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices (SAGE, 2002; with Caroline Ramazanoglu); and Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions (SAGE, 2007; with Sheila Henderson, Sheena McGrellis, Sue Sharpe, and Rachel Thomson).
Rick H. Hoyle is Research Professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University, where he is Associate Director of the Center for Child and Family Policy and Director of the Office of Data, Methods, and Research Facilities in the Social Science Research Institute. His methodological interests include the strategic application of structural equation modeling to longitudinal and complex cross-sectional data in the social and behavioral sciences, with a particular focus on statistical strategies for managing the detrimental effects of measurement error.
Matti Hyvärinen is an Academy of Finland Research Fellow, University of Tampere, Department of Sociology and Social Psychology. His current project, The Conceptual History of Narrative, aims to capture the changing and different uses of narrative in literary, social, and historiographical theory and analysis. He also leads the Politics and the Arts research team at the Finnish Centre for Excellence in Political Thought and Conceptual Change. He is a co-editor of the electronic volume The Travelling Concept of Narrative (2006) at http://www.helsinki.fi/collegium/e-series/volumes/index.htm. Recent work includes Acting, Thinking, and Telling: Anna Blume's Dilemma in Paul Auster's In the Country of Last Things (Partial Answers 4:2, June 2006). Website: http://www.hyvarinen.info.
Ken Kelley is an Assistant Professor in the Inquiry Methodology Program at Indiana University, where his research focuses on methodological and statistical issues that arise in the behavioral, educational, and social sciences. More specifically, Dr. Kelley's research focuses on the design of research studies, with an emphasis on sample size planning from the power analytic and accuracy in parameter estimation approaches, and the analysis of change, with an emphasis on multilevel change models nonlinear in their parameters.
Edith de Leeuw is an Associate Professor at the University of Utrecht, Department of Methodology and Statistics and a member and Senior Lecturer of the Interuniversities graduate school for psychometrics and sociometrics in the Netherlands. Her most recent publications focus on children as respondents, survey nonresponse, survey data quality, and comparative research.
Paul Luff is Reader of Organisations and Technology at King's College, University of London. His recent publications include Technology in Action (Cambridge University Press, 2000; with Christian Heath) and numerous articles in journals and books. He is co-editor of Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Linda Mabry, Professor of Education at Washington State University Vancouver, specializes in qualitative research methods in research and evaluation and in the assessment of student achievement K-12. She has conducted studies for the US Department of Education, National Science Foundation, National Endowment for the Arts, and others, publishing a number of articles and books. She is a member of the Board of Trustees for the Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessments, and a former member of the Board of Directors for the American Evaluation Association. Her most recent book (co-authored) is RealWorld Evaluation (SAGE, 2006).
[Page xiv]Amir Marvasti is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Penn State Altoona. His research focuses on social construction and representation of deviant identities in everyday life. He is the author of Being Homeless: Textual and Narrative Constructions (Lexington Books, 2003), Qualitative Research in Sociology (SAGE, 2003), and Middle Eastern Lives in America (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004; with Karyn McKinney). His articles have been published in the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Qualitative Inquiry, and Symbolic Interaction.
Natasha Mauthner is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, where she teaches courses on qualitative research methods, and gender, work, and organization. She has published extensively on methodological and epistemological issues in qualitative research. Much of this work has focused on the links between reflexivity, research practice, and the construction of knowledge, and the implications for data analysis, data archiving, and the politics of research management. Her empirical research has focused on issues of gender, work, and family and has been published in a number of publications including The Darkest Days of My Life: Stories of Postpartum Depression (Harvard University Press, 2002).
Scott E. Maxwell is Fitzsimons Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame. He received his Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is currently editor of Psychological Methods.
Jo Moran-Ellis is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey. Her research interests are primarily in the areas of childhood studies and research methods, especially mixed and multiple methods. Her recent projects include a reflexive methodological study looking at integrating methods (the PPIMs study), public attitudes toward research governance, and studies of children's mental health services.
Ann Nilsen is Professor of Sociology at the Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Norway. Her areas of interest include biographical and life course methodology, cross-national research, gender studies, and environmental sociology. In addition to books and articles in Norwegian and international journals, her publications include a recent co-edited book Young People, Work and Family: Futures in Transition (Routledge, 2002). She is currently writing a book on American pragmatist thought and biographical research.
