The SAGE Handbook of Social Media
Publication Year: 2018
In terms of media and communication history, we are arguably in the midst of a social media paradigm. Well-known platforms like Twitter and Facebook have gone from being viewed as mere sites of teenage distraction to becoming embedded ICT infrastructure in mainstream organisations across the society, culture, and economy; such platforms, their uses, and their politics are increasingly entangled with everyday life, work, and relationships. For the past decade there has been a burgeoning interest in social media. This highly international Handbook addresses the most significant research themes, methodological approaches and debates in this field via substantial chapters specially commissioned from leading scholars coming from a range of disciplinary perspectives centered on but extending beyond the social sciences and humanities. Part One: Histories and Pre-Histories ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: HISTORIES AND PRE-HISTORIES
- Chapter 1: Pushing back: Social media as an evolutionary phenomenon
- Chapter 2: Early social computing: The rise and fall of the BBS scene (1977–1995)
- Chapter 3: Alternative histories of social media in Japan and China
- Chapter 4: From hypertext to hype and back again: Exploring the roots of social media in early web culture
Part II: APPROACHES AND METHODS
- Chapter 5: Digital methods for cross-platform analysis
- Chapter 6: A computational analysis of social media scholarship
- Chapter 7: Digital discourse: Locating language in new/social media
- Chapter 8: Ontology
- Chapter 9: Analysing social media images
- Chapter 10: Ethnography
- Chapter 11: Web history and social media
- Chapter 12: The incomplete political economy of social media
Part III: PLATFORMS, TECHNOLOGIES AND BUSINESS MODELS
- Chapter 13: The affordances of social media platforms
- Chapter 14: Regulation of and by platforms
- Chapter 15: Social media app economies
- Chapter 16: Labor and social media: The exploitation and emancipation of (almost) everyone online
- Chapter 17: Silicon Valley and the social media industry
- Chapter 18: Alternative social media: From critique to code
Part IV: CULTURES AND PRACTICES
- Chapter 19: Our Networked Selves: Personal connection and relational maintenance in social media use
- Chapter 20: Television viewing and fan practice in an era of multiple screens
- Chapter 21: Trolling, and other problematic social media practices
- Chapter 22: Internet Memes
- Chapter 23: Self-representation in social media
- Chapter 24: Sexual expression in social media
- Chapter 25: Privacy and surveillance
Part V: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DOMAINS
- Chapter 26: Social media marketing
- Chapter 27: Social media and journalism
- Chapter 28: Social media and the cultural and creative industries
- Chapter 29: Politics 2.0: Social media campaigning
- Chapter 30: Social media and new protest movements
- Chapter 31: Lively data, social fitness and biovalue: The intersections of health and fitness self-tracking and social media
- Chapter 32: Social media platforms and education
- Chapter 33: Scholarly communication in social media
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Editor: Michael Ainsley
Editorial Assistant: Colette Wilson
Production Editor: Sushant Nailwal
Copyeditor: Sarah Bury
Proofreader: Dick Davis
Indexer: Caroline Eley
Marketing Manager: Lucia Sweet
Cover Design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by: Cenveo Publisher Services
Printed in the UK
Introduction and editorial arrangement © Jean Burgess, Alice Marwick & Thomas Poell, 2018
Chapter 1 © John Hartley, 2018
Chapter 2 © Aaron Delwiche, 2018
Chapter 3 © Mark McLelland, Haiqing Yu and Gerard Goggin, 2018
Chapter 4 © Michael Stevenson, 2018
Chapter 5 © Richard Rogers, 2018
Chapter 6 © Jeremy Foote, Aaron Shaw and Benjamin Mako Hill, 2018
Chapter 7 © Crispin Thurlow, 2018
Chapter 8 © Nick Couldry and Jannis Kallinikos, 2018
Chapter 9 © Simon Faulkner, Farida Vis and Francesco D'Orazio, 2018
Chapter 10 © Jolynna Sinanan and Tom McDonald, 2018
Chapter 11 © Niels Brügger, 2018
Chapter 12 © Siva Vaidhyanathan, 2018
Chapter 13 © Taina Bucher and Anne Helmond, 2018
Chapter 14 © Tarleton Gillespie, 2018
Chapter 15 © Rowan Wilken, 2018
Chapter 16 © Jack Linchuan Qiu, 2018
Chapter 17 © Alice Marwick, 2018
Chapter 18 © Robert W. Gehl, 2018
Chapter 19 © Kelly Quinn and Zizi Papacharissi, 2018
Chapter 20 © Rhiannon Bury, 2018
Chapter 21 © Gabriele de Seta, 2018
Chapter 22 © Kate M. Miltner, 2018
