The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis

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Edited by: John Scott & Peter J. Carrington

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    ‘An outstanding volume that brings together contributions from the world's leading experts on social network analysis. Methods, theory and substantive applications are presented in a clear exposition making this the most comprehensive text available in this rapidly expanding and changing field. For anyone with any interest in social networks this is quite simply a “must have” book.’

    Martin Everett, Professor of Social Network Analysis, Manchester University, UK

    ‘There is something for everyone in The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Whether you are brand new to the field or a seasoned expert, interested in the theoretical underpinnings of network analysis or the methodological nuts and bolts associated with analyzing the evolution of an affiliation network over time, this book is a must have.’

    Michael Schwartz, Chair, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook University, USA

    ‘Over the past decades Social Network Analysis has broadened its scope from anthropology and sociology to all behavioral and social sciences, from social and organizational psychology to management science and economics. This Handbook provides well-founded introductions and overviews for a broad range of social network studies, approaches, and methodology. It is a must for everybody who is interested in the way social network relations evolve, are structured and affect outcomes in any part of our life and society.’

    Frans N. Stokman, Professor of Social Science Research Methodology, ICS, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

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    Notes on Contributors

    Weihua (Edward) An is a PhD candidate in Sociology, doctoral fellow in the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy at the Kennedy School of Government and a graduate associate in the Institute for Quantitative Social Science and the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University. He earned a master's degree in Statistics from Harvard (in 2009) and has strong interests in quantitative methods, especially social network analysis, causal inference, and Bayesian statistics. His general substantive interests span a variety of areas, including sociology of health, inequality and social policy and organizations. Currently, he focuses on formal and statistical analysis of peer effects on health and social behaviours, and social-network-based policy interventions. He is working on several projects, including ‘Bayesian Propensity Score Estimators: Incorporating Uncertainties in Propensity Score into Causal Inference’ (forthcoming in Sociological Methodology), ‘Instrument Variable Estimates of Peer Effects on Health Behaviors’, ‘Directionality of Social Ties and the Edge-Reversal Test of Peer Effects’ and ‘Peer Effects on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking and Social-Network-Based Interventions: Experimental Evidence from China’.

    Vladimir Batagelj is Professor of Discrete and Computational Mathematics at the University of Ljubljana. His main research interests are in graph theory, algorithms on graphs and networks, combinatorial optimization, data analysis and applications of information technology in education. With A. Mrvar, he has developed Pajek, http://pajek.imfm.si, a program for analysis and visualization of large networks. He is author and coauthor of several papers published in scientific journals (CACM, Psychometrika, Journal of Classification, Social Networks, Discrete Mathematics, Algorithmica, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, etc.) and in proceedings of international conferences. Recently he coauthored two books: Generalized Blockmodeling (with P. Doreian and A. Ferligoj) and Exploratory Network Analysis with Pajek (with W. de Nooy and A. Mrvar). These books were published in 2005 by Cambridge University Press. The book Generalized Blockmodeling was awarded a Harrison White Outstanding Book Award by the Mathematical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association in 2007.

    Matthew Bond is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Social and Policy Studies, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, London South Bank University. His main research interests are the quantitative analysis of corporate political behaviour, corporate charity and the British Establishment.

    Stephen P. Borgatti is the Paul Chellgren Chair of Management at the University of Kentucky. His research interests include social network theory and methodology, knowledge management and career trajectories. He is a member of the LINKS Center for Social Network Analysis in Management, and has recently coauthored a piece on network theory in Science with his LINKS Center colleagues.

    Peter J. Carrington is Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies at the University of Waterloo and editor of Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. His current research, the Canadian Criminal Careers and Criminal Networks Study, combines his long-standing interests in social network analysis and in crime and delinquency. Other interests include police discretion and the impact of the Canadian Youth Criminal Justice Act. His recent articles have appeared in Criminology, Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and Criminal Justice Policy Review. With John Scott and Stanley Wasserman, he coedited Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 2005), which won the 2006 Harrison White Outstanding Book Award, given by the Mathematical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association.

