The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection


Uwe Flick

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    International Advisory Editorial Board

    Rosaline S. Barbour, Emerita Professor at the Open University, United Kingdom

    Marie Buscatto, Professor of Sociology, University of Paris 1 Pantheon Sorbonne, France

    Kerry Chamberlain, Professor at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Jan K. Coetzee, Senior Professor of Sociology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Amanda Coffey, Professor at Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    Norman Denzin, Professor of Sociology at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States

    Nigel G. Fielding, Professor of Sociology, University of Surrey, United Kingdom

    Jay Gubrium, Professor of Sociology, University of Missouri, United States

    Karen Henwood, Professor of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, United Kingdom

    Sonia Livingstone, Professor of Media Research, LSE, London, United Kingdom

    Annette N. Markham, Professor at Loyola University, United States, and Aarhus University, Denmark

    Joseph A. Maxwell, Professor Emeritus in the Graduate School of Education, George Mason University, United States

    Donna M. Mertens, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Education, Gallaudet University, Washington, United States

    Michael Murray, Professor of Psychology, Keele University, United Kingdom

    Hiroshi Oda, Associate Professor Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

    Jin Sun, Professor at the Institute for International & Comparative Education, Beijing Normal University, China

    Wivian Weller, Professor at Faculdade de Educação Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia, Brazil

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editor and Contributors

    The Editor

    Uwe Flick is Professor of Qualitative Research in Social Science and Education at the Freie Universität of Berlin, Germany since 2013. He trained as a psychologist and sociologist and received his PhD from the Freie Universität of Berlin in 1988 and his Habilitation from the Technical University of Berlin in 1994. He has been Professor of Qualitative Research at Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, Germany and at the University of Vienna, Austria, where he has continued to work as a Guest Professor. Previously, he was Adjunct Professor at the Memorial University of Newfoundland at St. John's, Canada and has been a Lecturer at the Freie Universität of Berlin in Research Methodology, a Reader and Assistant Professor at the Technical University of Berlin in Qualitative Methods and Evaluation, and Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Medical Sociology at the Hannover Medical School. He has held visiting appointments at the London School of Economics, l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, at Cambridge University (UK), Memorial University of St. John's (Canada), University of Lisbon (Portugal), University of Vienna, in Italy and Sweden, and at the School of Psychology at Massey University, Auckland (NZ). His main research interests are qualitative methods, social representations in the fields of individual and public health, homelessness and health, health and ageing, migration and health, unemployment, and technological change in everyday life. He is author of Introducing Research Methodology – A Beginners’ Guide to Doing A Research Project, 2nd edition (Sage, 2015), An Introduction to Qualitative Research, 5th edition (Sage, 2014), Designing Qualitative Research, 2nd edition (Sage, 2018), Managing Quality in Qualitative Research, 2nd edition (Sage, 2018), Doing Triangulation and Mixed Methods (Sage, 2018), and Doing Grounded Theory (Sage, 2018). He is editor of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (Sage, 2014), The SAGE Qualitative Research Kit, 2nd edition (Sage, 2018 – 10 Volumes), The Psychology of the Social (Cambridge University Press, 1998), and La perception quotidienne de la Santé et la Maladie: Théories subjectives et Représentations sociales (L'Harmattan, 1993) as well as co-editor of A Companion to Qualitative Research (Sage, 2004), Quality of Life and Health: Concepts, Methods and Applications (Blackwell Science, 1995) and Handbuch Qualitative Sozialforschung, 3rd edition (PVU, 2012). Most of his books have been translated in several languages throughout Asia, Latin America and Europe.

    The Contributors

    Rosaline (Rose) S. Barbour is Emerita Professor at the Open University, UK. Throughout her career in medical sociology she has carried out research into a variety of topics, including reproductive and maternal health, HIV/AIDS, obesity and cancer. What all these projects have in common is their location at the intersection of the social and the clinical, thus affording a vantage point for developing and interrogating disciplinary and theoretical frameworks. She has specialized and published widely on qualitative research, particularly expertise in relation to focus groups and the issue of rigor. Her most recent publications include Introducing Qualitative Research: A Student's Guide, 2nd edition (Sage, 2014); Doing Focus Groups, 2nd edition (Sage, 2017) and A New Era of Focus Group Research: Challenges, Innovation and Practice (co-edited with David L. Morgan) (Palgrave, 2017).

    Lucélia de Moraes Braga Bassalo is Professor of Sociology of Education and Qualitative Research Methods at the State University of Pará – UEPA (Brazil). Her main research interests include youth cultures, feminism, gender and education as well as the study of educational trajectories and academic projects of college students of the Amazon Region in Brazil. Major publications are Fotografie als Gegenstand qualitativer Sozialforschung (ZQF – Zeitschrift für Qualitative Forschung, 2015 – with Wivian Weller), Jovem e Mulher: um estudo sobre os posicionamentos de internautas feministas (Liber Livro, 2015 – with Wivian Weller), Origem familiar, percursos acadêmicos e projetos de estudantes universitários brasileiros e chineses (Ipea, 2016 – with Chen Weidong and Wivian Weller).

    Andrew Bengry is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Bath Spa University, UK. He has been a qualitative researcher for over 15 years, worked in higher education for over 10 years and has held positions at the Bath Spa University, University of Bath, University of Southampton and University of Birmingham. His interests are in youth and identity, and how culture shapes social identification and identity construction processes. He is also interested in methodological and ethical issues in qualitative research design and implementation. He is currently researching how students from different socio-economic backgrounds experience higher education and constitute their future graduate identities and progression strategies. He has co-developed the NERUPI framework for evaluating the impact of Widening Participation Outreach activities, which is currently being piloted by a number of higher education institutions in the UK. He has also conducted research on youth consumption and identity practices, focusing specifically on music festivals and free party networks (illegal raves), alcohol consumption and young men's appropriation of motorcars in identity practices. He has published in journals including the International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Qualitative Research, Journal of Youth Studies, Sex Education, Sociology and has co-authored a number of chapters in edited volumes. Key publications are Griffin, Bengry-Howell, Morey, Szmigin and Riley (in press) ‘“We Achieve the Impossible”: Discourses of Freedom and Escape at Music Festivals and Free Parties', Journal of Consumer Culture; Hayton and Bengry-Howell (2016) ‘Theory, Evaluation and Practice in Widening Participation: A Framework Approach to Assessing Impact', London Review of Education, 14(3): 41–53; Wiles, Bengry-Howell, Crow and Nind (2013) ‘But is it Innovation? The Development of Novel Methodological Approaches in Qualitative Research', Methodological Innovations Online, 8(1): 18–33.