Chapter 23 © Jill Walker Rettberg, 2018
Chapter 24 © Kath Albury, 2018
Chapter 25 © Daniel Trottier, 2018
Chapter 26 © Michael Serazio and Brooke Erin Duffy, 2018
Chapter 27 © Alfred Hermida, 2018
Chapter 28 © Terry Flew, 2018
Chapter 29 © Jessica Baldwin-Philippi, 2018
Chapter 30 © Thomas Poell and José van Dijck, 2018
Chapter 31 © Deborah Lupton, 2018
Chapter 32 © José van Dijck and Thomas Poell, 2018
Chapter 33 © Katrin Weller and Isabella Peters, 2018
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017937664
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
List of Figures[Page ix]
- 1.1 The biosphere 15
- 1.2 ‘Goodness, how I loathe pretension’ 29
- 4.1 info.cern.ch, the first WWW page 71
- 5.1 Comparison of search volume for [web 2.0], [social networking sites] and [social media], according to Google Trends, 19 November 2015 92
- 5.2 Netvizz output showing the share, like and comments count (as well as its sum of ‘engagement’) of two URLs on Facebook 97
- 5.3 IssueCrawler map showing Twitter.com as significant node, albeit without showing individual, significant Twitter users 102
- 6.1 Social media papers published in the top ten disciplines (as categorized by Scopus), over time 114
- 6.2 Network visualization of the citation network in our dataset 117
- 6.3 Graphical representation of citations between communities using the same grayscale mapping described in Table 6.4 119
- 6.4 Statistics from our LDA analysis, over time 122
- 7.1 [no caption] 142
- 9.1 Diffusion graph B – two hours from the appearance of the first picture on Twitter 168
- 9.2 Diffusion graph C – three hours from the appearance of the first picture on Twitter 169
- 9.3 Tweet timeline vs News timeline by the hour, all tweets (2 September 2015, 08:00–3 September 2015, 23.59) 170
- 9.4 Alan Kurdi image tweets vs Variations image tweets by the hour (2 September 2015, 08:00–3 September 2015, 23.59) 171
- 13.1 A Twitter user reacts to the change from stars to hearts 234
- 16.1 Cycles constituting the international division of digital labor 301
- 16.2 The circuits of labor (CoL): formal and informal exchanges 306
- 16.3 Seven types of worker-generated content (WGC) 309
- 21.1 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 391
- 21.2 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 393
- 21.3 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 394
- 21.4 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 396
- 21.5 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 399
- 21.6 Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on 4chan 401
- 21.7 ‘Aren’t you just trolling us with this thread?’ Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on the AC anonymous board 402
- [Page x] 21.8 ‘In Taiwan League of Legends is really popular, and the word used in that game is shua baimu, it means something like playing carelessly on purpose and letting the opponent win.’ Anonymous replies to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on the AC anonymous board. 403
- 21.9 ‘A classic diaoyu bit.’ Anonymous reply to a discussion thread about trolling I opened on the AC anonymous board 404
- 22.1 Ola K Ase 416
- 22.2 Grass mud horse 417
- 22.3 Putin riding bear 418
- 22.4a Cameron tweet 420
- 22.4b Stewart tweet 421
- 23.1 Kendall Jenner posted this photograph to Instagram on May 26, 2015. 431
List of Tables[Page xi]
- 5.1 Elements of cross-platform analysis 102
- 6.1 Top author countries by number of social media papers 113
- 6.2 Venues with the most social media papers 114
- 6.3 Most cited social media papers 115
- 6.4 Description of each of the citation network clusters identified by the community detection algorithm, together with a list of the three most common journals in each community 118
- 6.5 Top 20 terms for each topic 123
- 6.6 Summary of fitted models predicting citation 127
- 6.7 Feature, variable type, and beta value for top 10 non-zero coefficients estimated by the best fitting model with all features included 128
- 15.1 Comparison of Facebook and Twitter average revenue per monthly average user (ARPMAU) 285
Notes on the Editors and Contributors[Page xiii]The Editors
Jean Burgess is Professor of Digital Media and Director of the QUT Digital Media Research Centre (DMRC), Queensland University of Technology, Australia. She is author or editor of more than 100 publications on digital and social media, including YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture (Polity Press), Twitter and Society (Peter Lang), Studying Mobile Media (Routledge) and The Handbook of New Media Dynamics (Wiley-Blackwell).
