The SAGE Handbook of Small Business and Entrepreneurship

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Edited by: Robert Blackburn, Dirk De Clercq & Jarna Heinonen

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  • Part I: PEOPLE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESSES

    Part II: ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION

    Part III: ENTREPRENEURIAL MILIEU

    Part IV: RESEARCHING SMALL BUSINESS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

  • Copyright

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Robert Blackburn is Associate Dean for Research, Kingston University Business School, Director of the Small Business Research Centre and Editor-in-Chief of the International Small Business Journal. He has undertaken research for private and public sector organizations worldwide on entrepreneurship and small business, including the OECD, the European Commission and Parliament, the UK's HM Treasury and HM Revenue and Customs, and banks and support agencies. Robert has held the Presidency of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, is a Trustee and Treasurer of the Society for the Advancement of Management Studies, a member of the research committee of the Chartered Association of Business Schools, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a member of the Executive of the International Network of Business and Management Journals and is holder of the Queen's Award for Enterprise Promotion.

    Dirk De Clercq is Professor of Management in the Goodman School of Business at Brock University, Canada. He is also Research Professor in the Small Business Research Centre at Kingston University, UK. His research interests are in the areas of entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational behaviour. He is Consulting Editor of International Small Business Journal and has published articles in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Venturing, Journal of International Business, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of Product Innovation Management and Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, among others.

    Jarna Heinonen is Professor in Entrepreneurship and Director of the Entrepreneurship Unit within Turku School of Economics, University of Turku. In the field of entrepreneurship her research interests in particular include entrepreneurship education, corporate entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurship policies and family business. She has conducted research for the European Commission, the OECD and various national ministries and other such bodies and is well connected to entrepreneurship stakeholders nationally and internationally. She is the book review editor at International Small Business Journal and has recently published in Journal of Small Business Management, International Small Business Journal, European Educational Journal and Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. She is also Visiting Professor at Kingston University in the UK and holds numerous positions of trust in the scientific community as well as in business and society.

    The Contributors

    Samuel Adomako is Assistant Professor in Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the Entrepreneurship Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia. Samuel has a multidisciplinary academic background and holds degrees in Sociology, Management and Entrepreneurship. His research examines the nexus of entrepreneurship, innovation and creativity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and analyses the role of institutions in new venture creation or new business formation. Samuel received his PhD from University of Warwick.

    Wafa N. Almobaireek, PhD in Business, Nottingham University, UK, is Associate Professor of Marketing and Entrepreneurship at King Saud University (KSU), the Dean of the Business School at Princess Nourah University (PNU) in Saudi Arabia, and a former Director of the Prince Salman Institute for Entrepreneurship (IPSE) at KSU. Research and teaching interests include marketing, small businesses and entrepreneurship. Dr Almobaireek is the author of a number of books in the area of small businesses and entrepreneurship. She is currently working on a number of projects in the same areas for several organizations in Saudi Arabia.

    Ahmed Alshumaimeri, PhD in Marketing, Nottingham University, UK, is a practitioner and mentor for entrepreneurial innovation. He was one of the founders of Alsafat Capital, Almajd Satellite Channels and China Motors Company (CMC). Research and consulting interests include entrepreneurship, networking, business collaborations, business incubation and technology. Previously, Dr Alshumaimeri was the Assistant General-Director of the Saudi Credit Bank and served as the Dean of the Prince Salman Institute for Entrepreneurship and the Dean of Development at King Saud University. Dr Alshumaimeri is a bilingual author and has published eight books and numerous articles in academic and practitioner journals.

    Bjørn Willy Åmo, PhD, is Associate Professor in Innovation at Nord University Business School. His research interests focus on corporate entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, entrepreneurship education, social entrepreneurship and other aspects of entrepreneurship. He uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods. He teaches entrepreneurship courses and research methods at both bachelor and master levels. Dr Åmo is a member of the Norwegian Global Entrepreneurship Monitor team.

    H. Shawna Chen, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Goodman School of Business at Brock University. She teaches undergraduate and graduate entrepreneurship courses, such as business planning and creativity. Her research interests focus on entrepreneurial cognition and action. Before pursuing her PhD at Texas Tech University, Shawna was a serial entrepreneur involved in multiple Internet start-ups in the Washington DC area and a consultant in corporate finance and strategy.