    Alexander Bogner is a sociologist and senior researcher at the Institute of Technology Assessment of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria. His research interests include science and technology studies, social theory and qualitative research methods. Current publications are ‘Different Ways of Problematising Biotechnology – and What it Means for Technology Governance', in Public Understanding of Science, 24(5): 516–32, in 2015 with Helge Torgersen; ‘Decision-making under the Condition of Uncertainty and Non-knowledge: The Deliberative Turn in Genetic Counselling', in Matthias Groß and Linsey McGoey (eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Ignorance Studies (Routledge, 2015), 199–205.

    Michael Bull is Professor of Sound Studies at the University of Sussex. He is the author of two monographs based upon the use of sonic ethnographies – Sounding out the City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life (Berg, 2000) and Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience (Routledge, 2007). He is the co-founder of the journals Senses and Society and Sound Studies, both published by Routledge. He has co-edited The Auditory Culture Reader (Bloomsbury, 2003, 2016) and edited a four-volume work on Sound Studies (Routledge, 2014). He is currently editing The Routledge Companion to Sound Studies and completing a monograph on ‘Sirens’ for Bloomsbury.

    Vanessa Burholt (BSc, PhD, FAcSS) is Professor of Gerontology and Director of the pan-Wales Centre for Ageing and Dementia Research (CADR), and the Centre for Innovative Ageing (CIA) at Swansea University, both world-class research centres addressing key questions in ageing and dementia. CADR integrates multi-disciplinary activity and develops areas of expertise from biological, through psychosocial and environmental, to social policy in ageing and dementia. Vanessa's research focuses on older people's attachment to people and places and she has published over 50 papers and book chapters on rurality, loneliness, support networks, intergenerational relationships, ethnicity, and migration. She co-edited (with Profs Catherine Hennessey and Robin Means) Countryside Connections: Older People, Community and Place in Rural Britain (Policy Press, 2014). She was Principal Investigator for the South Wales arm of Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (Wales) and has recently completed work on Dementia and Imagination: Connecting Communities and Developing Well-being Through Socially Engaged Visual Arts Practice.

    Marie Buscatto is Professor of Sociology at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, France. She is a sociologist of work, of gender and of arts. She also develops epistemological reflections related to the uses of ethnography and qualitative methods. Her publications in English include the special edition of Qualitative Sociology Review, III (3), Ethnographies of Artistic Work, co-edited with Howard S. Becker in 2007, and the chapters Artistic Practices as Gendered Practices: Ways and Reasons, in Tasos Zembylas (ed.), Artistic Practices (Routledge, 2014), 44–55; and ‘Practising Reflexivity in Ethnography', in David Silverman (ed.), Qualitative Research: Issues of Theory, Method and Practice, 4th edition (Sage, 2016), 137–51.

    Kerry Chamberlain is Professor of Social and Health Psychology at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. His research interests are in health and the everyday, with a specific focus on inequality and disadvantage, medications, media, materiality, mundane ailments, food, and in innovative qualitative research methodology. He is co-editor (with Antonia Lyons) of the book series Critical Approaches to Health (Routledge), co-author (with Antonia Lyons) of Health Psychology: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge, 2006), and co-editor (with Michael Murray) of Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods (Sage, 1999).

    Julianne Cheek is currently a professor at Østfold University College, Norway. She is an Associate Editor of Qualitative Health Research as well as being an editorial board member of a number of journals related to qualitative inquiry. Her publications, which include three books and over 100 journal articles and book chapters, reflect her ongoing interest in qualitative inquiry and the politics of that inquiry as it relates to the world of health and social care. In addition, she has a long interest in the mentoring and development of qualitative inquirers. She has developed post-doctoral programs in this regard, as well as having responsibility for the development of PhD and Master's by research programs. In 2010–2012 she had the honor of serving as the Vice President of the International Association of Qualitative Inquiry and currently serves on the External Advisory Board of the International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry held annually at the University of Illinois.

    Myungweon Choi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Ajou University, South Korea. Her research interests include employee training, mentoring and coaching, and career development. Her research has appeared in Human Resource Management, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Development Quarterly, and Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources.

    Lauren Clark, PhD is a Professor, College of Nursing, University of Utah. As a public health nurse by clinical background, she has worked with diverse communities in the USA, including Native American communities in the Arizona and Montana and Mexican American communities in Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. With post-doctoral training in cultural anthropology methods and a certificate in medical anthropology, she uses photography, comparative ethnography, and grounded theory qualitative methods. The US National Institutes of Health funds her research on health disparities and the experiences of people with chronic and disabling conditions and their families. She serves on the editorial boards of Qualitative Health Research and Global Qualitative Nursing Research.

    Jan K. Coetzee is Senior Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of the Free State, South Africa. He is program director for The Narrative Study of Lives, supervising and researching projects within interpretive and qualitative designs. His recent publications include 12 articles with postgraduate students and research fellows in Qualitative Sociology Review XIII (1), 2017, covering a range of aspects of the lifeworlds of South Africans living in the central part of the country. He is a practicing visual artist and his latest work focuses on books as documents of lives, using old texts juxtaposed with found and sculpted objects to draw attention to the book as symbolic knowledge object and potential source of criticality.

    Louise Corti is Associate Director at the UK Data Archive and currently leads the UK Data Service's Collections Development team and Data Publishing teams. She works closely with data producers from all sectors to ensure that high quality data are created and acquired. Louise actively researches and publishes regularly in books and journals on key aspects of data management, sharing and reuse of social science data, and has directed research awards in this area. She was instrumental in helping operationalize the ESRC's Research Data Policy from 1995 and extending this to accommodate qualitative data. She acts as a consultant for qualitative data archives setting up around the world, and is currently working on helping to enable the UKDS to scale-up for managing big data.