Alice Marwick (PhD, New York University) is a Fellow at the Data & Society Research Institute, where she leads the Media Manipulation project, and an Assistant Professor of Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her current book project examines how the networked nature of online privacy disproportionately impacts marginalized individuals in terms of gender, race, and socio-economic status. She is the author of Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity and Branding in the Social Media Age (Yale, 2013), an ethnographic study of the San Francisco tech scene which examines how people seek social status through attention and visibility online. Marwick was previously Assistant Professor of Communication and Media Studies and the Director of the McGannon Center for Communication Research at Fordham University. She has written for popular publications such as The New York Times, The New York Review of Books and The Guardian, in addition to academic publications such as Public Culture and New Media and Society.
Thomas Poell is Assistant Professor of New Media & Digital Culture and Program Director of the Research Master Media Studies at the University of Amsterdam. He has published widely on social media and popular protest, as well as on the role of these media in the development of new forms of journalism. His next book, co-authored with José van Dijck and Martijn de Waal, will be titled The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World.The contributors
Kath Albury is Professor of Media and Communication in the Faculty of Health, Arts and Design at Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. Her research focuses on practices of mediated self-representation, particularly in relation to sexuality and gender.
Jessica Baldwin-Philippi is an Assistant Professor in Fordham University's Communication and Media Studies department. Her work is fundamentally concerned with how engagement [Page xiv]with new technologies can restructure forms of political participation and ideas about citizenship. Her book, Using Technology, Building Democracy: Digital Campaigning and the Construction of Citizenship (Oxford, 2015) investigates the digital strategies and tactics electoral campaigns have adopted at both the local and national level.
Niels Brügger is Professor and head of the Centre for Internet Studies as well as of the internet research infrastructure NetLab, Aarhus University, Denmark. His research interests are web historiography, web archiving, and media theory. Within these fields he has published monographs and a number of edited books as well as articles and book chapters. Recent publications include The Web as History: Using Web Archives to Understand the Past and the Present (edited with Ralph Schroeder, UCL Press, 2017) and Web 25: Histories from the First 25 Years of the World Wide Web (ed., Peter Lang, New York 2017). He is co-founder and Managing Editor of the newly founded international journal Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (Taylor & Francis/Routledge).
Taina Bucher is Associate Professor in Communication and IT at the University of Copenhagen. Her research focuses on the power and politics of algorithms in social media and journalism. In her forthcoming book (Oxford University Press, 2018) she explores how algorithms variously govern participation, how people make sense of algorithms in everyday life, and the ways in which algorithms are impacting the news media industry. Her work on programmed friendship, the attention economy, the politics of API, Twitter bots and computational journalism has been published in journals such as New Media & Society, Information, Communication & Society, Television & New Media, Culture Machine and Computational Culture.
Rhiannon Bury is Associate Professor of Women's and Gender Studies at Athabasca University, Canada's Open University. She has published work on television and fandom in a number of journals, including New Media & Society, Critical Studies in Television, and Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. Her first book, Cyberspaces of Their Own: Female Fandoms Online, was published by Peter Lang in 2005. Her most recent book, Television 2.0: Viewer and Fan Engagement with Digital TV, will be published by Peter Lang in 2017.
Nick Couldry is a sociologist of media and culture. He is Professor of Media Communications and Social Theory at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is the author or editor of twelve books, including, most recently, The Mediated Construction of Reality (with Andreas Hepp, Polity Press, 2016), Ethics of Media (co-edited with Mirca Madianou and Amit Pinchevski, Palgrave, 2013), Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice (Polity Press, 2012) and Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics After Neoliberalism (Sage, 2010).