    Thomas M. Cooney is Professor in Entrepreneurship at the Dublin Institute of Technology, Academic Director of the DIT Institute for Minority Entrepreneurship and Adjunct Professor at the University of Turku (Finland). He is a former President of the International Council for Small Business (2012–13) and of the European Council for Small Business (2009–11) and was Chair of the ICSB 2014 World Entrepreneurship Conference. He was a Member of the Department of Enterprise, Jobs and Innovation ‘Entrepreneurship Forum’ (2013–14) and has been a policy advisor to the Irish government, the European Commission, OECD and other international organizations. He was a founding Director of Startup Ireland and works in various capacities with a range of businesses and not-for-profit organizations. He has researched and published widely on the topic of entrepreneurship and further details of his work can be found at www.thomascooney.com

    Marc Cowling has a PhD in Business Economics from Warwick Business School and an MSc in Economics from London University. Before his appointment at Brighton (as Professor of Entrepreneurship) he was Professor and Head of the Department of Management Studies at Exeter Business School. Prior to that, he held the posts of Chief Economist at the Institute for Employment Studies and The Work Foundation. He has also held positions at Warwick Business School, Birmingham Business School and London Business School. He is currently ranked in the top 11% of economists in the world by citations (H-index) according to Research Publications in Economics (REPEC, 6 November 2016) and in entrepreneurship he was ranked 23rd in the world during the period 1995–2006 according to ‘Rankings of the Top Entrepreneurship Researchers and Affiliations'. Marc has spent the last 24 years researching in four core areas: The Dynamics of Early Stage Survival and Growth; The Financing of SMEs and Entrepreneurial Businesses; Labour Market Dynamics and Evaluating Public Policy.

    Jonathan Deacon is Professor of Marketing at the South Wales Business School where he is Academic Director of the ‘Exchange’ at USW – an entrepreneurial Business Growth Hub and the Centre for Research in Entrepreneurship and Marketing (CREaM). Jonathan's career prior to academia was within business – especially high growth, new venture starts. Professor Deacon is an acknowledged ‘thought leader’ at the interface between Marketing, Entrepreneurship and Management. He is Global Vice Chair of the board of trustees and fellow of the Chartered Institute of Marketing, board member of the European Marketing Confederation and past editor of the international Journal for Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship (JRME).

    Cristina Díaz-García, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Business Administration at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Campus Albacete), Spain. She is author of the book Influencia del género en los recursos y resultados de las pequeñas empresas (Resources and performance of SMEs: The influence of gender), her dissertation was awarded a better dissertation prize in 2006 by the Economic and Social Council (consultative body of the Spanish Government). She is author and co-author of articles and book chapters on this topic. Her research focuses on gender, with a special interest on women's entrepreneurship and the effect of gender diversity in innovation, and ecoinnovation. She is co-editor of the 5th book of the Diana International Series by Edward Elgar titled ‘Women's Entrepreneurship in Global and Local Contexts'. She is reviewer for many journals and part of the editorial review board of International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research.

    Bob Doherty is Professor of Marketing at The York Management School, University of York and principal investigator on a four-year interdisciplinary research programme (£4.3m) on food resilience titled ‘IKnowFood', funded by the Global Food Security Fund. In addition he holds a number of institutional-wide research positions including the research theme leader for sustainable food in the York Environmental Sustainability Research Institute (YESI). Bob specialises in research on hybrid organizations, namely the marketing and management aspects of fair trade organizations and social enterprises. Recently his research interests have developed to look at how hybrids can contribute to resilience in food systems. Bob has published in Journal of Business Ethics, International Journal of Management Reviews, Business History and Journal of Social Policy. For the past eight years he has been editor of the Emerald Group Publishing's Social Enterprise Journal.

    Stephen Drinkwater is Professor of Economics at the Business School at the University of Roehampton, London. Stephen is also a research fellow at the IZA in Bonn, CoDE at the University of Manchester, CReAM at University College London and at the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD). Stephen's main research interests lie in applied micro economics, particularly within the labour market. His research has primarily focused on self-employment, labour market discrimination, international and interregional migration. He has received research funding from several external organizations including the European Commission, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the OECD and the Economic and Social Research Council. He has published papers in a range of international peer-reviewed journals including Economica, Economics Letters, International Small Business Journal, Journal of Population Economics, Journal of Regional Science, Labour Economics, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Regional Studies, Small Business Economics and Urban Studies.

    Fokko J. Eller is currently a PhD student and research assistant at the Institute of Management & Organization at the Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany. He received his Master of Arts in Management and Entrepreneurship from the Leuphana University of Lüneburg. Prior to his master programme he studied International Business at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Dortmund, Germany and at the Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, China. His research focuses on sustainable entrepreneurship. He is particularly interested in how opportunities in sustainable entrepreneurship come to life and in the process of mission drift in hybrid organizations.

    Mark Freel is the Royal Bank of Canada Professor for the commercialization of innovation at the Telfer School of Management and Professor of innovation and entrepreneurship at Lancaster University Management School.