Erika A. Patall is a graduate student in Social Psychology in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. Her research interests include research synthesis, as well as the nature of motivation and the relationship between motivation and academic achievement.
Lindsay Prior is Professor of Sociology at Queen's University, Belfast. He is the author of Using Documents in Social Research (SAGE, 2003), and has contributed to various handbooks and edited collections in the field of social research methods.
Judith D. Singer is the James Bryant Conant Professor of Education at Harvard University and former academic Dean of the Harvard Graduate School of Education. As one of the nation's leading applied statisticians she is primarily known for her contributions to the practice of multilevel modeling, survival analysis, and individual growth modeling.
Janet Smithson is a post-doctoral Research Fellow in the Schools of Law and Psychology at the University of Exeter. She has worked on a variety of national- and European-funded research projects, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Her main research interests are in cross-national comparative research on work–family, youth, transitions to adulthood and [Page xv]parenthood, gender and discourse, and qualitative methodology. She is currently working on a Nuffield-funded study ‘The common law marriage myth and cohabitation law revisited’ with Anne Barlow and Carole Burgoyne, University of Exeter.
Susan A. Speer is a Senior Lecturer in Language and Communication in the School of Psychological Sciences at The University of Manchester. Her research interests include conversation analysis, medical interaction, and gender and sexuality (especially transgender). Her book Gender Talk: Feminism, Discourse and Conversation Analysis was published by Routledge in 2005. She is Principal Investigator on the project ‘Transsexual Identities: Constructions of Gender in an NHS Gender Identity Clinic’, which is part of the ESRC's Identities and Social Action Research Programme. She is currently working with Elizabeth Stokoe (Loughborough University) on an edited collection, Conversation and Gender, for Cambridge University Press.
Pekka Sulkunen, PhD, is Professor of Sociology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. He has published widely in the areas of alcohol and addiction studies and social theory. His books include The European New Middle Class (Avebury, 1992) and Constructing the New Consumer Society (Macmillan, 1997, edited).
Hilary Thomas is Professor of Health Care Research in the Centre for Research in Primary and Community Care, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Hertfordshire. She was previously Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey. Her substantive research interests include the sociology of health and illness, particularly reproduction and women's health, and recovery from illness and injury. She was convenor of the BSA Medical Sociology Group (1991–1994) and president of the European Society for Health and Medical Sociology (1999–2003).
Felix Thoemmes is a graduate student in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University with an interest in Latent Class Models, the history of statistics, and some aspects of evolutionary psychology.
Rachel Thomson is Professor of Social Research in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the Open University. Her research interests include youth transitions, gender/sexual identities, and social change, and she has published widely in these fields. She is part of the team that conducted a 10-year qualitative longitudinal study of youth transitions (Inventing Adulthoods) and is currently researching the transition to motherhood. Forthcoming publications include Researching Social Change: Qualitative Approaches to Personal, Social and Historical Approaches (with Julie McLeod) published by SAGE in 2008.
David de Vaus is Professor of Sociology and Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at La Trobe University, Australia. He is the author of a number of internationally renowned books on research methods including Surveys in Social Research (Routledge, 2001) and Research Design in Social Research (SAGE, 2001). His main areas of research are family sociology, living alone, life course transitions, and the sociology of ageing. Further details are available at http://www.latrobe.edu.au/humanities/devaus.html.
Jo Wathan is Research Fellow at the Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research. She works as a member of two data support teams for British cross-sectional microdata: ESDS Government and the Samples of Anonymised Records Support team. She also teaches classes on statistical software and secondary analysis.
[Page xvi]Stephen G. West is currently Professor of psychology at Arizona State University, and was the editor of Psychological Methods for six years. His research interests are in field research methods, multiple regression analysis, longitudinal data analysis, and multilevel modeling.
John B. Willett is Charles William Elliot Professor at Harvard University Graduate School of Education. He is interested in all things quantitative, particularly statistical methods for analyzing the timing and occurrence of events; methods for modeling change, learning, and development; and longitudinal research design.
Vivian C. Wong is training to be a Research Methodologist in the field of education. Her interests include examination of the following areas: recent shifts in methodology choice in education; empirical tests of quasi-experimental designs such as regression-discontinuity (RD), abbreviated interrupted time series, and difference-in-differences designs; and issues in implementation and analysis of regression-discontinuity studies.