    Philip Darbyshire has been a children's nurse, educator, writer, researcher and educator for over 40 years, working across many clinical, education, research leadership, and consulting areas. He is internationally recognized as a leader in nursing and health care research promotion and service development. For 13 years he led one of Australia's most successful practice-based research departments at Women's & Children's Hospital in Adelaide, described by the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards as, ‘an example of excellence in research leadership'. He is a part-time Professor of Nursing at Monash University and a proud AWCH (Association for the Wellbeing of Children in Healthcare) ambassador. His book ‘Living with a sick child in hospital’ ( helped change children's nursing care in hospitals and his most cited and influential work is ‘Multiple methods in qualitative research with children: More insight or just more?’ ( with MacDougall and Schiller, Qualitative Research 5(4): 417–36, November, 2005.

    Norman K. Denzin is Distinguished Professor of Communications, College of Communications Scholar, and Research Professor of Communications, Sociology, and Humanities at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, is the author or editor of more than two dozen books, including The Qualitative Manifesto (Routledge, 2010); Qualitative Inquiry Under Fire (Routledge, 2009); Reading Race (Sage, 2002); Interpretive Autoethnography (Sage, 2014); The Cinematic Society: The Voyeur's Gaze (Sage, 1995); and four books on the American West. He is past editor of The Sociological Quarterly, co-editor (with Yvonna S. Lincoln) of five editions of the SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, co-editor (with Lincoln) of the methods journal Qualitative Inquiry, founding editor of Cultural StudiesCritical Methodologies and International Review of Qualitative Research, and founding director of the International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry.

    Hannah Ditchfield is a Media and Communication PhD candidate and Graduate Teaching Assistant at the University of Leicester (UK). Her PhD research focuses on how individuals manage and utilize the affordances of social media technologies within their interactions. She is particularly interested in how users edit their interactions ‘pre-post’ as well as how users multi-communicate on the social networking site, Facebook. Her research uses analytical approaches such as discursive psychology and conversation analysis and collects Facebook interactions via screen capture software.

    Thomas S. Eberle is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, where he was co-director of the Research Institute of Sociology (1988–2015). He served as president of the Swiss Sociological Association (1998–2005) and as vice-president of the European Sociological Association (2007–2011). His major research areas are sociology of culture and of communication, of knowledge and of organization, as well as interpretive sociology, methodology, phenomenological sociology, and qualitative methods. Publications include ‘Photographing as Creative and Communicative Action', in Culture, Communication, and Creativity Reframing the Relations of Media, Knowledge, and Innovation in Society (Peter Lang, 2014); ‘Phenomenology as a Research Method', in The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (Sage, 2014); ‘Qualitative Cultural Sociology', in The Sage Handbook of Cultural Sociology (Sage, 2016) and Photography and Society (in German, transcript Verlag, 2017).

    Florian Elliker is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland) and Research Fellow at the Department of Sociology, University of the Free State (South Africa). His publications deal with right-wing populism, experiences of social decline and precarity in ethnically diverse societies, a phenomenological sociology of knowledge approach to discourse and ethnography, and qualitative methods and methodology. Publications are Democracy within Boundaries: On the Discursive Structure of Social Belonging (2013, Springer VS, German title Demokratie in Grenzen); Populism as Radicalized Conservative Discourse (2015, Swiss Journal of Sociology, German title Populismus als radikalisierter konservativer Diskurs); The Art of Becoming a Minority (with Yehonatan Alsheh, 2015, African Studies). He is currently co-editing a thematic issue of the Journal for Discourse Studies on ‘discourse ethnography'.

    Edith Enzenhofer, Social Researcher with focus on migration studies (dynamics and patterns of social belonging in diverse societies, social construction of ‘security’ from the perspective of people with migrant background) as well as qualitative and quantitative methodology. She is the author of several publications on quality standards in multi-lingual research designs. Currently she holds the position of Coordinator for a public educational program in Vienna (Austria) focusing on socially excluded children and she is active in human rights education. Relevant publication is with Katharina Resch (2011), ‘Übersetzungsprozesse und deren Qualitätssicherung in der qualitativen Sozialforschung', Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(2), retrieved via

    Nigel G. Fielding is Professor of Sociology at the University of Surrey and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. His research interests are in new technologies for social research, qualitative research methods, and mixed methods research design. He has authored or edited 20 books, over 70 journal articles and over 200 other publications. In research methodology his books include a study of methodological integration (Linking Data, Sage, 1986, with Jane Fielding), an influential book on qualitative software (Using Computers in Qualitative Research, Sage, 1991, editor, with Ray Lee), a study of the role of computer technology in qualitative research (Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research, Sage, 1998, with Ray Lee), two sets on interview methods (Interviewing, Sage, 2002; Interviewing II, Sage, 2009) and the SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (co-editor, Sage, 2017, second edition). He is presently researching ‘merged methods'.

    Ane Kathrine Gammelby is a PhD Fellow in Media Studies at Aarhus University, Denmark. Her research focuses on how lay people with health-related issues use online peer-networks (e.g. Facebook groups) to discuss their health. Through her work she inquires how people in the digital age make sense of their bodily sensations by consulting various sources of expertise. Her research is grounded in symbolic interactionism, and her approach is ethnographic. Main research interests comprise the methodological implications and ethical dilemmas when researching digital culture and digitally saturated lived experience, not least how such experience can(not) be captured and represented as ‘data’ in digital research. Key concepts of interest are social construction of knowledge, digital intimacies, empowerment and digital saturation of everyday life.

    Giampietro Gobo, PhD, is Professor of Methodology of Social Research and Evaluation Methods, at the University of Milan. Former Director of the center ICONA (Innovation and Organizational Change in the Public Administration), he was the first chair of the ‘Qualitative Methods’ Research Network of ESA (European Sociological Association). Consulting Editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Research in Work and Organizations, he has published over fifty articles in the areas of qualitative and quantitative methods. His books include Doing Ethnography, 2nd edition (Sage, 2017, with Andrea Molle), Qualitative Research Practice (Sage, 2004, co-edited with Seale, Gubrium and Silverman) and Collecting Survey Data. An Interactional Approach (Sage, 2014, with Sergio Mauceri). His interests concern the decolonization of methodology, the reduction of inequality in women's scientific careers, and the relationship between quantum physics and social sciences. He is currently undertaking projects in the area of coordination and workplace studies.