    Michael M. Gielnik is currently Professor for HR Development at the Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany. He studied psychology at the University of Giessen, Germany, and received his PhD from the Leuphana University of Lüneburg. He was a Visiting Senior Fellow at the National University of Singapore Business School. His research interest is entrepreneurship from a psychological perspective. Specifically, his research focuses on entrepreneurial learning and training, the entrepreneurial process and aging of entrepreneurs. He has taken a special interest in entrepreneurship in developing countries. He has conducted several research and practice projects on entrepreneurship in different countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

    Alessandro Giudici is Lecturer in Strategy at Cass Business School (City, University of London, UK). His research focuses on organizations that support start-ups and SME growth, including venture associations, incubators, government agencies and the like, predominantly from a capability and business model perspective. His research has been published in Business History, Long Range Planning and Strategic Organization and is currently under review in a number of peer-reviewed journals. Before entering academia, Alessandro worked as a marketing executive for a large multinational enterprise in the fast-moving consumer goods sector.

    Paul Hannon is a graduate entrepreneur and has helped shape enterprise and entrepreneurship education, support and development in the UK and overseas during the past 35 years. He is a successful creator and innovator of local support initiatives for enterprise and entrepreneurship stimulation in the private and public sectors; he has won accolades for his innovative approaches to enterprise and entrepreneurship curricula design and delivery in higher education; and he is also an experienced entrepreneur with 10 years as the co-owner/director of a small growing firm in the food industry. In 2015 Paul was invited to be a member of Maserati 100, the top 100 individuals in the UK who actively support the next generation of future entrepreneurs. In 2016 he was appointed European Entrepreneurship Education Laureate by the Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship at Lund University, Sweden. At Swansea University in Wales Paul is Head of Section in Research, Engagement and Innovation Services. He is Director of the Institute for Entrepreneurial Leadership and is Director of Leading Business Growth, a body that supports leadership development and growth in hundreds of Welsh SMEs. The Institute for Entrepreneurial Leadership offers research, learning and development opportunities to stimulate cultures and practices of entrepreneurial leadership for individuals and organizations in highly uncertain, unpredictable and complex environments. Up to the end of March 2013 Paul was Chief Executive at the UK's National Centre for Entrepreneurship in Education (formerly NCGE) that supports long-term cultural change in UK universities and colleges.

    Richard T. Harrison is Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation and Co-Director of the Centre for Strategic Leadership at the University of Edinburgh Business School. He was previously Dean of Queen's University Management School and Director of the Leadership Institute. He was Dixons Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Edinburgh and has also held Chair-level appointments at the University of Aberdeen and University of Ulster. He has taught in China, Argentina, Australia, the US and Canada. His current research interests are linked by a unifying interest in the nature of the entrepreneurial process – in social and corporate as well as new venture contexts – as it is reflected in business development (particularly in the financing of innovation and growth) and in the implications of research and theorizing for practice and public policy. This includes the analysis of entrepreneurial finance, entrepreneurial learning and leadership processes, studies of the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in emerging economies (notably China, Malaysia) and examination of the nature of peace entrepreneurship in conflict societies (Northern Ireland, Rwanda, Kosova). In recognition of the importance of his research on entrepreneurial finance he was the 2015 recipient of the UK ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) Award for Outstanding Research Impact on Business.

    Helen Haugh is Senior Lecturer at Cambridge Judge Business School, Director of the Masters in Innovation, Strategy and Organizations, The Management of Technology and Innovation programme and Research Director for the Centre for Social Innovation. Helen's research interests focus on social and community entrepreneurship, family business and corporate responsibility. Her research in the social economy has examined community-led regeneration in rural communities, cross-sector collaboration and innovations in governance. Her work has been published in the Academy of Management Education and Learning, Organization Studies, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Ethics, Cambridge Journal of Economics and Entrepreneurship and Regional Development.

    Anders Hoffmann is now Deputy Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate in the government of Denmark. The work co-authored here is written in a personal capacity and relates to a previous role as Deputy Director General at the Danish Business Authority. There he was responsible for developing and implementing most of the business development policies in Denmark at the national, regional and local level. These policies covered entrepreneurship, EU structural funds, design, creative industry, second chance, clusters, market development, circular economy, sharing economy, social enterprises, CSR, offset, EU Leader approach and standardization. He was also responsible for the Authorities International division and the Danish approach to the reduction of economic burdens for firms. Dr Hoffmann holds a PhD in Economics and was a Senior Economist with the OECD, supervising a team of economists and statisticians and coordinating activities related to micro-policy benchmarking. His academic output has been published in Journal of International Economics and Economic Modelling.

    Louisa Huxtable-Thomas is the Research Lead for the Institute for Entrepreneurial Leadership at Swansea University, Wales. She has extensive experience in case study research and work-based learning, in facilitation of innovation and invention in supported companies, and in training and supervision of PhD students. In this role she undertakes research for a successful management and leadership programme aimed at improving leadership skills for owner-managers of small businesses. The role requires research into learning and teaching methods most suitable for this group of mature students, also into post-full-time education as well as analysis of the wider economic impacts that such learning has. In addition, Louisa has an academic role as advisor for two doctoral students and provides qualitative methodologies advice to a further five students at the recommendation of their Directors of Studies. As well as holding a doctorate in business and economics, Louisa holds a Postgraduate Certificate in Developing Higher Education and is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA). In previous roles she qualified as a Chartered Environmentalist (CEnv) and Member of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (MIEEM) and Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (AIEMA). Louisa has been considered a trusted advisor to the Welsh Assembly Government and local authorities in Wales.

