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Uwe Flick

In: The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection

Chapter 34: Triangulation in Data Collection

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Triangulation in Data Collection
Triangulation in Data Collection
Uwe Flick
Triangulation as an Explicit and Implicit Principle

Triangulation has a long history in qualitative and social research as an implicit and explicit concept. The principle behind triangulation was used before the concept itself was introduced and formulated in the social sciences, thus it can be seen as an implicit concept in the history of qualitative research. The explicit concept was introduced in the 1970s by Norman Denzin (1970) who built on the earlier works of Campbell and Fiske (1959) and Webb et al. (1966). Over the years the concept ‘triangulation’ has not only been stimulating in the methodological discussion and research practice but also an issue for sometimes harsh debates about its adequacy. The concept and the ...

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