    Christopher Groves is a Research Fellow in the Cardiff University School of Social Sciences, and is currently working on the FLEXIS project. His research interests focus on how people and institutions negotiate and deal with an intrinsically uncertain future. Relevant publications include Groves, Henwood, Shirani, Parkhill, Butler and Pidgeon (2016) ‘The Grit in the Oyster: Questioning Socio-Technical Imaginaries Through Biographical Narratives of Engagement with Energy', Journal of Responsible Innovation 3(1): 4–25, and Groves, Henwood, Shirani, Parkhill, Butler, and Pidgeon (2016) ‘Invested in Unsustainability? On the Psychosocial Patterning of Engagement in Practices', Environmental Values 25(3): 309–28.

    Karen Henwood is a Professor in the Cardiff School of Social Sciences. Her empirical work involves in-depth longitudinal and community case studies, and uses interpretive, qualitative research methods to engage with local communities on issues of risk, environmental controversy and identity. Her UK Research Council-funded projects include: Energy Biographies: Exploring the Dynamics of Energy Use for Demand Reduction (Economic and Social Research Council, 2011–2016), and Homing in: Sensing, Sense-making and Sustainable Place-making (Arts and Humanities Research Council, 2013–2014). Currently (2016–2021), and as part of her work with Cardiff University's Understanding Risk Group, she is investigating how the UK can make the transition to a flexible, integrated energy system. This is new work involving a social sciences–engineering consortium with support from European Structural Funds to Wales (WEFO, the Flexis project). This work continues to reflect her wider interests in methodological innovation and development, and investigating the challenges posed by environmental and sociocultural risks and uncertainties in changing times.

    Sharlene Hesse-Biber is professor of sociology and the director of the Women's and Gender Studies Program at Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. She publishes widely in the field of qualitative and mixed methods research methodology. She is author of The Practice of Qualitative Research, 3rd edition (Sage, 2017) and Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory with Practice (Guilford, 2010). She is co-editor (with R. Burke Johnson) of The Oxford Handbook of Multimethod and Mixed Methods Research Inquiry (Oxford, 2015). She published an award-winning monograph, Waiting for Cancer to Come: Genetic Testing and Women's Medical Decision-Making for Breast and Ovarian Cancer (University of Michigan Press, 2014). She is co-developer of the software program HyperRESEARCH, a computer-assisted program for analyzing qualitative and mixed methods data, and a transcription tool, HyperTRANSCRIBE. A fully functional free demo of these programs is available at

    Darrin Hodgetts is Professor of Societal Psychology at Massey University Albany. Prior to taking up his current post he held positions in Community Medicine at Memorial University (Canada), psychology and media at the London School of Economics and Political Sciences (UK), and community psychology at the University of Waikato (New Zealand). Darrin's research focuses on urban poverty, homelessness, the precariat, and health inequalities. Darrin is currently co-editing the Sage Handbook of Applied Social Psychology and his other publications include: Hodgetts, Drew, Stoltie, Sonn, Nikora and Curtis, Social Psychology and Everyday Life (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2010); Hodgetts and Stolte (2016) ‘Homeless People's Leisure Practices Within and Beyond Urban Socio-scapes', Urban Studies, 53(5): 899–914; Hodgetts and Stolte, Urban Poverty, Penal Welfare and Health Inequalities (Routledge, 2017).

    Kim Hoffman is a Senior Researcher with the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon. She received her PhD in Urban Studies from Portland State University. Topics of study include organizational improvement, capacity development, health and health services, and community-based programs. Her expertise includes short-term or large-scale/multi-year studies using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. She is the coordinator for the US National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network Peru Node and has received funding from the US National Institute of Health, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Faster Forward Foundation as a Principal Investigator. Dr Hoffman currently leads and has led numerous international program evaluation projects including the 21-country United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Treatnet project.

    Clare Jackson is a lecturer in sociology at the University of York, UK. She uses conversation analysis to study both ordinary and institutional interactions. She has particular interests in the ways that gender is made relevant and oriented to in ordinary talk, and in how decision-making occurs in interaction in healthcare contexts. Her interests in gender and healthcare are currently combined in a project examining how decisions are made in the interactions that occur between midwives and women during labor. Illustrative publications are ‘The Gendered “I”', in S. A. Speer and E. Stokoe (eds.), Gender and Conversation (Cambridge University Press, 2011); in 2016, ‘I sort of did stuff to him', Narrative Inquiry, 26(1): 150–70; in 2017, Jackson, Land and Holmes, ‘Healthcare Professionals’ Assertions and Women's Responses During Labor: A Conversation Analytic Study of Data from One Born Every Minute', Patient Education and Counseling, 100(3): 465–72.

    Christopher Joseph Jenks is Associate Professor of English at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has also taught at the University of South Dakota, City University of Hong Kong, Newcastle University, and Konkuk University. He specializes in the political and cultural implications of the global spread of English. His research interests also include multiculturalism, critical race theory, national identities, and discourse analysis. Christopher's eight books cover a range of topics, including chat room interaction, intercultural communication, and second language acquisition. His 2010 co-edited collection on second language acquisition was runner-up for the 2011 British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) Book Award. He is currently working on a project that examines how roadside billboards of the Midwest represent discursive spaces for national identity construction.