    Ulla Hytti is Research Director in the Entrepreneurship Unit at the University of Turku, Finland. She has taught entrepreneurship at undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate levels at the university, and has been conducting research into entrepreneurship education. Ulla was a founding member of the Finnish Scientific Association for Entrepreneurship Education and a President of the Association in 2014–15. She has organized and chaired several entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education conferences nationally and internationally. Ulla is an Associate Editor at the Journal of Small Business Management and a Board Member in the European Council for Small Business (ECSB).

    Bengt Johannisson is Professor Emeritus of Entrepreneurship at Linnaeus University. From 1998–2007, he was the Editor-in-Chief of Entrepreneurship & Regional Development and he himself has published widely on entrepreneurship, personal networking, family business as well as on local and regional development. His current research interests are process and practice theories and enactive methodology as applied to different arenas for entrepreneurship. In Sweden Bengt Johannisson has initiated several inter-university networks on research and post-graduate studies in entrepreneurship and for 15 years he was a co-director of the European Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management. Bengt Johannisson is the first Scandinavian Winner of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research (2008) and in 2015 he received the European Entrepreneurship Education Award.

    Rosalind Jones is Lecturer in Marketing and Program Director at Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham. Her career until 2005 was in the public sector, prior to completion of a PhD in entrepreneurial marketing in small software technology firms at Bangor University, Wales. She is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a ‘Chartered Marketer’ and Member of the Levitt Group of Senior Marketers for the Chartered Institute of Marketing. She is Co-Chair of the Academy of Marketing, Entrepreneurial & Small Business Marketing Special Interest Group and on the Steering Committee of the American Marketing Association (AMA) Special Interest Group in Research at the Marketing and Entrepreneurship Interface.

    David J. Ketchen, PhD, The Pennsylvania State University, serves as Lowder Eminent Scholar and Professor of Management in the Harbert College of Business at Auburn University. His research interests include entrepreneurship and franchising, methodological issues in organizational research, strategic supply chain management, and the determinants of superior organizational performance. He has served as an Associate Editor for Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Operations Management, Organizational Research Methods, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Journal of International Business Studies and Journal of Management.

    John Kitching is Professor in the Small Business Research Centre, Kingston University, UK. His research interests include the influence of regulation on small business activity and performance, and exploring the implications of critical realist philosophy of science for small business and entrepreneurship studies.

    Lars Kolvereid, PhD, is Professor of Entrepreneurship. His research interests are entrepreneurship in general, especially new business creation processes and new business performance. Dr Kolvereid has published a large number of articles and books and has supervised more than 25 doctoral students and is the leader of the Norwegian Global Entrepreneurship Monitor team.

    Sirpa Koskinen has a PhD in Education and works as a special education teacher. She has extensive experience from various forms of demanding special education. Currently she works in a hospital school in Hämeenlinna where her pupils are patients at a youth psychiatric ward. Previously Sirpa worked in a state reform school. She has also worked as a special education teacher in an upper secondary school with more than 500 pupils and in a Finnish school in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Anne Kovalainen is Professor of Entrepreneurship at the School of Economics at the University of Turku, Finland. She has been visiting faculty fellow and visiting professor among others at Stanford University, London School of Economics, Technology University Sydney, and at Kingston University. Anne's intellectual background is in economic sociology, gender studies and business studies. Stemming from her disciplinary background, her publication track record is multidisciplinary. She established an international multidisciplinary conference on WORK in 2013, which runs biannually (latest on Work and Labour in the Digital Future WORK2017). She is editorial board member in International Small Business Journal (ECSB) and in Research in the Sociology of Work (ASA), among others. Her current research interests deal with science and technology studies, research methodology, transformation of economies, knowledge formation and changing relationships between entrepreneurship, work and gender. She leads a large research consortium on work and platform economy, currently analyzing the complexities of gig economy, sharing economy and platforms, including their transformational effects on work and entrepreneurship, academic work, self-employment and entrepreneurship (SWiPE). Professor Kovalainen holds several positions of trust and serves regularly national and international science institutions.

    Christian Lechner is currently Full Professor of Strategy and Entrepreneurship at the Free University of Bolzano, Italy. He is the Director of the PhD programme in Economics and Management on Organizational and Institutional Outliers. He was former Professor in Entrepreneurship and Strategy for 12 years at Toulouse Business School where he was involved in entrepreneurship activities, the launch of an incubator and the coaching of small firms. He holds a PhD in business administration from the University of Regensburg, Germany, an MBA from the University of Georgia and degrees in business administration from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich and international business studies from the Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy. His research interests are inter-firm and inter-personal networks, habitual entrepreneurship, organizational configurations of new firms and growth, the resource-based view and entrepreneurial strategy.