Francesco D'Orazio is a researcher and product designer who specializes in futures research and exploring the opportunities emerging at the intersection of social software, data science and audience behaviour. He has a PhD in Social Sciences and Digital Media from Università degli Studi di Roma ‘La Sapienza'. He was a Fellow at the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology at the University of Toronto, where he focused on Immersive Media, the evolution of Audiences and the rise of Social Software. He is co-founder and Vice President of Product at audience intelligence firm Pulsar and co-founder of the Visual Social Media Lab. His work focuses on designing systems and [Page xv]research frameworks that help analyse social data and extract insights from the web in real-time using computational social science and data visualization. Most of his research work on social data has been focusing on virality, social influence, content diffusion and audience insights.
Gabriele de Seta holds a PhD degree in Sociology from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan. His scholarly work, grounded on ethnographic engagement across multiple sites, focuses on digital media practices and vernacular creativity in contemporary China. Gabriele's ongoing research projects cover topics ranging from experimental music scenes and urban life in East Asian cities to new media aesthetics and digital folklore on Chinese online platforms. He also experiments with ways of bridging anthropology and art practice. More information is available on his website: http://paranom.asia.
Aaron Delwiche (PhD, University of Washington) is a professor in the Department of Communication at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. He teaches courses on topics such as virtual world development, transmedia storytelling and mobile gaming. In 2016, with support from the Lennox Foundation, he organized a seminar series on ‘Propaganda and Political Persuasion'. Aaron is the co-editor of the Participatory Cultures Handbook (Routledge, 2012). His recent publications include a chapter on transmedia storytelling in the anthology The Rise of Transtexts: Challenges and Opportunities (Routledge, 2016) and an article charting the comic book scanner subculture in the journal First Monday. Aaron's current research investigates the emergence of bots and sockpuppets, arguing that these technologies constitute a “fake audience” which poses a fundamental threat to global civil society.
Brooke Erin Duffy (PhD, University of Pennsylvania) is an assistant professor in the Department of Communication at Cornell University (USA). Her research interests include digital/social media industries, gender and feminist media studies, cultural work and creative labour, and critical consumer culture. She is the author of (Not) Getting Paid to Do What You Love: Gender, Social Media, and Aspirational Work (Yale University Press, 2017) and Remake, Remodel: Women's Magazines in the Digital Age (University of Illinois Press, 2013). Her work has been published in such journals as Critical Studies in Media Communication, Communication, Culture & Critique, the International Journal of Cultural Studies, Feminist Media Studies, Social Media + Society, and Information, Communication, and Society, among others.
Simon Faulkner is a Senior Lecturer in Art History and Visual Culture at Manchester School of Art (Manchester Metropolitan University). His recent individual research has been focused on relationships between visual practices and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This research has addressed a range of artistic and photographic work, and has been particularly concerned with the ways that visual images have been used for political purposes within the divided geography of Palestine/Israel. This work has resulted in a number of publications, including Between States (Black Dog Publishing, 2015), written with Israeli artist David Reeb. Since 2014, he has also been a co-director of the Visual Social Media, the work of which is focused on researching social media images.[Page xvi]
Terry Flew is Professor of Media and Communications and Assistant Dean (Research) in the Creative Industries Faculty at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Professor Flew is an internationally recognized leader in media and communications, with research interests in digital media, global media, media policy, creative industries, and media economics. He is the author of nine books, including Understanding Global Media (Palgrave, 2018), Politics, Media and Democracy in Australia (Routledge, 2017), Media Economics (Palgrave, 2015), and Global Creative Industries (Polity Press, 2013). During 2011–2012 was appointed Commissioner with the Australian Law Reform Commission by the Attorney-General of Australia, chairing the National Classification Scheme Review. He has been a member of the International Communications Association Executive Board since 2012.
Jeremy Foote studies the social construction of knowledge and beliefs. His current work focuses on how online knowledge communities get started. He is a PhD student at Northwestern University, in the Media, Technology, and Society Program.