    William K. Carroll is a member of the Sociology Department at the University of Victoria since 1981, and a founding participant in the Graduate Program in Cultural, Social and Political Thought. He currently directs UVic's Interdisciplinary Minor/Diploma Program in Social Justice Studies. His research interests are in the areas of social movements and social change, the political economy of corporate capitalism and critical social theory and method. His recent books include The Making of a Transnational Capitalist Class (Zed Books, 2010) and Corporate Power in a Globalizing World (Oxford University Press, revised edition, 2010).

    Vincent Chua obtained his PhD in Sociology at the University of Toronto. In his dissertation, he examined the sources of several forms of social capital in Singapore and the effects of social capital on occupational success. He has won several academic awards for his dissertation research: the Daniel Grafton Hill Prize, the Ellie Yolles Ontario Graduate Scholarship in Sociology and the Norman Bell Award.

    Mario Diani is ICREA Research Professor in the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. He has worked extensively on social network approaches to social movements and collective action. His publications include Social Movements (with Donatella della Porta, Blackwell, 1999/2006), Social Movements and Networks (coedited with Doug McAdam, Oxford University Press, 2003), and articles in leading journals such as American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Networks and Theory and Society.

    Paul DiMaggio is A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs and the Director of the Center for the Study of Social Organization at Princeton University. His current projects include the development and application of network methods to detect schematic heterogeneity in attitude data and a study of network effects on social inequality. He is coeditor (with Patricia Fernandez-Kelly) of Art in the Lives of Immigrant Communities in the U.S. (Rutgers University Press, 2010).

    Patrick Doreian is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Statistics at the University of Pittsburgh and a research faculty member of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana. He ‘retired’ in order to have more time for research and writing. He currently coedits Social Networks with Tom Snijders and previously edited The Journal of Mathematical Sociology for 23 years. His research interests include social network analysis, network evolution, and macro social change.

    Katherine Faust is Professor of Sociology and member of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. She is coauthor (with Stanley Wasserman) of the book Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications (Cambridge University Press) and of numerous articles about social networks and network methodology. Her current research focuses on comparing network patterns across different forms of social relations and animal species; development of methodology for complex network structures, including constraints and local network properties; and understanding relationships between social networks and demographic processes.

    Anuška Ferligoj is Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences at University of Ljubljana, head of the graduate program on Statistics at the University of Ljubljana and head of the Center of Methodology and Informatics at the Institute of Social Sciences. She has been the editor of the journal Advances in Methodology and Statistics (Metodoloski zvezki) since 2004 and is a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Journal of Classification, Social Networks, Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, Methodology, Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropology and Related Sciences, BMS and Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. She was a Fulbright scholar in 1990 to 1991 and a visiting professor at the University of Pittsburgh in 1996 and at the University of Vienna in 2009 to 2010. She was awarded the title of Ambassador of Science of the Republic of Slovenia in 1997 and was given the Simmel Award in 2007 by the International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA). In 2010 she received Doctor et Professor Honoris Causa at Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE) in Budapest. She is an elected member of the European Academy of Sociology and the International Statistical Institute. Her interests include multivariate analysis (constrained and multicriteria clustering), social networks (measurement quality and blockmodeling), and survey methodology (reliability and validity of measurement). She is the coauthor of the monograph Generalized Blockmodeling (Cambridge University Press, 2005), which obtained the Harrison White Outstanding Book Award in 2007, given by the Mathematical Sociology Section at the American Sociological Association.

    Ove Frank, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Statistics at Stockholm University. From 1971 he held professorships in statistics at the universities of Uppsala, Lund and Stockholm. He also had visiting positions at the University of California–Riverside and Stanford University. He is one of the pioneers of statistical graph theory and he contributed to the development of statistical sampling theory for social networks. He developed probabilistic network models and statistical methods for sampling and estimation in networks. He also made contributions to various problems in combinatorics and information theory. Among his recent publications are contributions to Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (Springer, 2009), International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science (Springer, 2010) and Official Statistics: Methodology and Applications in Honour of Daniel Thorburn (Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, 2010).