    Claire M. Leitch, DPhil, holds the Chair in Entrepreneurial Leadership at Lancaster University Management School, where she is also Head of Department, Leadership and Management. Her research interests concentrate on the development, enhancement and growth of individuals and organizations in an entrepreneurial context with a particular focus on leadership, leadership development and learning. She is an internationally recognized scholar whose work has shaped theoretical debate and had significant industrial and policy impact. She has published in Journal of Small Business Management, Organization Research Methods, Academy of Management Learning and Education, British Journal of Management, Regional Studies and Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Currently she is the Editor of International Small Business Journal.

    Fergus Lyon is Professor of Enterprise and Organization and Director of the Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research at Middlesex University. His research focuses on social enterprise, hybrid organizations, enterprise support, innovation, trust and sustainability. He is Deputy Director of the ESRC Centre for the Understanding of Sustainable Prosperity (CUSP) and is leading a research theme on enterprise, the social economy and investment. He has a background in international development and enterprise support and is actively involved in conservation and farming enterprises in the UK. He has conducted research on enterprise issues in the UK, Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. He has published on social enterprise and alternative organizational forms in a range of journals including International Small Business Journal, International Journal of Management Reviews, Organization Studies, World Development and Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. He published the Edward Elgar Handbook of Research Methods on Trust, now in its second edition.

    Tatiana S. Manolova, DBA, Boston University, is Professor of Management at Bentley University, USA. Research interests include strategic management (competitive strategies of new and small companies), international entrepreneurship and management in emerging economies. She is affiliated with Diana International, an international research project exploring the growth strategies of women entrepreneurs worldwide. During 2010–11, she was a Visiting Professor at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and conducted research on entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia in affiliation with the Prince Salman Institute for Entrepreneurship. Tatiana is the author of over 40 scholarly articles and book chapters. She serves on the editorial boards of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Venturing, International Small Business Journal and the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference Board of Reviewers (2015–17).

    Colin Mason is Professor of Entrepreneurship in the Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow. He has held visiting positions at universities in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Argentina. His research and teaching are in the areas of entrepreneurship and regional development. His specific research interests are in entrepreneurial finance and entrepreneurial ecosystems. He has written extensively on business angel investing and has been closely involved with government and private sector initiatives to promote business angel investment, both in the UK and elsewhere. He is the founder and co-editor of the journal Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance (published by Taylor and Francis Ltd).

    Catherine Matthews is currently Senior Lecturer in finance at the University of Brighton and has worked there since 1998 when she joined the staff as a graduate teaching assistant. She has since taught at post graduate and undergraduate levels across a number of subject areas, including economics, accounting and finance. Catherine has held external examiner and associate editor roles and enjoys being an active member of the research community at Brighton. Her research interests are in the area of small business finance and in particular trade credit management, which formed the focus of her doctoral research. Since being awarded her doctorate, Catherine has been working on publishing-related papers.

    Maura McAdam is Professor in Management and Director of Entrepreneurship at Dublin City University, Dublin. She is a nationally and internationally recognized scholar within the area of entrepreneurship having particular expertise in gender, entrepreneurial leadership, technology entrepreneurship and family business. Accordingly, her research has been published in top rated North American and UK journals across a range of theoretical disciplines such as Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Small Business Management, Regional Studies, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development and International Small Business Journal. In addition, Maura has authored the book Female Entrepreneurship with Routledge publishing. Maura is an editorial board member of leading UK and US journals such as International Small Business Journal (ISBJ) and Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice (ETP). In addition, Maura is an invited Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) and has held Visiting Scholar positions at Massey University and Babson College; she is currently a Visiting Scholar at the University of Nottingham and Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia.

    Aaron F. McKenny, PhD, University of Oklahoma, is Assistant Professor of Management at the University of Central Florida. His research is primarily focused on the intersection of entrepreneurship and strategic management with an emphasis on the role of social and other non-economic phenomena in organizational settings. He is on the review boards for the Journal of Management, Journal of Business Venturing and Family Business Review. His research has been published in several journals, including Journal of Management, Organizational Research Methods, Journal of Business Venturing, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, The Leadership Quarterly, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Family Business Review, Business Communication Quarterly and Business Horizons.

    Morgan P. Miles is Professor at Charles Sturt University. Previously he had been Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Canterbury, the Tom Hendrix Chair of Excellence at the University of Tennessee at Martin, Professor of Enterprise Development at the University of Tasmania and Professor of Marketing at Georgia Southern University. He has been a visiting scholar at Georgia Tech, Cambridge University, University of Stockholm, the University of Otago, University of Auckland and an Erskine Fellow at the University of Canterbury. He holds a DBA in Marketing from Mississippi State University. His research interests include entrepreneurial marketing and corporate social responsibility.

