The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis


Uwe Flick

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Mapping the Field

    Part II: Concepts, Contexts, Basics

    Part III: Analytic Strategies

    Part IV: Types of Data and their Analysis

    Part V: Using and Assessing Qualitative Data Analysis

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    International Advisory Editorial Board

    Marcus Banks, Professor of Visual Anthropology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

    Rosaline S. Barbour, Professor in Health & Social Care, The Open University, United Kingdom

    Marie Buscatto, Professor of Sociology at University of Paris (Sorbonne), France

    Kathy Charmaz, Professor of Sociology and Director of the Faculty Writing Program at Sonoma State University, United States

    Jan K. Coetzee, Senior Professor of Sociology at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Amanda Coffey, Professor at Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, United Kingdom

    John Creswell, Professor of Educational Psychology at Teachers College, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, United States

    Norman Denzin, Professor of Sociology at University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign, United States

    Thomas S. Eberle, Professor of Sociology at University of St Gallen, Switzerland

    Nigel Fielding, Professor of Sociology at the University of Surrey, United Kingdom

    Peter Freebody, Professor at the Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, Australia

    Giampietro Gobo, Professor of Sociology at Milan University, Italy

    Hubert Knoblauch, Professor of Sociology at Technical University Berlin, Germany

    Sonia Livingstone, Professor of Media Research, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom

    Joseph Maxwell, Professor in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University, United States

    Donna Mertens, Professor in the Department of Education at Gallaudet University, United States

    Janice Morse, Professor at the College of Nursing, Salt Lake City, United States

    Anssi Peräkylä, Professor of Sociology at University of Helsinki, Finland

    Jin Sun, Professor at the Institute for International & Comparative Education, Beijing Normal University, China

    Wivian Weller, Professor at Universidade de Brasília – UnB, Faculdade de Educação, Brazil

    List of Tables and Figures

    About the Editor

    Uwe Flick is Professor of Qualitative Research in Social Science and Education at the Free University of Berlin, Germany. He was trained as a psychologist and sociologist and received his PhD from the Free University of Berlin in 1988 and his Habilitation from the Technical University of Berlin in 1994. He has been Professor of Qualitative Research at Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, Germany and at the University of Vienna, Austria, where he continues to work as Guest-Professor. Previously, he was Adjunct Professor at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada; a Lecturer in research methodology at the Free University of Berlin; a Reader and Assistant Professor in qualitative methods and evaluation at the Technical University of Berlin; and Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Medical Sociology at the Hannover Medical School. He has held visiting appointments at the London School of Economics, the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, at Cambridge University (UK), Memorial University of St. John's (Canada), University of Lisbon (Portugal), Institute of Advanced Studies, Vienna (Austria) at the University of Padova (Italy), and at the School of Psychology at Massey University, Auckland (NZ). His main research interests are qualitative methods, social representations in the fields of individual and public health, homelessness and health, health and ageing, migration and health, and technological change in everyday life. He is author of Introducing Research Methodology – A Beginner's Guide to Doing a Research Project (London: Sage, 2011), An Introduction to Qualitative Research, 5th edition (London: Sage, 2014), Designing Qualitative Research (London: Sage, 2007) and Managing Quality in Qualitative Research (London: Sage, 2007). He is also editor or co-editor of The SAGE Qualitative Research Kit (London: Sage, 2007, 8 volumes), A Companion to Qualitative Research (London: Sage, 2004), Psychology of the Social (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), Quality of Life and Health: Concepts, Methods and Applications (Berlin: Blackwell Science, 1995), La perception quotidienne de la Santé et la Maladie: Théories subjectives et Représentations sociales (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1993) and Handbuch Qualitative Sozialforschung (Munich: PVU, 1991). Most of his books have been translated into several languages throughout Asia, Latin America and Europe.

    Notes on Contributors

    Malin Åkerström is Professor of Sociology at Lund University in Sweden. Her research focuses on ethnographic studies of deviance. She has published several books, including Betrayers and Betrayers and Crooks and Squares, and articles such as ‘Slaps, Punches, Pinches – But not Violence: Boundary Work in Nursing Homes for Elderly’ (in Symbolic Interaction) and ‘Doing Ambivalence: Embracing Policy Innovation – At Arm's Length’ (in Social Problems), ‘Balancing Contradictory Identities – Performing Masculinity in Victim Narratives’ (with V. Burcar and D. Wästerfors in Sociological Perspective).