    Linton C. Freeman is Research Professor in the Department of Sociology and member of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. He began working in social network analysis in 1958 when he directed a structural study of community decision making in Syracuse, New York. In 1978 he founded the journal Social Networks. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing on to the present time, one of his continuing areas of interest has been the history of social network analysis.

    Sanjeev Goyal is Profesor of Economics at the University of Cambridge and Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. He was educated at the University of Delhi and the Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedebad) in India, and at Cornell University in the United States. He has carried out theoretical research in the fields of learning, coordination problems and political economy and industrial organization; and is one of the pioneers in the economic study of networks. His research has appeared in leading international journals such as Econometrica, Journal of Political Economy, American Economic Review and the Review of Economic Studies. His book Connections: An Introduction to the Economics of Networks was published by Princeton University Press in 2007.

    Anatoliy Gruzd is Assistant Professor in the School of Information Management at Dalhousie University in Canada. He earned his PhD in Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and also holds a MS in Library and Information Science from Syracuse University as well as BS and MS degrees in Computer Science from Dnipropetrovsk National University in Ukraine. His current research includes the development of various automated text-mining techniques and visualization tools for uncovering social networks between online participants based on their digital footprints alone. Recently, he was awarded a $161,000 Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada grant to study how online social media and networks are changing the ways scholars disseminate information. He is also participating in a $23.2 million NCE collaborative research initiative called the GRAND (GRaphics, Animation and New meDia) network.

    Daniel S. Halgin is Assistant Professor of Management at the University of Kentucky, where he is a member of the LINKS Center for Organizational Social Network Analysis. His program of research focuses on social network theory, identity dynamics and research methodologies.

    Klaus Hamberger teaches Social Anthropology at the École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris, France). He has done fieldwork in Southern Togo and has published on social space and kinship networks.

    Robert A. Hanneman is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Riverside. Much of his work has been in simulation modeling (both systems dynamics and agent-based) as an approach to formal theory construction. He has published on a variety of topics in macro-sociology, political economy and the sociology of education. In the field of social network analysis, he is currently working on empirical projects in market organization and world systems. He is also working on software and algorithms for the modeling of multimodal network data.

    Nicholas Harrigan is Assistant Professor of Sociology in the School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Singapore Management University. He works in two overlapping research areas: social networks and the politics of business. He has developed Coevolution Regression Graph Models and has used statistical models to study corporate political strategy in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Caroline Haythornthwaite received her PhD in 1996 from Toronto. She is Director of the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of British Columbia. She joined UBC in August 2010 after 14 years at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she was Professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science. In 2009 to 2010, she was Leverhulme Trust Visiting Professor at the Institute of Education, University of London, presenting and writing on ‘Learning Networks’. Her research concentrates on information and knowledge sharing through social networks, and the impact of computer media and the Internet on work, learning and social interactions. She has studied social networks of work and media use, the development and nature of community online, distributed knowledge processes, the nature and constraints of interdisciplinary collaboration, and transformative effects of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies on learning and collaborative practices, and automated processes for analysis of online activity. Her major publications include The Internet in Everyday Life (2002, with Barry Wellman); Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education (2004, with Michelle M. Kazmer), the Handbook of E-Learning Research (2007, with Richard Andrews) and E-Learning Theory and Research (2011, with Richard Andrews).

    Betina Hollstein is Professor of Sociology at Hamburg University. She was educated at Marburg University and at the Free University Berlin. She has been a lecturer and researcher at the Free University Berlin and at Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, and an assistant professor at Mannheim University and Humboldt-University Berlin. Her research interests include social networks, sociology of the life-course, social inequality, and social research methods. Her relevant publications include Mixed Methods in Social Network Research (coedited with Silvia Dominguez) and ‘Netzwerkveränderungen verstehen. Zur Integration von struktur- und akteurstheoretischen Perspektiven’ [Understanding Changes in Personal Networks. Integrating Structural and Actor-oriented Approaches] inBerliner Journal für Soziologie (2003).