    J. Robert Mitchell, PhD is Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship and Strategy in the Department of Management at Colorado State University. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses. Prior to joining Colorado State University, Rob was a Professor at the University of Oklahoma and at the Ivey School of Business, where he continues to hold an appointment as an adjunct research professor. He completed his doctoral studies in entrepreneurship and strategic management at the Kelley School of Business in Bloomington, Indiana. Before pursuing his PhD at Indiana University, Rob worked in a technology start-up in Salt Lake City, Utah and was involved in emerging enterprise consulting in Victoria, British Columbia. Rob was also the recipient of the NFIB Best Dissertation Award from the Entrepreneurship Division of the Academy of Management. Among other outlets, his research has been published in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Venturing, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal and Strategic Management Journal.

    Ronald K. Mitchell is Professor of Entrepreneurship and JA Bagley Regents Chair in the Rawls College of Business at Texas Tech University, a Wheatley Institution Fellow and Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Victoria, in BC Canada. Previously, he was Winspear Chair in Public Policy and Business at the University of Victoria and Jointly-appointed Professor of Public Policy and Strategy at the Guanghua School of Management at Peking University. He is a CPA, former CEO, consultant and entrepreneur. He received his PhD from the University of Utah, winning the 1995 Heizer Dissertation Award. Ron publishes and serves in editorial review capacities in the top entrepreneurship and management journals, and was 2008–9 Chair of the Academy of Management Entrepreneurship Division. His academic mission focuses on problems and possibilities in opportunity emergence: understanding the core systems and institutions of society that enable greater human capacity. He researches, consults and lectures worldwide.

    Kevin F. Mole is Associate Professor (Reader) in Entrepreneurship at Warwick Business School where he is associated with the Enterprise Research Centre (enterpriseresearch.ac.uk). His research interests include external support to small firms including policy choices in business support, the role of regulation and firm growth. He is published in journals such as the Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Business Venturing, International Small Business Journal, British Journal of Management and Environment and Planning. He has worked for the Advanced Institute of Management and his client list includes OECD, Grant Thornton and the UK government department for business; past clients include the Small Business Service and Business Link University.

    Michael H. Morris holds the James W. Walter Clinical Eminent Scholar Chair at the University of Florida. A pioneer in curricular innovation, he launched the first department and first school of entrepreneurship at major research universities. Dr Morris has published 11 books and over 200 articles, book chapters and other scholarly publications. His current research is focused on venture categories and their implications.

    Sussie C. Morrish is Associate Professor of Marketing in the Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship at the University of Canterbury. Sussie teaches strategic marketing from basic to advanced levels. Sussie gained her PhD from the University of Canterbury while simultaneously teaching at the University of Auckland Business School. Her main research interests revolve around the marketing and entrepreneurship disciplines including various strategic approaches to portfolio entrepreneurship, airline alliances, internationalization, sustainability and country of origin effects. Her more recent research looks at the effects of the Canterbury Earthquakes on social enterprise, hospitality and related industries.

    Xaver Neumeyer is currently Assistant Professor and Burwell Chair of Entrepreneurship at the School of Entrepreneurship, University of North Dakota, USA. His current research focuses on entrepreneurial ecosystems, specifically how these ecosystems are shaped by or shape entrepreneurs. He received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Northwestern University in 2014 and his MSc in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 2006. He also completed the Postdoctoral Bridge Program at the University of Florida in 2015, specializing in Entrepreneurship and International Business.

    Mattias Nordqvist is Professor in Business Administration, the Hamrin International Professor of Family Business and Director of the Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO) at Jönköping University. Mattias is also Visiting Professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp. Mattias is a former Co-Director of the Global STEP Project and Visiting Scholar at Babson College, USA, University of Alberta (Canada) and Bocconi University (Italy). He has served on the board of the International Family Enterprise Research Academy (IFERA) and is currently on the scientific committee of the Center for Young and Family Enterprise (Cyfe) at the University of Bergamo (Italy), on the scientific committee of the Family Business Centre at Lancaster University School of Management (UK) and on the scientific committee of the Dutch Centre of Expertise in Family Businesses at the Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (the Netherlands).

    Niina Nummela is Professor of International Business at the Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland, and Visiting Professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Her areas of expertise include international entrepreneurship, cross-border acquisitions and research methods. She has published widely in academic journals, has edited several academic books and serves on the editorial boards of Journal of International Business Studies and International Small Business Journal.

    Kristina Nyström is Associate Professor in Economics with specialisation in entrepreneurship and industrial dynamics at the Division of Economics at the Department of Industrial Economics and Management at KTH, The Royal Institute of Technology and The Ratio Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. Kristina Nyström's research interests include firm dynamics in terms of entry, expansion, contraction of business and exit, industrial and regional dynamics, labour mobility associated with establishment and closure of businesses, regional resilience to displacements and institutional aspects of entrepreneurship and firm dynamics. Recent publications include articles in journals such as Regional Studies, Small Business Economics and Labour.