Robert W. Gehl received a PhD in Cultural Studies from George Mason University in 2010. He is currently an associate professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. His research draws on science and technology studies, software studies, and critical/cultural studies. He has published critical research exploring corporate and alternative social media, knowledge management, crowdsourcing, media theory, and the Dark Web. This work appears in journals such as New Media & Society, Communication Theory, Social Text, Fibreculture, Television and New Media, European Journal of Cultural Studies, and the Canadian Journal of Communication. His book, Reverse Engineering Social Media (Temple University Press, 2014), explores the architecture and political economy of social media and is the winner of the Association of Internet Researchers Nancy Baym Book award. At Utah, he teaches courses in communication technology, software studies, new media theory, and political economy of communication.
Tarleton Gillespie is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research, an affiliated associate professor in Cornell's Department of Communication and Department of Information Science, co-founder of the blog Culture Digitally, the author of Wired Shut: Copyright and the Shape of Digital Culture (MIT Press, 2007) and co-editor of Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society (MIT Press, 2014). His next book (Yale University Press, forthcoming 2018) examines how the governance of what users say and do by social media platforms has broader implications for freedom of expression and the character of public discourse.
Gerard Goggin is Professor of Media and Communications, University of Sydney, and an Australian Research Council Future Fellow. He is widely published on mobile media and communication, Internet, and disability and technology. Key books include Digital Disability (2003), Cell Phone Culture (Routledge, 2006), Routledge Companion to Mobile Media (Routledge, 2009), Internationalizing Internet Studies (Routledge, 2009), Global Mobile Media (Routledge, 2011), and Routledge Companion to Global Internet Histories (Routledge, 2017). Gerard is one of the founder co-editors of the journal Internet Histories.
John Hartley is John Curtin Distinguished Professor at Curtin University, Australia, and Distinguished Visiting Research Fellow at Cardiff University, Wales. He is the author or editor [Page xvii]of 30 books and many articles on popular culture and media, the creative industries and journalism. He has a continuing interest in the creative economy in China. His current research interests are in Cultural Science, an attempt to analyse culture, communication, media and knowledge using evolutionary and complexity theories. Recent books include Cultural Science (with Jason Potts, Bloomsbury, 2014) and Creative Economy and Culture (with Wen Wen and Henry Li, Sage, 2015). Hartley was foundation dean of the Creative Industries Faculty at QUT, and founding head of the School of Journalism at Cardiff University. He was awarded the Order of Australia for service to education (2009). He is an elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities, The Learned Society of Wales, and the International Communication Association.
Anne Helmond is Assistant Professor of New Media and Digital Culture at the University of Amsterdam. She is a member of the Digital Methods Initiative, where she focuses her research on the infrastructure of social media platforms and apps. Her research interests include digital methods, software studies, platform studies, app studies, infrastructure studies and web history. In her research on platforms she has developed the notion of ‘platformization’ to understand the dual logic of social media platforms’ extension into the rest of the web and, simultaneously, their drive to make external web data ‘platform ready'. Her work has been published in the peer-reviewed journals New Media & Society, Theory, Culture and Society, Social Media + Society, First Monday, and Computational Culture.
Alfred Hermida (PhD, City, University of London) is an associate professor and Director of the School of Journalism at the University of British Columbia, and co-founder of The Conversation Canada. With two decades of experience in digital journalism, his research explores the digital transformation of media, with a focus on emerging news practices, media innovation, social media and data journalism. He is author of Tell Everyone: Why We Share and Why It Matters (DoubleDay, 2014), winner of the 2015 National Business Book Award, co-author of Participatory Journalism: Guarding Open Gates at Online Newspapers (Wiley Blackwell, 2011), and co-editor of The SAGE Handbook of Digital Journalism (SAGE, 2016). A former BBC journalist for 16 years, he was a founding news editor of the BBC News website in 1997.
Benjamin Mako Hill works to understand why some attempts at peer production – like Wikipedia and Linux – build large volunteer communities while the vast majority never attract even a second contributor. He is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Washington. He is also a faculty associate at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University. He has been a leader, developer and contributor to the free and open source software community for more than a decade. Hill has a Masters degree from the MIT Media Lab and a PhD from MIT in an interdepartmental programme between the Sloan School of Management and the Media Lab.