    Michael Houseman is Professor of Religions of Black Africa (Ethnology) at the École Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Paris, France) and was trained in social anthropology at the University of Paris 10-Nanterre. He has done fieldwork in Cameroon, Benin and French Guyana. He has published numerous articles on ritual and on kinship and social organization, is the author (with Carlo Severi) of Naven or the Other Self. A Relational Approach to Ritual Action (Brill, 1998) and the editor of Eprouver l'Initiation (EPHE, 2008).

    Mark Huisman is Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Groningen. His research interests are in applied statistics, statistical models for social networks and methods for nonresponse and missing data. He teaches courses on statistics and multivariate statistical methods.

    Ron Johnston is Professor in the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol, having previously worked at Monash University and the universities of Canterbury, Sheffield and Essex. His main research interests are in electoral studies and urban social segregation and include several studies on neighbourhood effects in voting patterns generated by conversations in social networks. His recent books include (with Charles Pattie) Putting Voters in Their Place: Geography and Elections in Great Britain (Oxford University Press, 2006).

    Andrew Jorgenson is Macro-Sociologist at the University of Utah. His current research interests include the political-economy and human-ecology of global environmental change, environmental degradation and public health, and the structural determinants of income inequality. His publications have appeared in Social Forces, Social Problems, Social Science Research, International Sociology, Global Environmental Politics, Organization and Environment and dozens of other scholarly journals and collections. He also serves as coeditor of the Journal of World-Systems Research.

    Edward L. Kick is the former Head and now Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at North Carolina State University. His macro-sociological research has examined world-system structure and its impacts on social change, militarization, economic development, inequality, environment, polity, urban and rural community, and food insecurity. Recently, he has examined environmental issues of flood management and global biodiversity. His research has appeared in the American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, Social Science Research, and most recently in Disasters, Organization and Environment and in handbooks on networks and on globalization. He coedits the Journal of World-Systems Research.

    David Knoke is Professor of Sociology at the University of Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. in 1972 from the University of Michigan. His primary areas of research and teaching are organizations, networks, and social statistics. He has been a principal investigator on more than a dozen National Science Foundation grants, most recently a project to investigate networks and teamwork of 26 Minnesota Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams, a multiprofessional mental-health services program. His recent books, some with coauthors, include Comparing Policy Networks: Labor Politics in the U.S., Germany, and Japan (1996), Organizations: Business Networks in the New Political Economy (2001), and Statistics for Social Data Analysis, 4th ed. (2002), and Social Network Analysis, 2nd ed. (2008). In 2008 he received the UMN College of Liberal Arts’ Arthur ‘Red’ Motley Exemplary Teaching Award.

    Lothar Krempel is a senior Research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne, Germany, and is Associate Professor (PD) for Empirical Social Science Research at the University of Duisburg, Essen. He has written a book (in German) on network visualization and has applied network visualization technologies in various domains like German capital ties and directory interlocks and world trade and historical networks.

    Nan Lin is the Oscar L. Tang Family Professor of Sociology of the Trinity College, Duke University. His academic interests, for more than four decades, have focused on social networks, social support and social capital. He has made efforts to construct theories, devise measurements and conduct empirical research in each research arena. Empirically, he has applied these theories and measurements to the studies of social stratification and mobility, stress and coping, and individual, organizational, and community well-being. He has employed both quantitative (large-scale national surveys, and surveys in organizations and communities) and qualitative (intensive long-term observations in villages, for example) methods. He has authored or edited 11 books (including Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action, Cambridge University Press, 2001), 40 book chapters and numerous journal articles.

    Virginie Lopez-Kidwell is a Doctoral Candidate in management at the University of Kentucky and is affiliated with the LINKS International Center for Research on Social Networks in Business. Her research interests include social networks, the role of affect in organizational behaviours, as well as power and dependence in workplace relationships.

    Julia Madej was a Researcher at NetLab from 2006 to 2009. She is a graduate of the University of Toronto and is currently an official of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the Province of Ontario.