    Marcus Banks trained as a social anthropologist at the University of Cambridge and studied documentary film at the UK National Film and Television School; he is currently Professor of Visual Anthropology at the University of Oxford. He has published widely on visual anthropology, ethnographic film, and visual methodologies in the social sciences, including Visual Methods in Social Research (2001) and Using Visual Data in Qualitative Research (2007). His last major research project was on the use of film in colonial India; he is currently commencing research on image use in forensic contexts.

    Rosaline (Rose) Barbour has a particular interest in rigour in qualitative research and has published widely on this topic in a range of academic journals. She is currently Professor of Health Care at the Open University (UK). A medical sociologist, her research career has covered a wide variety of topics located at the intersection of the clinical and the social, for example HIV/AIDS; reproductive health and fertility; and psychosocial health and obesity. Reflecting her conviction that qualitative research is a craft skill, Rose has developed an innovative series of ‘hands-on’ qualitative methods workshops. She has been invited to present these workshops throughout the UK, in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, France, Austria, the United States and Canada. She co-edited (with Jenny Kitzinger) Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice (Sage, 1999). Her most recent books, Doing Focus Groups (Sage, 2007–8, Book 4 of the Sage Qualitative Methods Kit) and Introducing Qualitative Research: A Student Guide to the Craft of Doing Qualitative Research (Sage, 2008; 2nd edition in preparation), bring together and share the expertise she has developed through running workshops for a variety of audiences over the past 20 years.

    Ralf Bohnsack is a sociologist. After working as Assistant Professor in Sociology at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg from 1977 and obtaining his Habilitation (Second Doctoral Degree) there in 1987, he has been Professor for Qualitative Methods at the Free University of Berlin since 1990 and, since 2001, Director of the Department of Qualitative Research on Human Development and Confidential Professor for the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – German Research Council) at the Free University, President of the ces (Centre for Qualitative Social Research and Evaluation) and from 2008 to 2012 elected member of the advisory committee (Fachkollegium) in Educational Science of the DFG. His main areas of research are: reconstructive social research; sociology of knowledge; analysis of talk, pictures, films and videos; qualitative evaluation research; and research on milieu, generation and human development. He is author of RekonstruktiveSozialforschung, 9th edition in preparation (UTB Publishers), and co-editor of Qualitative Analysis and Documentary Method in International Educational Research (Budrich Publishers) and of the book series Qualitative Sozialforschung.

    Kerry Chamberlain is Professor of Social and Health Psychology at Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand. He is a critical health psychologist whose research interests focus broadly on health in everyday life, with a particular interest in projects that advance understandings and assistance to disadvantaged peoples. More specifically, his research interests include: media and health and the mediation of health issues in contemporary society; the meanings of medications and social practices in their use; food and health, and social practices around food and eating, dieting, and dietary supplementation; and everyday mundane illness and its embodiment. He utilizes a variety of qualitative methodologies in his research to examine the materiality and social practices of everyday life.

    Kathy Charmaz is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Faculty Writing Program at Sonoma State University. She has written, co-authored or co-edited nine books including Good Days, Bad Days: The Self in Chronic Illness and Time, which received awards from the Pacific Sociological Association and the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction, and Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis, which received a Critics' Choice award from the American Educational Studies Association and has been translated into Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Polish and Portuguese. The expanded second edition of Constructing Grounded Theory and a four-volume co-edited set, Grounded Theory and Situational Analysis, with Adele Clarke are due to appear this year. Her recent multi-authored books are Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis and Developing Grounded Theory. She offers intensive courses and presents professional development workshops on qualitative methods and writing for publication across the globe.

    Margaret (Marjee) Chmiel is a doctoral candidate at George Mason University's College of Education and Human Development. She is interested in mixed methods approaches to studying science communication via new and emerging media technologies. With a background in physical sciences and an interest in science communication, she is interested in creating dialogues across research paradigms. Her dissertation research focuses on science education communication on user-generated video websites. She is currently the educational technology specialist for the Smithsonian Science Education Center at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

    Amanda Coffey is a Professor in the School of Social Sciences and Dean for Education and Students in the College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Cardiff University, UK. She has published widely on qualitative research methods and in the sociology of education. Her publications include Making Sense of Qualitative Data (Sage, with Paul Atkinson), The Ethnographic Self (Sage), Education and Social Change (Open University) and Reconceptualising Social Policy (Open University). She was elected an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences in 2011.