Jannis Kallinikos is Professor in the Department of Management at the London School of Economics and Political Science. His research focuses on the impact of information and communication technologies on organizations and economic institutions. He has published widely in Management, Information Systems and Sociology journals and written several monographs, including The Consequences of Information: Institutional Implications of Technological Change (Edward Elgar, 2007), Governing Through Technology: Information Artefacts and Social Practice (Palgrave, [Page xviii]2011). He has, together with Paul Leonardi and Bonnie Nardi, co-edited Materiality and Organizing: Social Interaction in a Technological World (Oxford University Press, 2012).
Deborah Lupton is Centenary Research Professor in the News & Media Research Centre, Faculty of Arts & Design, University of Canberra. She is a co-leader of the Digital Data & Society Consortium. Her latest books are Medicine as Culture (3rd edition, Sage, 2012), Fat (Routledge, 2013), Risk (2nd edition, Routledge, 2013), The Social Worlds of the Unborn (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), Digital Sociology (Routledge, 2015), The Quantified Self: A Sociology of Self-Tracking (Polity Press, 2016) and Digital Health: Critical and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives (Routledge, 2017). Her current research interests all involve aspects of digital sociology: Big Data cultures, self-tracking practices, digital food cultures, the digital surveillance of children, digitized academia, and digital health technologies.
Tom McDonald is an Assistant Professor at The University of Hong Kong. He obtained his PhD from University College London, in 2013, where he also worked on the Why We Post project, a European Research Council funded global comparative ethnographic study exploring the impact of social media use across a range of different societies. He has conducted extensive ethnographic research in rural China. His first solely-authored monograph, Social Media in Rural China: Social Networks and Moral Frameworks (UCL Press), was published in 2016. He also co-authored the volume How the World Changed Social Media (UCL Press, 2016). McDonald is currently working on a new project investigating the use of digital money by migrant workers in China.
Mark McLelland is Professor of Gender and Sexuality Studies at the University of Wollongong and a former Toyota Visiting Professor of Japanese at the University of Michigan. He is author or editor of over 10 books concerning the history of sexuality in Japan, Japanese popular culture, new media and the Internet, most recently: The End of Cool Japan: Ethical, Legal and Cultural Challenges to Japanese Popular Culture (Routledge, 2017) and The Routledge Companion to Global Internet Histories (with Gerard Goggin, Routledge, 2017).
Kate M. Miltner is a PhD Candidate at the USC Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism. Her research focuses on the intersection of technology, identity, culture, and inequality. She has a BA in English from Barnard College, Columbia University, and received her MSc in Media and Communications from the London School of Economics and Political Science. She has also had research appointments at Microsoft Research New England and Twitter. Kate has published scholarly work on a variety of topics relating to digital culture, including internet memes, online antagonism, animated GIFs, selfies, and Big Data; her work has appeared in the peer-reviewed journals Social Media & Society, International Journal of Communication, First Monday, Feminist Media Studies, and Mobile Media and Communication. Kate's research has also been featured in Wired, Slate, The Atlantic, The Guardian, Time, and the BBC. You can find more about her at katemiltner.com.
Zizi Papacharissi is Professor and Head of Communication, and Professor of Political Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She edits the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, and is the founding and current editor of the open access and free journal Social Media and Society. She has authored or edited nine books, over 60 journal [Page xix]articles and book chapters, and presently serves on the editorial board of 15 journals. Her research focuses on the social and political consequences of technologies.
Isabella Peters is Professor of Web Science at ZBW Leibniz Information Centre for Economics and Chair of the Web Science research group at Kiel University. She received her PhD in Information Science from Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf. Her research focuses on user-generated content and its potential in knowledge representation and information retrieval as well as in scholarly communication on the social web, e.g. altmetrics. In 2016 she was one of the members of the Expert Group on Altmetrics initiated by the European Commission.
Jack Linchuan Qiu is Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, where he serves as Director of the C-Centre (Centre for Chinese Media and Comparative Communication Research). His publications include Goodbye iSlave (University of Illinois Press, 2016), World's Factory in the Information Age (Guangxi Normal University Press, 2013), Working-Class Network Society (MIT Press, 2009), Mobile Communication and Society (co-authored, MIT Press, 2006), some of which have been translated into German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Korean. He is on the editorial boards of 10 international academic journals, including six indexed in the SSCI, and is Associate Editor for Journal of Communication. He also works with grassroots NGOs and provides consultancy services for international organizations.