    Abeer Pervaiz is a doctoral student in the PhD programme in management and economics on organizational and institutional outliers at the Free University of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. Her educational background consists of an undergraduate degree in finance from the Lahore School of Economics (LSE), Pakistan and an MSc in Entrepreneurship and Innovation from the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands on an Erasmus Scholarship. She has worked as a research assistant at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Pakistan. Her research interests include entrepreneurship, industry emergence, start-ups, strategy and social movements.

    Luke Pittaway is the Copeland Professor of Entrepreneurship and Chair, Department of Management at Ohio University (Athens, OH) where he leads the academic programmes in the College of Business and the College's enhancements of university-wide programmes. He was formally the William A. Freeman Distinguished Chair in Free Enterprise and the Director of the Center for Entrepreneurial Learning and Leadership at Georgia Southern University where he managed programmes in entrepreneurship until May 2013. Dr Pittaway has previously worked at the University of Sheffield (UK), Lancaster University (UK) and the University of Surrey (UK). He has been a Research and Education Fellow with the National Council of Graduate Entrepreneurship and an Advanced Institute of Management Research Scholar. He is on a number of editorial boards including those for the International Small Business Journal, the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research and the Service Industries Journal. Dr Pittaway's research focuses on entrepreneurship education and learning and he has a range of other interests, including entrepreneurial behaviour, networking, entrepreneurial failure, business growth and corporate venturing.

    Seppo Poutanen is Senior Research Fellow and Docent of sociology at the Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, University of Turku, Finland. His areas of expertise include social epistemology, social theory, sociology of science, innovation studies, methodology of social sciences and economic sociology. Seppo Poutanen has acted as Visiting Professor and Visiting Fellow at several universities (e.g. Stanford University, LSE, University of Essex, Goldsmiths College, UTS Business School). One of his current research projects focuses on the rise of the entrepreneurial university. He has published his research in Social Epistemology, Critical Public Health, Journal of Critical Realism, Sociological Research Online, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship and in several edited volumes. Seppo Poutanen's latest publication is a monograph with Anne Kovalainen: Gender and Innovation in the New Economy – Women, Identity, and Creative Work, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

    Christopher Pryor is Lecturer in Entrepreneurship at the University of Florida. He obtained his PhD from the School of Entrepreneurship at Oklahoma State University. His current research focuses on entrepreneurs’ behaviours and the intersection of institutional contexts and entrepreneurship. His research has been published in Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, among others.

    Susana C. Santos is a Postdoctoral research fellow at the Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation at Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida. She holds a PhD in Human Resources Management and Organizational Behaviour from Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal. Her main research interests are in the cognitive, affective and psychosocial processes of entrepreneurship, at individual and team levels.

    Jeremy C. Short (PhD, Louisiana State University) is the Rath Chair in Strategic Management at the University of Oklahoma. His research focuses on multilevel determinants of firm performance, strategic decision processes, entrepreneurship, research methods, franchising and family business. He has served as Associate Editor for Journal of Management and Family Business Review. He currently serves on the review boards for Journal of Management, Journal of Business Venturing, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Organizational Research Methods and Family Business Review. His research has appeared in a number of journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Research Methods, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, the Journal of Management, Personnel Psychology, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, The Leadership Quarterly, Academy of Management Learning and Education, the Journal of Management Education, the Journal of Vocational Behavior, Business Ethics Quarterly and Family Business Review. He has published a strategic management textbook titled Mastering Strategic Management.

    Danny Soetanto is Lecturer in Entrepreneurship and Innovation at Lancaster University Management School, the United Kingdom. His research interest covers the areas dealing with entrepreneurship, knowledge commercialization, incubator and incubation process and social networks. Danny has presented his works at national and international conferences and seminars and has published in several international journals. Danny is also a reviewer for several leading UK and US journals in the field of entrepreneurship and innovation.

    Ben Spigel is Assistant Professor and Chancellor's Fellow at the University of Edinburgh Business School. He completed his PhD in the economic geography of entrepreneurship at the University of Toronto. He is interested in the relationships between regional cultural outlooks, institutional structures and high-growth, innovative entrepreneurship and how this contributes to the formation of resilient, sustainable economies.

    Erik Stam is Full Professor at the Utrecht University School of Economics, where he holds the chair of Strategy, Organization and Entrepreneurship. Next to this he is co-founder and Academic Director of the Utrecht Centre for Entrepreneurship. He held positions at Erasmus University Rotterdam, the University of Cambridge, the Max Planck Institute of Economics (Jena, Germany), and the Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy (WRR). He is editor of Small Business Economics. He is interested in how socio-economic contexts (at the societal and organizational level) affect new value creation by individuals, and the consequences of this entrepreneurship for the performance of firms and society. He has co-authored more than a hundred books, book chapters and articles on these and related topics. In addition to his scientific work he is often consulted by governments, start-ups and corporates on innovation and entrepreneurship.