    Norah Keating is Professor of Rural Ageing, Swansea University; Co-Director of Research on Aging, Policies and Practice at the University of Alberta; and Extraordinary Professor, North-West University, South Africa. As part of her international research and capacity-building activities, she directs the International Association on Gerontology and Geriatrics’ (IAGG) Global Social Issues in Ageing. She has served as President of the Alberta Association on Gerontology and the Canadian Association on Gerontology; and as Chair of the North American Region, International Association on Gerontology and Geriatrics. Professor Keating is a social gerontologist whose professional life has been devoted to enhancing the quality of life of older adults. She has an international reputation for her work in families, livable communities, and care. Her recent work includes editorship of special issues on ‘Families and Aging in Global Context’ (Canadian Journal on Aging, 2015); and on ‘Ageing and Community’ (Journal of Community and Social Psychology, 2014). Her work on social isolation includes a book From Exclusion to Inclusion in Old Age: A Global Challenge (Policy Press, 2012, with Professor T. Scharf) and articles on loneliness of older Canadians. Recent publications on ageing and community include a meta-synthesis on community characteristics and wellness of older rural adults (Journal of Rural Studies, 2016); and on age-friendly environments and their roles in healthy ageing (Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine, 2017).

    Brianna L. Kennedy, is Universitair Docent in the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Utrecht University. Her research centers on under-served K-12 students who do not demonstrate traditionally defined academic and social success. Adopting methodological plurality, she tends to address research questions that require the use of traditional, emergent, and bricolaged qualitative research methodologies. She has published numerous articles addressing the racial discipline gap in the United States and is currently developing projects regarding social justice issues in schools in the Global North. Before pursuing a PhD in Urban Education at the University of Southern California, Dr Kennedy taught early adolescents in the Los Angeles Unified School District.

    Hubert Knoblauch is Professor of General Sociology at the Technical University of Berlin. His areas of research are Sociological Theory, Sociology of Knowledge, Religion and Communication, Qualitative Methods, particularly Videography and Ethnography. Recent book publications in English include Videography: Introduction to Interpretive Videoanalysis of Social Situations (with René Tuma and Bernt Schnettler: Peter Lang, 2014); Culture, Communication, and Creativity: Reframing the Relations of Media, Knowledge, and Innovation in Society (edited with Mark Jacobs and René Tuma; Peter Lang, 2014) and Powerpoint, Communication, and the Knowledge Society (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

    Margarethe Kusenbach is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of South Florida, Tampa. Besides qualitative research methods, her interests include cities and communities, emotions and identity, sustainability and disasters. Her current work investigates issues of home and belonging among migrants and other marginal social groups. She has published numerous articles and book chapters in the United States and in Europe. In 2013, she edited a book titled Home: International Perspectives on Culture, Identity, and Belonging (Peter Lang, 2013, with Krista E. Paulsen). The chapter in this Handbook is based on her 2003 article ‘Street Phenomenology: The Go-Along as Ethnographic Research Tool', in the journal Ethnography, which has been widely cited and reprinted several times.

    Simon Lindgren is Professor of Sociology and director of the Digital Social Research Unit (DIGSUM) at Umeå University, Sweden. His research is about social interaction, participation, power, and self-organization in networked online media. He also works with developing methodological tools and strategies for analyzing discursive and social network aspects of the evolving digital media landscape. He is the author of New Noise: A Cultural Sociology of Digital Disruption (2013, Peter Lang), Digital Media and Society (2017, Sage), and the editor of Hybrid Media Culture: Sensing Place in a World of Flows (2014, Routledge).

    Beate Littig is a sociologist and senior researcher at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Vienna. In addition she is a permanent lecturer at the University of Vienna and teaches at international summer schools and workshops. Her research interests are the future of work, social sustainability, practices of change, gender studies, and qualitative research methods. Publications include Bogner, Littig and Menz (eds.) Interviewing Experts (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); Jonas, Littig and Wroblewski (eds.) Methodological Reflections on Practice Oriented Theories (Springer, 2017); ‘Good “Green Jobs” for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the “Green Economy”', in MacGregor, Sherilyn (ed.) International Handbook on Gender and Environment (Routledge, 2017).

    Colin MacDougall is Professor of Public Health at Flinders University, Honorary Principal Fellow at University of Melbourne and visiting professor at Pokhara University in Nepal, whose overarching research interest is equity and social justice. He has experience with children as a psychologist, community health service manager and policymaker, and in academia. Colin uses rights-based qualitative methods to explore how children experience and act on their worlds, including an international perspective on children's rights and disasters in the context of climate change. He has taught and researched at universities in the UK, France, Germany, New Zealand, and Nepal. He is co-editor, with Helen Keleher of the fourth edition of the textbook Understanding Health (Oxford University Press, 2016). A highly cited research glossary is Baum, MacDougall and Smith (2006) ‘Participatory Action Research Glossary', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60: 854–7. A discussion of children's rights and disasters is in Gibbs, Mutch, O'Connor and MacDougall (2013) ‘Research with, by, for, and about children: Lessons from disaster contexts', Global Studies of Childhood. 3. 2.

    Annette N. Markham is Professor MSO of Information Studies at Aarhus University, Denmark and Affiliate Professor of Digital Ethics in the School of Communication at Loyola University, Chicago. Annette is internationally recognized for developing epistemological frameworks for rethinking ethics and qualitative methods for digitally saturated social contexts. A long-time member of the internet research community, Annette conducts sociological and ethnographic studies of how identity, relationships, and cultural formations are constructed in and influenced by digitally saturated socio-technical contexts. Her pioneering work in this area is well represented in her first book Life Online: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space (Altamira, 1998). Annette Markham (PhD Purdue University in Organizational Communication, 1997) brings a multidisciplinary approach to her work, with training in rhetorical theory and criticism, Frankfurt School critical approaches, organizational theory, ethnography, and interpretive research methods. More information can be found on

    Alison Marlin is a Visiting Researcher at the Center for Science and Technology Studies, UC Davis. She recently received her PhD from the University of Melbourne, using interviews and observation to investigate family intimacies that involve technologies such as Skype, Facebook, email, and mobile phones. She is interested in how methodologies and theoretical approaches from Sociology, Anthropology and Science and Technology Studies can be brought together to more fruitfully study humans and technology.

    Joseph A. Maxwell is a Professor (Emeritus) in the Research Methods program in the College of Education and Human Development at George Mason University. His doctoral degree is in anthropology, but his research and teaching have mainly been in education, with a focus on methodology. He is the author of Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach, 3rd edition (Thousand Oaks, SAGE: 2013) and A Realist Approach for Qualitative Research(Thousand Oaks, SAGE: 2012), as well as many papers on qualitative and mixed methods research. His current research deals with using qualitative methods for causal explanation, validity in qualitative and quantitative research, the history and breadth of mixed methods research, the value of philosophic realism for research, and the importance of diversity and dialogue across research paradigms and methods.