    Alexandra Marin is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. Her research interests include the role of social networks and social capital in the labour market and workplace, and social network data collection.

    Peter V. Marsden is Harvard College Professor and Edith and Benjamin Geisinger Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. His concern with the measurement of social networks via survey methods is longstanding. Marsden's substantive research interests center on social organization, including social networks, formal organizations, and the sociology of medicine. He has done methodological work on network analysis and survey research. He coedited (with James D. Wright) the Handbook of Survey Research, 2nd ed. (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010). He is editing a forthcoming collection of studies of U.S. social trends based on General Social Survey data.

    Steve McDonald is Assistant Professor of Sociology at North Carolina State University. His research examines inequality in access and returns to social capital across the life course. His primary focus is on the role that social networks play in reproducing race and gender inequality in the labour market. He has also conducted research on informal mentoring in adolescence and the consequences of these relationships for status attainment in adulthood. Examples of his research can be found in the American Journal of Sociology, Social Problems, Social Forces, Social Science Research, Sociology of Education and Gender and Society.

    Laura A. McKinney is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at North Carolina State University. Her dissertation research uses cross-national data and structural equation modeling to examine interdependencies among economic, ecological, and social systems that determine sustainability. Her research interests include global and local sustainability, global political economy, environmental sociology, global social change, rural/community development and research methods. Her work has been published in Organization and Environment, Disasters, Human Ecology Review and the International Journal of Comparative Sociology.

    Ann Mische is Associate Professor of Sociology at Rutgers University. Her work combines interpretive and network-analytic approaches to the study of political communication in social movements and democratic politics. Her book Partisan Publics: Communication and Contention across Brazilian Youth Activist Networks was published by Princeton University Press in 2007. In addition to her work on Brazil, she has also published theoretical articles in leading sociological journals addressing the relationship between networks, culture, and agency. She is currently beginning a new research project on how individual and collective projections of future possibilities influence interactions and choices in the present.

    Charles Pattie is Professor of Geography at the University of Sheffield. His research interests include electoral studies, political participation and the politics of devolution.

    Philippa Pattison is Professor of Psychological Sciences at the University of Melbourne. Her research interests include the development of mathematical and statistical models for social and behavioural phenomena, particularly for social networks and network-based social processes. Her current research focuses on the development of stochastic models for social processes and on applications of these models to a diverse range of phenomena, including the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Australia and the spread of infectious diseases.

    Mark Riddle is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Northern Colorado.

    Garry Robins is a mathematical psychologist and social network methodologist in the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Melbourne. His research has concentrated on developing exponential random graph models for social networks but he is also involved in a wide range of empirical social network projects. His research has won awards from the Psychometric Society, the American Psychological Association and the International Network for Social Network Analysis. He is a former editor of the Journal of Social Structure.

    J.P. Sapinski is currently pursuing a PhD in Sociology at the University of Victoria, in British Columbia, Canada. His research focuses on the involvement of private actors and of business organizations in global environmental and climate politics. Before turning to sociology, he obtained a Master's degree in Anthropology from the Université de Montréal, where he studied aboriginal social movements in Mexico.

    John Scott is Professor of Sociology at the University of Plymouth and was previously Professor of Sociology at the universities of Essex and Leicester. He has been President, Chair, Secretary, and Treasurer of the British Sociological Association and is a Fellow of the British Academy and an Academician of the Academy of the Social Sciences. He is the author of Social Network Analysis (1992 and 2000), editor of Social Networks: Critical Concepts (Routledge, 2002) and with Peter Carrington and Stanley Wasserman, of Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (2005). In addition to applications of network analysis in studies of economic sociology (including Capitalist Property and Financial Power, 1986, and Corporate Business and Capitalist Classes, 1997) he is the author of Power (2001), Social Theory (2006) and Conceptualising the Social World (2011). He is currently completing a book on the early development of British sociology.