    David J. Storey is Professor in the School of Business, Management and Economics at the University of Sussex, UK. His interest is in the factors influencing the performance of small, but especially new, firms. The theoretical underpinning for his work is a Gamblers Ruin model in which sales change is a random walk and survival depends upon both access to, and management of, financial resources. Empirical testing of these theories is undertaken using econometric analysis of large-scale panels of firms and individuals drawing upon data from the UK Census and from Barclays Bank. It confirms the very modest role in new firm performance played by factors such as traditional human capital, learning and strategy. Recently this work has appeared in Journal of Business Venturing (2014 with George Saridakis), Small Business Economics (2016 with Alex Coad and Julian Frankish), Environment and Planning A (2017 with Georgios Fotopulos) and International Small Business Journal (2016 with Alex Coad and Julian Frankish).

    Hamid Vahidnia is a PhD candidate in the Rawls College of Business at Texas Tech University. He is interested in the dynamics of how and why actors – be they individuals, teams or organizations – take action to create (or even destroy) value for their various stakeholders. His research often deals with complexity, conflicting goals, multilevel factors and the simultaneous effects of the mind, body and social and situational factors on human action in entrepreneurial and business settings. Hamid's work has started to generate recognition, such as a 2015 Best Paper Award from the Emerald Publishing Group and the Critical Management Studies Division of the Academy of Management. His research is often influenced greatly by his multicultural experiences as well as his experiences as a new venture founder, industrial engineer and management consultant.

    Judith van Helvert is a researcher at the Dutch Centre of Expertise in Family Businesses at the Windesheim University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands and an external PhD student affiliated to the Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO) at Jönköping University. Her dissertation focuses on advisory boards as a practice in strategising in family businesses.

    Zhongming Wang is Professor of Industrial Psychology, Human Resource Management and Entrepreneurship at the School of Management, Zhejiang University, China. He received his MA degree in applied psychology from Gothenburg University and his PhD degree in industrial psychology at Hangzhou University. He is Director of the Global Entrepreneurship Research Centre and Centre for Human Resources and Strategic Development at Zhejiang University. His research interests are entrepreneurship competence, human resources, leadership, decision-making and organizational change. His publications include Entrepreneurship Competence Development (2015) and Principles of Entrepreneurship and Research Methods in Psychology (2017).

    Miles A. Zachary, PhD, Texas Tech University, is Assistant Professor of Management at Auburn University. His research interests center on the sociocognitive elements of organizations that influence different organizational outcomes and stakeholder relationships over time, including organization identity/image, impression management and social evaluations. His research has been featured in professional journals including Journal of Management, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Family Business Review, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Business Horizons, Journal of the Academy of Business and Economics and the Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies.

    Yanhai Zhao is Associate Professor of Management at the School of Management, Lanzhou University. He received his PhD in economics at the University of Paris III-Sorbonne nouvelle. His research interests are strategic management, business ethics, corporate social responsibility and entrepreneurship. He has conducted a number of important corporate consultation programmes in France and China (Chamber of Commerce Paris, Sinopec, National Grid, Gansu Bank, etc.).

    Ivan Zupic is Lecturer in Entrepreneurship at Kingston Business School, London. He received his PhD degree in Management and Organization from the Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. His research interests include high-growth firms, entrepreneurship policy, digital economy and research methods. His research has been published in peer-reviewed journals such as Organizational Research Methods, Management Decision and European Management Journal. Before entering academia he worked as a consultant in the IT industry and as a journalist/photographer in the media.

    Acknowledgments

    We would like to thank a number of individuals for their help in the production of this Handbook. First of all we would like to thank the team at SAGE Publishing, including Delia Martinez-Alfonso for her encouragement and advice, and Colette Wilson, Serena Ugolini and Rudrani Mukherjee for their excellent help in the editorial and production process. Second, we would like to thank Professor Zhongming Wang for his valuable time in giving us advice and input into the planning of the book. A big thank you goes to Valerie Thorne, who provided support throughout the process, particularly with the organization and editorial process of the chapters. Finally, a huge thank you goes to the authors of the main chapters without which this Handbook would not exist. These authors responded very positively to our critical reviews of their draft chapters and have produced excellent contributions to this exciting field of study.

    Robert Blackburn

    Small Business Research Centre, Kingston University, UK

    Dirk De Clercq

    Goodman School of Business, Brock University, Canada

    Jarna Heinonen

    University of Turku, School of Economics, Finland

  • Author Index

    Page numbers in bold indicate tables and in italic indicate figures.


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