    Wolfgang Menz is Professor of Sociology, in particular Work, Organization and Innovation, at University of Hamburg. His research interests include the sociology of work and organizations and science and innovation studies. Publications include Bogner, Littig and Menz (eds.), Interviewing Experts (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); Birken, Menz and Kratzer ‘Management by Customers and Customer Control: (Im-)Balances of Power in Interactive Service Work', in Dunkel and Kleemann (eds.), Customers at Work: New Perspectives on Interactive Service Work (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), S. 76–99.

    Joanne Meredith is a Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Salford, Manchester (UK). She specializes in using interactional methods, including conversation analysis and discursive psychology, for online communication. Her research has focused predominantly on studies of instant messaging communication, and comparing these interactions to other forms of interaction. She is also interested in developing new and innovative methods for collecting qualitative data from online sources. She has contributed a chapter on analyzing online interaction using conversation analysis and discursive psychology to the fourth edition of David Silverman's edited collection Qualitative Research (Sage, 2016). She has also recently published an article in Journal of Pragmatics on how to analyze the technological affordances of online interaction using conversation analysis.

    Donna M. Mertens, PhD, is Professor Emeritus who served in the Department of Education at Gallaudet University for over 30 years; she also served as the editor of the Journal for Mixed Methods Research. The primary focus of her work is transformative mixed-methods inquiry in diverse communities, which prioritizes ethical implications of research in support of human rights and social justice. Her recent books include Mixed Methods Design in Evaluation (2018, Sage), Program Evaluation Theory and Practice: A Comprehensive Guide (2012, Guilford, authored with Amy Wilson), Transformative Research and Evaluation (2009, Guilford Press), Research and Evaluation in Education, Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods (2015, Sage, 4th edition), and Indigenous Pathways into Social Research (2013, Left Coast Press, co-edited with Fiona Cram and Bagele Chilisa).

    Lothar Mikos is Professor of Television Studies in the Department of Media Studies at the Filmuniversity Babelsberg in Potsdam, Germany. His main areas of work are Economy of the International TV Format Trade, Television Series Worldwide, Digital Distribution, (De-) Convergence Culture, Popular Television Genres and Formats, Qualitative Audience Studies. His latest publications in English: ‘From the Office to Stromberg: Adaptation Strategies on German Television', in Continuum – Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, 29, 5, 2015; ‘Television Drama Series and Transmedia Storytelling in an Era of Convergence', in Northern Lights: Film & Media Studies Yearbook, 14, 1, 2016; ‘Digital Media Platforms and the Use of TV Content: Binge Watching and Video-on-Demand in Germany', in Media and Communication, 4, 3, 2016; ‘Germany as TV Show Import Market', in Larson Powell/Robert Shandley (eds.), German Television: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives (Berghahn Books, 2016).

    David L. Morgan is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Sociology at Portland State University. He is a sociological social psychologist, who is widely known for his work on focus groups, including his book, Focus Groups as Qualitative Research (Sage, 1996), and as co-author of The Focus Group Kit (with Richard Krueger; Sage, 1997). In addition, he has worked extensively on mixed methods, including a book for Sage, Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods (2014). Most recently, he has published Essentials of Dyadic Interviewing for Routledge (2015), and A New Era in Focus Group Research, co-edited, with Rosaline Barbour, for Palgrave-Macmillan, 2017.

    Janice M. Morse, PhD (Nurs), PhD (Anthro) is a Professor and Barnes Presidential Chair, College of Nursing, University of Utah, and Professor Emeritus, University of Alberta, Canada. Her research contributions are developing the Praxis theory of suffering and comforting, fall prevention (the Morse Fall Scale is used internationally), and advancing qualitative and mixed-methods research. She has edited Qualitative Health Research (QHR), and Global Qualitative Nursing Research, and was founding editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Methods (IJQM). Her publications include Principles of Mixed-Method Designs (Left Coast Press/Routledge), Qualitatively-driven Mixed-method Designs (Routledge), Preventing Patient Falls (Springer) and several qualitative methods texts. In 1997, she founded the International Institute for Qualitative Methodology (IIQM), directing a network of 8 international hubs and 115 universities, supporting training for QHR and mentoring qualitative researchers globally. She was the recipient of the 5th Sigma Theta Tau Episteme Award, and Hall of Fame, and has honorary doctorates from Australia and Canada.

    Michael Murray is Professor of Social and Health Psychology and Head of the School of Psychology at Keele University, UK. He has published journal articles and chapters and (co-) authored and edited several books and collections on critical and qualitative approaches to health psychology including Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods (Sage, 1999, with Chamberlain), Critical Health Psychology (Palgrave, 2014) and Health Psychology: Theory, Research & Practice (Sage, 2018, with Marks and Estacio). He is the Associate Editor of Psychology & Health, and sits on the editorial boards of several other journals including Health, Psychology & Medicine, Health Psychology Review, and Arts & Health. His current research interests include the use of participatory and arts-based methods to engage older people and the development of narrative research methods.

    Jörg Niewöhner is Professor of European Ethnology and Human–Environment Relations at the Institute of European Ethnology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and the Deputy Director of the Integrative Research Institute Transformations of Human -Environment Systems ( His research develops a relational anthropology in the fields of global environmental change and the life sciences, particularly psychiatry and molecular biology. He is a member of the Laboratory: Social Anthropology of Science and Technology ( Recent publications deal with questions of infrastructure, scale, comparison, and co-laboration in ethnographic research.

    Nicolle Pfaff is Professor of Inequality and Migration Research at the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Her main research interests lie in the field of educational inequality and social segregation, youth (culture) research, youth activism and civic education. Relevant publications include: Handbuch der Peerforschung (Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2016, with Sina-Mareen Köhler and Heinz-Hermann Krüger); Kritische Bildungsforschung (Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2016, with Anne Schippling and Cathleen Grunert); Qualitative Analysis and Documentary Method in International Educational Research (Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2010 – with Ralf Bohnsack and Wivian Weller); Metodologias da Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação, 3rd edition (Vozes, 2013, with Wivian Weller).