    Flora Cornish is a Lecturer in the Department of Methodology, London School of Economics and Political Science. She has particular interests in the critical and public significance of qualitative methods as means of creating better societies. She researches community mobilization as a means of improving public health, with increasing focus on the tensions and possibilities in the interface between global health organizations and local community action. She is Editor of the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.

    Norman K. Denzin is Distinguished Professor of Communications, College of Communications Scholar, and Research Professor of Communications, Sociology, and Humanities at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign. He is the author of The Qualitative Manifesto; Qualitative Inquiry Under Fire; and Interpretive Ethnography; and co-editor (with Yvonna S. Lincoln) of four editions of the Handbook of Qualitative Research.

    Pierre-Yann Dolbec is a Vanier Canada Graduate scholar completing his PhD in marketing at the Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto. He holds an MSc in marketing from HEC Montreal. His research focuses on market system dynamics, looking at consumers' influence on the evolution of markets as well as on the dialectic between space and markets. His research also looks at consumers' accumulation of cultural and social capital. He has a virtual home at

    Amanda Earley is a PhD candidate at the Schulich School of Business at York University in Toronto. Her work concerns the politics of marketing and consumer culture. She is particularly interested in how markets are constituted, and in turn constitute consumer subjects, and primarily conducts this work within the contexts of economic activism, food culture, social media, sustainable strategy, and art consumption. She is currently working on an ethnography of the original Occupy Wall Street encampment in New York City.

    Thomas S. Eberle is Professor of Sociology and Co-director of the Research Institute of Sociology at the University of St Gallen, Switzerland. He served as President of the Swiss Sociological Association from 1998 to 2005 and as Vice-president of the European Sociological Association (2007–11). He was Chair of the ESA-Research Network ‘Qualitative Methods’ (2001–3) and of the ESA-RN ‘Sociology of Culture’ (2007–9) and still is a board member of both. His major research areas are sociology of culture and of communication, of knowledge and of organization, as well as interpretive sociology, methodology, phenomenological sociology and qualitative methods. In these areas, he published two books, edited nine and wrote more than 80 articles.

    Cigdem Esin is a narrative researcher. Her research interests are in interconnections between individual stories and grand socio-political narratives in gendered contexts. She has been doing research on gender and employment, women's movements and organizations, and sexuality since the mid-1990s. She is a Lecturer and Research Fellow of the Centre for Narrative Research, University of East London. Her current research focuses on visual narratives and self-narratives of academic immigrants living in London.

    Mastoureh Fathi is currently a Research Assistant in the Department of Psychosocial Studies, Birkbeck College, University of London, on a project called ‘Mediated Humanitarian Knowledge: Audiences’ responses and moral actions'. Her research interests include migrants' narratives, class and belonging stories, and women's social and political engagements in Iran. She was awarded her PhD, entitled ‘Classed Pathways of Iranian Women Migrants’, in 2011. Since then she has been writing on the publication of a series of papers on narratives of class and migration, classed identity, translation, narrative research, and the British public's involvement with NGOs on humanitarian causes.

    Graham R Gibbs is a Reader in Social Research Methods at the University of Huddersfield, UK. His research interests include the use of software in qualitative data analysis and the use of technology in teaching and learning in higher education. He is the author of two books on qualitative data analysis and has led and participated in several funded projects related to the use of technology in the social sciences and their teaching. He is currently working on the EU-funded COPING project, which is examining the experience of children who have a parent in prison. He was made a UK Higher Education Academy National Teaching Fellow in 2006.

    Alex Gillespie is a Lecturer in Psychology at the London School of Economics and Political Science, and Editor of Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. He is fascinated by social interaction, specifically how it produces novelty, distributes cognitive processes, creates our sense of self, and enables society to reproduce itself. He has published a monograph entitled Becoming Other: From Social Interaction to Self-Reflection (Information Age, 2006), and is co-editor, with Ivana Marková, of a 2012 volume entitled Trust and Conflict: Representation, Culture and Dialogue published by Routledge.

    Andre Gingrich directs the Austrian Academy of Sciences' Institute for Social Anthropology (ISA) and is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Based on his ethnographic fieldwork and his publications on time reckoning in south western Arabia, and on neo-nationalism in Europe, his current work concerns qualitative methodologies in anthropology. In this realm his recent publications include ‘Comparative Methods in Socio-cultural Anthropology Today’ in the Handbook of Social Anthropology (Sage, vol. 2), and ‘Alliances and Avoidance: British Interactions with German-speaking Anthropologists, 1933–1953’ in Culture Wars: Context, Models, and Anthropologists' Accounts (Berghahn).

