Although 2008 marks a watershed moment for digital electoral campaigning, the practices that were widely extolled as revolutionary have a much longer history. Campaign websites have played a role in US communications efforts since the mid-1990s, when the Clinton/Gore and Dole/Kemp campaigns developed the first presidential campaign websites. The voter data programs that campaigns now use daily have their roots in tools developed in the late 1980s, and have benefitted from evolution and infrastructure building within parties. The very data such programs rely upon still involve opinion polls, which have been a meaningful part of campaigns since the 1960s.1 Although campaigns were slow to adopt the participatory, reciprocal affordances that were tenets of web ...
Politics 2.0: Social Media Campaigning
Politics 2.0: Social media campaigning