    Jonathan Potter is Distinguished Professor, and Dean of the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers University, New Brunswick. He has worked on basic theoretical and analytic issues in social psychology for more than 30 years. This is seen in his engagement with, and development of, post-structuralism (in Social Texts and Contexts, with Margaret Wetherell and Peter Stringer), discourse analysis (in Discourse and Social Psychology, with Margaret Wetherell), discursive psychology (in Discursive Psychology, with Derek Edwards) and constructionism (in Representing Reality). He is currently interested in the way basic psychological notions such as ‘socialization’ can be reconfigured as an object in and for interaction. Working with naturalistic materials has provided a way of unlocking fundamental and subtle issues about the nature of ‘cognition’ (in Conversation and Cognition, with Hedwig te Molder). This sits alongside a long-term critical and applied interest in topics such as racism (in Mapping the Language of Racism, with Margaret Wetherell) and, more recently, morality, asymmetry, and emotion in family-mealtime and child-protection settings (with Alexa Hepburn).

    Tim Rapley is a Senior Lecturer in the Institute of Health & Society at Newcastle University, UK. His current research interests are in detailed empirical studies of medical work, knowledge and practice, and social studies of research. He is author of Doing Conversation, Discourse and Document Analysis (Sage, 2018) and recently re-wrote a chapter he is (still) quite proud of, ‘Some Pragmatics of Data Analysis', for the fourth edition of David Silverman's edited collection Qualitative Research (Sage, 2016).

    Asta Rau is Director of the Centre for Health Systems Research & Development at the University of the Free State, South Africa. Her key expertise is in conceptualizing, theorizing, and designing research, and operationalizing designs into a range of methodologies: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods. She has completed 30 research projects focused on social aspects of HIV, and on health communication. She co-edited the 2017 Special Edition (XIII, 1) of Qualitative Sociology Review, where her work in narrative methodology appears. An example of her quantitative research on HIV-TB stigma among healthcare workers appears in Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2016, 15 (62 Suppl 3). Threading throughout her research career is a strong interest in the functioning of power – an interest underlying Chapter 19 in this Handbook.

    Gethin Rees is Lecturer in Sociology at Newcastle University. His research involves understanding the intersection of the institutions of medicine and law as embodied in the forensic professional. He has investigated the ways that doctors and nurses perform forensic examinations of rape victims, the work of sleep experts in assessing the veracity of a sleepwalking defense, and is about to commence a Wellcome Trust-funded study of nurses working within police stations in England. Notable publications include ‘Making the Colposcope “Forensic”: The Medico-Legal Management of a Controversial Visualization Device'; ‘“Morphology is a Witness Which Doesn't Lie”: Diagnosis by Similarity Relation and Analogical Inference in Forensic Medicine'; and ‘“It Is Not For Me To Say Whether Consent Was Given Or Not”: Forensic Medical Examiners’ Justifications for “Neutral Reports” in rape cases'.

    Katharina Resch is Sociologist and Interpreter, working for the University of Vienna (Austria). Her fields of research include the sociology of health and illness, cross-language research, educational sociology, and research in the fields of careers and counseling. She is the author of several publications in these fields, including ‘Übersetzungsprozesse und deren Qualitätssicherung in der qualitativen Sozialforschung', Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(2), retrieved via (2011, with Edith Enzenhofer).

    Kathryn Roulston is Professor in the Qualitative Research Program in the College of Education at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, where she teaches qualitative research methods. She has a PhD in Education from the University of Queensland. Her research interests include qualitative research methods, qualitative interviewing, and analyses of talk-in-interaction. She is author of Reflective Interviewing: A Guide to Theory and Practice (Sage, 2010), and has contributed chapters to The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft, 2nd edition (2012) and The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis, as well as contributing articles to Qualitative Research, Qualitative Inquiry, International Journal of Research and Method in Education, and International Journal of Music Education.

    Bernt Schnettler is Professor of Sociology at the University of Bayreuth. His research is based on the New Sociology of Knowledge. Figuring among his recent publications is his book, Videography: Introduction to Interpretive Video Analysis of Social Situations, co-authored with Hubert Knoblauch, and René Tuma (Peter Lang, 2015).

    Margrit Schreier is Professor of Empirical Research Methods at Jacobs University Bremen. Her research interests include qualitative research methods and methodology, mixed methods, media psychology, empirical study of literature, and health research. She has been a principal investigator in several third party funded research projects on these topics, and she has authored and co-authored more than 90 book chapters and articles. She is co-editor of the issue ‘Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Conjunctions and Divergences’ of Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2001, with Nigel G. Fielding), co-author of Forschungsmethoden in Psychologie und Sozialwissenschaften für Bachelor (with Walter Hussy and Gerald Echterhoff), and author of Qualitative Content Analysis in Practice (Sage, 2012).

    Chloe Shaw is a Research Fellow at the Global Institute of Psychosocial, Palliative, and End-of-Life Care (GIPPEC), at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto. She resides in the UK, with an honorary research associate position within the Institute for Women's Health, University College London. She first used the method of conversation analysis (CA) to study advice-giving between mothers and daughters in telephone conversations, and now uses CA to study naturalistic talk in health care settings. This began with the Parents and Neonatal Decision Study, examining end-of-life decision-making for critically ill babies in the neonatal unit. Chloe is currently using the method of conversation analysis to study the process of CALM (Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully) therapy with advanced cancer patients. Her research interests include communication in end-of-life care, therapy interactions, examining the process of mentalization from a CA perspective, the social organization of decision-making and advice-giving, and the social organization and management of emotion in interaction.