    Jaber F. Gubrium is Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University of Missouri. He has had a long-standing programme of research on the social organization of care in human service institutions and pioneered the reconceptualization of qualitative methods and the development of narrative analysis. A pragmatist in orientation, his publications include numerous books and articles on ageing, long-term care, the life course, medicalization, and representational practice in the therapeutic context. Collaborating for over 25 years with James Holstein, they have authored and edited dozens of books, including Analyzing Narrative Reality, Varieties of Narrative Analysis, The New Language of Qualitative Method, The Active Interview, Handbook of Constructionist Research, Handbook of Interview Research, The Self We Live By, Constructing the Life Course and What is Family?

    Darrin Hodgetts is a Professor of Societal Psychology at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. He is an interdisciplinary social scientist who works within the interlinked domains of everyday life, media, community, culture, urban poverty, health inequalities and symbolic power. His research underlies efforts to improve the everyday lives of marginalized groups in society.

    James A. Holstein is Professor of Sociology in the Department of Social and Cultural Sciences at Marquette University in Milwaukee. His research and writing projects deal with social problems, deviance and social control, family, and the self, all approached from an ethnomethodologically informed, constructionist perspective. His publications include numerous books and articles on qualitative inquiry and research methods. Collaborating with Jaber Gubrium for over 25 years, they have authored and edited dozens of books, including Analyzing Narrative Reality, Varieties of Narrative Analysis, The New Language of QualitativeMethod, The Active Interview, Handbook of Constructionist Research, Handbook of Interview Research, The Self We Live By, Constructing the Life Course and What is Family?

    Jens Holze is Research Assistant and Lecturer at the Department of Educational Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg. His research interests in the general field of media literacy and education include Internet and Web studies as well as digital game studies.

    Katarina Jacobsson is Associate Professor in Sociology at the School of Social Work, Lund University. Her major research areas are qualitative studies of deviance, social control and medical sociology. Recent publications include ‘Accounts of Honesty’ (2012) in Deviant Behavior, ‘Moving from “gut-feeling” to “pure facts”’ (2012) in Nordic Social Work Research (with E. Martinell-Barfoed) and ‘Interviewees with an Agenda’ (2013) in Qualitative Research (with M. Åkerström). Currently she is examining documenting practices and knowledge production within health care and social services.

    Udo Kelle is a psychologist and sociologist. He has taught qualitative and quantitative methods of social research at various universities in Germany and, as a visiting researcher, in Austria and the UK. Currently he is a Professor for Social Research Methods and Statistics at the Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Armed Forces in Hamburg. His research interests cover the fields of the methodology of social sciences, especially qualitative methods and their epistemological underpinnings and the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods, the sociology of the life course and the sociology of ageing. At present he works on the use of qualitative methods in evaluation research and in research about prejudice. He has written a variety of books and articles (in both German and English) about the relation between theory and data in qualitative research, about the methodological foundations of grounded theory methodology, and about the methodology of category building.

    Hubert Knoblauch has studied (1978–84) sociology, philosophy and history at the Universities of Konstanz and Brighton (1980–1). He received a DFG ‘Heisenberg Scholarship’ in 1995 and the ‘Christa-Hofmann-Riem Award for Qualitative Research’ in 1996. In 1997 he was a Senior Researcher at King's College in London, and a Guest Professor at the University of Vienna, and in 2000 a Professor for Sociology of Religion at the University in Zurich. Since 2002 he has been Chair for General Sociology/Theories of Modern Societies at the Institute of Sociology (Technical University of Berlin) and is currently Chair of the ESA RN Sociology of Culture. His recent publications include PowerPoint, Communication, and the Knowledge Society (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

    Sabine Kowal received her PhD in experimental psychology from St. Louis University. Her Habilitation in General Linguistics/Psycholinguistics was at the Technical University of Berlin where she held an Extraordinary Professorship until her retirement. She has been engaged in research with Dan O'Connell for more than 40 years. The last decade of the twentieth century involved a shift in their orientation from mainstream psycholinguistic research to an emphasis on spoken dialogue and empractical speech under field observational conditions, and to empirical research on transcription and rhetorical language use. More recently, radio and TV interviews as well as American feature films have provided their empirical database, and the emphasis on spoken discourse has led to the investigation of neglected phenomena: fillers, pauses, interjections, laughter, and empractical speech in English and German.