Kelly Quinn is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her work focuses on new media, such as social network sites and microblogging, and how these intersect with such diverse areas as the life course, social capital, friendship, and privacy. Quinn's recent work has centred on midlife and older adults and the cognitive and social impacts of their social media use. She serves on the editorial board for Emerald Studies in Media and Communications, and her publications have been included in Information, Communication & Society, the Journal of Broadcast and Electronic Media, and the International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, as well as several edited volumes.
Richard Rogers is University Professor and holds the Chair in New Media & Digital Culture at the University of Amsterdam. He is Director of Govcom.org, the group responsible for the Issue Crawler and other info-political tools, and the Digital Methods Initiative, dedicated to the study of the natively digital. Among other works, Rogers is author of Information Politics on the Web (MIT Press, 2004), awarded the 2005 best book of the year by the American Society of Information Science & Technology (ASIS&T) and Digital Methods (MIT Press, 2013), awarded the 2014 Outstanding Book of the Year by the International Communication Association (ICA). His latest book is Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe (with Natalia Sanchez and Aleksandra Kil, Amsterdam University Press, 2015).
Michael Serazio is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at Boston College (USA). His research interests include media production, advertising, popular culture, political communication, and new media. He is the author of Your Ad Here: The Cool Sell of Guerrilla Marketing (New York University Press, 2013), which investigates the integration of brands into entertainment content, social patterns, and digital platforms. He has scholarly work appearing or forthcoming in the Journal of Communication, the International Journal of Communication, Critical Studies in Media Communication, the Journal of Consumer Culture, [Page xx]the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Communication Culture & Critique, and Television & New Media, and has also written essays on media and culture for The Atlantic, among other publications.
Aaron Shaw studies collective action, organization, and participation online, usually in collaborative peer production communities like Wikipedia. He is an Assistant Professor of Communication Studies and Director of the Media, Technology and Society program at Northwestern University. At Northwestern he is also an affiliate of the Sociology Department, the Buffett Institute, the Institute for Policy Research, and the SONIC lab. Elsewhere, he is a faculty affiliate of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. Aaron received his PhD in Sociology from the University of California Berkeley.
Jolynna Sinanan is a Vice Chancellor's Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Digital Ethnography Research Centre and the School of Media and Communications at RMIT University, Melbourne. Prior to this position she was a Research Fellow in Anthropology at University College London with the European Research Council funded project Why We Post, which compared uses of social media across eight countries. She is the co-author of Visualising Facebook (UCL Press, 2017) and Webcam (with Daniel Miller, Polity Press, 2014), and How the World Changed Social Media (UCL Press, 2016).
Michael Stevenson is an Associate Professor in the Media Studies department at the University of Amsterdam, and a founding member of the Digital Methods Initiative. He researches the history of web culture, and the discourse and practice of web exceptionalism. He is currently working on a four-year research project called ‘The web that was', about the technology and culture of the early web with a focus on the web's shared history with the Perl programming language. The project is funded by the Dutch National Science Foundation (NWO).
Crispin Thurlow is Professor of Language and Communication in the Department of English at the University of Bern, Switzerland. His books include the edited collection Digital Discourse: Language and the New Media (Oxford University Press, 2011). He is on the editorial board of a number of international journals, including Language in Society, Critical Discourse Studies, Discourse, Context & Media, and the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. More information about his research and teaching can be found at: www.crispinthurlow.net.
Daniel Trottier (PhD, Queen's Canada) is an Associate Professor of Global Digital Media in the Department of Media and Communication at Erasmus University Rotterdam. In addition to leading a five-year project on digital vigilantism, he has participated in European Commission projects on security, privacy and digital media. He has authored in peer-reviewed journals on this and other topics, as well as Social Media as Surveillance (Ashgate, 2012), Identity Problems in the Facebook Era (Routledge, 2013) and Social Media, Politics and the State (co-edited with Christian Fuchs, Routledge, 2014). He previously held appointments as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI) at the University of Westminster, the Department of Informatics and Media at Uppsala University Sweden, and the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta, Canada.[Page xxi]
Siva Vaidhyanathan is the Robertson Professor of Media Studies and the Director of the Center for Media and Citizenship at the University of Virginia. He is the author of four books and the co-editor of another. His Twitter feed is @sivavaid.