    Tom A.B. Snijders is Professor of Statistics in the Social Sciences at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Nuffield College; he also is Professor of Statistics and Methodology at the University of Groningen. His research focuses on methodology for social network analysis, and multilevel modeling. He has a particular interest in modeling network dynamics and has been the originator of the statistical program SIENA for analysing network panel data. He is coeditor of Social Networks.

    Joonmo Son received his PhD in Sociology from Duke University and is currently Assistant Professor of Sociology at the National University of Singapore. His research interests include social capital, social support, network diversity, health and aging, volunteering and comparative sociology. One of his current research projects compares the effect of social support on depression and physical health in the United States, China, and Taiwan. His publications have appeared in Social Science Research, Journal of Health and Social Behavior and Sociological Quarterly.

    Lijun Song received her PhD in Sociology from Duke University and is Assistant Professor of Sociology and a participant at the Center for Medicine, Health, and Society at Vanderbilt University. Her scholarly interests focus on causes and consequences of social networks, social integration, social capital, and social support. Her recent publications include ‘Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan’ (2009) in Journal of Health and Social Behavior; ‘The Effect of the Cultural Revolution on Educational Homogamy in Urban China’ (2009) in Social Forces; and several book chapters, including ‘Social Capital and Health’ (2009) in The New Companion to Medical Sociology.

    Marijtje A.J. van Duijn is Associate Professor of Statistics in the Department of Sociology of the University of Groningen. Her research interests are in the development and application of random effects models for discrete or complex data, such as longitudinal, grouped, or social network data.

    Renée C. van der Hulst (1970) is the Director of Bureau Netwerkanalyse (the Netherlands) and specializes in social scientific research, in particular social network analysis in relation to law enforcement, crime prevention, public safety and security. She has been working for several years as a researcher and consultant in this area, and holds a PhD in Sociology and a Master's degree in Social and Organisational Psychology. Her main areas of interest are the study of social networks, and human factors in relation to radicalization, terrorism, and organized crime.

    Barry Wellman is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the past chair of the American Sociological Association's Community and Urban Sociology section and the Communication and Information Technologies section. Wellman holds the S.D. Clark Chair at the Department of Sociology, University of Toronto, where he directs NetLab. He founded the International Network for Social Network Analysis in 1976. The author and coauthor of more than 200 papers, his most recent coedited book is The Internet in Everyday Life (with Caroline Haythornthwaite). His coauthored book Networked (with Lee Rainie) will be published by MIT Press in 2011.

    Douglas R. White is Professor of Anthropology and Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, and External Faculty at the Santa Fe Institute. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Senior U.S. Scientist Award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Ethnosoziologie). He has published extensively on kinship and social organization and is the author (with Ulla Johansen) of Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems: Process Models of a Turkish Nomad Clan (Lexington, 2005) and the editor of Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences.

    Howard D. White received his PhD in Librarianship at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1974. He joined Drexel University, where he is Professsor Emeritus. He is known for author-centered bibliometric techniques, examples of which appear in this volume. He and Katherine W. McCain won the best paper award of the American Society for Information Science and Technology in 1998. The society gave him its highest honour, the Award of Merit, in 2004. The following year, he received the Derek Price Medal of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics for contributions to the quantitative study of science.

    Acknowledgements

    We are grateful to the large number of leading researchers who gave their time to join us in producing this Handbook. Collating the efforts of a large and diverse group of scholars is not always an easy task and we hope that this final version of the Handbook will be a fitting tribute to the generosity and forbearance of our authors. The editors and authors acknowledge with gratitude the permission granted by various copyright holders for the reproduction of extracts from their work, and we are happy to have included the necessary formal acknowledgements at appropriate places in the book. At SAGE we are grateful to Chris Rojek for suggesting the idea of the book and to Jai Seaman for her commitment to the book and patience with us throughout the production process. As network researchers we are also particularly aware of the hidden networks of individuals at SAGE who have labored on our behalf to produce this finished version. Preparation of this book was supported by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. We are grateful to Kritika Kaul at Glyph International for her work in copy editing and proofing the manuscript.

    JohnScott
    PeterCarrington

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