    Fiona Shirani is a Research Associate in the Cardiff School of Social Sciences. She is currently working on the FLEXIS project; which integrates social science and technical research to address issues concerning the energy system of the future. Her research interests encompass qualitative longitudinal methods, family lifecourse transitions and imagined futures. Relevant publications include: Shirani, Parkhill, Butler, Groves, Pidgeon and Henwood (2016) ‘Asking about the Future: Insights from Energy Biographies', International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 19(4): 429–44; and Shirani, Butler, Henwood, Parkhill and Pidgeon (2015) ‘“I'm not a Tree Hugger, I'm Just Like You”: Changing Perceptions of Sustainable Lifestyles', Environmental Politics, 24(1): 57–74.

    Estrid Sørensen is a Professor of Cultural Psychology and Anthropology of Knowledge at the Department for Social Science at the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany, and a Co-Director of the Centre for Anthropological Knowledge in Scientific and Technological Cultures, CAST. Her research addresses knowledge practices in a technologized and globalized world, across standardization and contextualizations. She is the author of The Materiality of Learning (Cambridge, 2009) and has additionally published on technology and knowledge production in social psychology and in practices of computer game play.

    Christine Stephens co-leads the cross-disciplinary Health and Ageing Research Team at Massey University where she is a Professor of Social Science Research. The focus of the team's activity is a longitudinal study of quality of life in ageing (Health, Work and Retirement study) and in-depth qualitative studies on topics such as family relationships and housing needs. Christine's research is located at the intersection of health psychology and gerontology. She has authored or co-authored papers in these areas for Health Psychology, Psychology and Health, The Journal of Health Psychology, Health and Ageing, Journal of Ageing and Health, Ageing and Society, International Psychogeriatrics, Critical Public Health, and The Journals of Gerontology. She has also contributed to Health Psychology Review and Qualitative Research in Psychology on qualitative approaches. Her book Health Promotion: A Psychosocial Approach (Open University Press, 2008) argues for the importance of the broader social and structural foundations of health. She is currently co-authoring a book for Routledge about critical approaches to research on ageing.

    Robert Thornberg, is Professor of Education in the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning at Linköping University. He is also the Secretary of the Board for the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA). His current research is on school bullying, especially with a focus on social and moral processes involved in bullying, bystander rationales, reactions and actions, and students’ perspectives and explanations. His second line of research is on values education including morals, norms, and student participation in everyday school life. A third line of research is on teacher education, especially student teachers’ motives to become a teacher and their experiences of distressed situations during teacher training. Professor Thornberg uses a range of research methods such as qualitative interviewing, focus groups, questionnaires, and ethnographic fieldwork but has a particular expertise in grounded theory. He has published numerous articles in a range of peer-reviewed journals and written and co-authored book chapters on grounded theory in various method books.

    Katrin Tiidenberg is a Postdoctoral Researcher at Aarhus University, Denmark, and Associate Professor of Social Media and Visual Culture at the Baltic Film, Media, Arts and Communication School of Tallinn University, Estonia. She is currently publishing on selfie culture and visual research methods. Her research interests include ethics, sexuality, gender, and normative ideologies as mediated through social media practices and visual culture.

    René Tuma is working at the Technische Universität Berlin on a Postdoc position. He is interested in, and working on, the Sociology of Knowledge, Sociological Theory, Interpretive Methods, and Sociology of Technology. One of his main foci is the use of visual data in the social sciences and the reflexive study of methodology. In his PhD he scrutinized the vernacular use of video analysis in professional fields such as police work, sports training, and market research. Recent work: Videoprofis im Alltag – Die kommunikative Vielfalt der Videoanalyse (Springer VS, 2017); Videography: Introduction to Interpretive Videoanalysis of Social Situations (Peter Lang, 2014, with Hubert Knoblauch and Bernt Schnettler).

    David Wästerfors is Associate Professor at Lund University in Sweden. His publications include ‘Playfights as Trouble and Respite’ in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography; Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant (with Veronika Burcar) in Social Inclusion; ‘Businessmen as Folk Ethnographers’ in Ethnography; and ‘Taking Ownership of Gaming and Disability’ (with Kristofer Hansson) in Journal of Youth Studies. Apart from his interest in institutional youth care (especially school work), he has been engaged in studies of corruption, disabilities, and masculinities from interactionist, ethnomethodological, and narrative viewpoints. Currently he is studying violence in youth care institutions.

    Wivian Weller is Associate Professor of Sociology of Education and Qualitative Research Methods at the University of Brasilia – UnB (Brazil) and research fellow from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq. Her main research focuses on youth (culture) research, educational inequality as well as the effects of large-scale achievement testing in access to higher education. Major publications: HipHop in São Paulo und Berlin –Ästhetische Praxis und Ausgrenzungserfahrungen junger Schwarzer und Migranten (Springer VS, 2003); Bian ge shi jie zhong de da xue sheng – zhong guo, ba xi bi jiao yan jiu (Social Sciences Academic Press China, 2016 – with Tom Dwyer, Eduardo Zen, Jiu Shuguang and Guo Kaiyuan); Qualitative Analysis and Documentary Method in International Educational Research (Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2010 – with Ralf Bohnsack and Nicolle Pfaff); Metodologias da Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação, 3rd edition (Vozes, 2013, with Nicolle Pfaff).


    The idea for this Handbook goes back to some conversation with Mila Steele at Sage. We had both the impression, that despite the central role of data and their collection in qualitative research, this step was not sufficiently covered in the existing literature. The idea for such a handbook is also a consequence of the publication of the earlier SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis, that I edited in 2014 (Flick, 2014). Mila Steele was very stimulating in the planning phase of the Handbook in many respects and supported the process of making the plan happen and of making a book out of a concept. Thank you very much for this help and to everybody else involved in this process at Sage!

    A major role in supporting the development of the book from proposal to manuscript was played by the members of the International Advisory Editorial Board. They also were important for extending the vision on qualitative data collection with an international perspective covering not only Europe and the United States, but also African, Asian, and Latin American backgrounds. The Board members were also very helpful in reviewing the chapters of the book in the writing process. A big ‘thank you’ to all of them!

    The most important role in such a handbook in the end is that of the authors. Without their readiness to write their chapters, to deliver them on time, and to format and revise them after the reviews, the book would not have come to look as it does now. The authors, also, were ready to engage in the peer-reviewing process for the other chapters. Both the writing of their own and their reviews of other chapters are most appreciated!

    Uwe Flick
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