José van Dijck is distinguished university professor of Media Studies at the University of Utrecht. She previously taught at the University of Amsterdam where she served as Chair of the Department of Media Studies and Dean of the Faculty of Humanities. Her visiting appointments include MIT, the Annenberg School for Communication (Philadelphia), Georgia Tech, and the University of Technology in Sydney. In 2015, she was elected as President of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her work covers a wide range of topics in media theory, media technologies, social media, and digital culture. Van Dijck's book The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media (Oxford University Press, 2013) was distributed worldwide and was recently translated into Spanish. Her next book, co-authored with Thomas Poell and Martijn de Waal, will be titled The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World.
Farida Vis is Director of the Visual Social Media Lab and Faculty Research Fellow in the Information School at The University of Sheffield (UK). The VSML brings together a group of interdisciplinary researchers from academia and industry interested in analysing social media images. In the VSML she is principal investigator on a number of funded projects. Her research is focused on developing methods for researching social media, the datafication of society and emerging algorithmic regimes. Taking seriously the need to engage beyond academia, she sits on the World Economic Forum's Global Futures Council on The Future of Information and Entertainment (2016–2018), having previously served on the Global Agenda Council on Social Media (2013–2016). She sits on the Board of Directors of the Big Boulder Initiative, an US-based organization focused on the sustainable future of the social data industry. The VSML is a member of the First Draft News Partner Network.
Jill Walker Rettberg is professor of Digital Culture at the University of Bergen. She is the author of Seeing Ourselves Through Technology: How We Use Selfies, Blogs and Wearable Devices to See and Shape Ourselves (Palgrave 2014) and Blogging (Polity Press, 2008, 2nd ed 2014), and co-edited Digital Culture, Play, and Identity: A World of Warcraft Reader (MIT Press, 2008). Her research has centered on storytelling and self-representation in social media, as well as on digital art, electronic literature and the implications of digital visual technologies. Rettberg has been an active research blogger at jilltxt.net since 2000.
Katrin Weller is senior researcher at GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and head of the team Social Analytics and Services within the Computational Social Science department. In 2015, she was one of the inaugural researchers to be awarded with the John W. Kluge Center's Fellowship in Digital Studies for a research stay at the Library of Congress, Washington DC. She received her PhD in Information Science from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf in 2010. Her research focuses on social media users and usage in different contexts, including social media in scholarly communication and altmetrics. She has also done field work on the conditions of conducting research with social media data, including the ethics of social media research and data archiving. Katrin is co-editor of Twitter and Society (Peter Lang, 2014).
Rowan Wilken (PhD) is Principal Research Fellow and Associate Professor in the School of Media and Communication, at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. His present research interests include mobile and locative media, domestic technology consumption, theories and practices of everyday life, and old and new media. He has published widely on mobile and location-based media. He is the co-editor (with Justin Clemens) of The Afterlives of Georges Perec (Edinburgh University Press, 2017), and co-editor (with Gerard Goggin) of Locative Media (Routledge, 2015) and Mobile Technology and Place (Routledge, 2012), and is the author of Teletechnologies, Place, and Community (Routledge, 2011). At present he is working on two books: a research monograph, Cultural Economies of Locative Media (to be published by Oxford University Press), and an edited book (with Gerard Goggin and Heather Horst), Location Technologies in International Context (to be published by Routledge).
Haiqing Yu is Associate Professor of contemporary Chinese media and culture in the School of Humanities and Languages, University of New South Wales, Australia. Her research focuses on the ‘effect’ and ‘affect’ of digitally mediated social economy, social movements, and cultural transformation. It explores Chinese digital and informal economy, associations, and social activism; rural e-commerce and its impact on gender and ethnicity; social enterprise, digital economy, and disability; social media and Chinese diaspora. Her published works have also explored the implications of the Internet and mobile communication on Chinese journalism, youth culture/sexuality, HIV-related health communication, and everyday life politics. Her publications include: Media and Cultural Transformation in China (Routledge, 2009) and Sex in China (co-author with Elaine Jeffreys, Polity Press, 2015).