    Robert V. Kozinets is a globally recognized expert on social media, marketing research, innovation, and marketing strategy. He has extensive speaking, training and consulting experience with a range of global companies and organizations. An anthropologist by training, he is Professor of Marketing at York University's Schulich School of Business (Toronto), where he is also Chair of the Marketing Department. His research investigates the dynamic cultural interface of technology, consumption and media. It has been published in over 90 chapters, proceedings and articles in some of the world's top-tier marketing journals, including the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Retailing and Journal of Consumer Research. His co-edited volume Consumer Tribes was published in 2007 by Elsevier. His 2010 book was published by Sage, entitled Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Qualitative Consumer and Marketing Research, co-authored with Russel Belk and Eileen Fischer, was published in 2013.

    Lory J. Maddox is a Senior Clinical Consultant, Intermountain Healthcare, in the State of Utah and a doctoral student at the University of Utah College of Nursing. She is responsible for Care Coordination project implementation with the Patient Flow Project team at 11 of Intermountain's largest hospitals. Previously, she was a Lieutenant in the US Navy, working in adult medical–surgical and pain services. From 2002 to 2007 she worked as an Assistant Professor of Nursing at Colorado Mesa University where she continues to teach part time. After completing informatics studies at the University of Colorado, she moved to Salt Lake City to work in the area of health care software design and delivery. Her doctoral studies concentrate on the design and delivery of health care systems in the provision of health care services to patients.

    Christoph Maeder is Professor of Sociology at Thurgau University of Teacher Education, Switzerland. He is a former President of the Swiss Sociological Association and has conducted ethnographic research in a prison, hospitals, public welfare agencies and schools. Currently he is doing a discourse analysis of the public schools in Switzerland and undertaking fieldwork in classrooms on the use of information and computer technology. In his latest research he is trying to integrate the non-musical and non-linguistic acoustic environment into ethnography.

    Winfried Marotzki is Professor of Education at the Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, where he has taught for more than 20 years on educational problems. His research and writing projects have addressed social problems, biographical work, mostly approached from an ethnomethodologically informed, constructionist perspective. His publications include numerous books and articles on education, qualitative research methods, media literacy and new media phenomena in the context of education.

    Amir Marvasti is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Penn State Altoona. His areas of interest include race and ethnicity, deviance, and social theory. He is the author of Being Homeless: Textual and Narrative Constructions (2003), Qualitative Research in Sociology (2004), Middle Eastern Lives in America (with Karyn McKinney, 2004). His research focuses on social construction and management of deviant identities in everyday life.

    Joseph A. Maxwell is a Professor in the College of Education and Human Development at George Mason University (Virginia), where he teaches courses on qualitative and mixed methods research design and methodology. He is the author of Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach (3rd edition, 2012) and A Realist Approach for Qualitative Research (2011). His research and writing include work on integrating qualitative and quantitative approaches, the connections between research methodology and philosophy, qualitative methods for programme evaluation, Native American societies, and medical education. He has a PhD in anthropology from the University of Chicago.

    Tim May is Professor and Director of the Centre for Sustainable Urban and Regional Futures, University of Salford, Manchester. He is the author and editor of books on social research, organizational change, reflexivity, social theory and philosophy of social science, which have been translated into 15 languages. He has also written many articles on knowledge, cities, universities, and urban policies and practices. He is currently working on projects funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences and Arts and Humanities Research Councils, as well as Mistra (Swedish Environmental Research Foundation), where he is seconded part-time to the Mistra Urban Futures Centre, based in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Donna M. Mertens is a Professor in International Development at Gallaudet University in Washington, DC. She is author of Program Evaluation Theory and Practice (Guilford Press, 2012) and editor of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research. Her work focuses on expanding understandings of the role of research in addressing issues of social justice and human rights.

    Lothar Mikos is Professor of Television Studies in the Department of Media Studies at the University of Film and Television ‘Konrad Wolf’ in Potsdam–Babelsberg, Germany, and Managing Director of the Erich Pommer Institute for Media Law, Media Economy and Media Research. The Erich Pommer Institute is one of Europe's leading centres of research and advanced training programmes following the process of media convergence. As a Visiting Professor at universities in Barcelona, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Klagenfurt, London and Tarragona he lectured on communication and media studies, film and television analysis, film and television history, and audience research. His main research interests are audience studies, film and television history, film and television analysis, international television format trade, popular film genres and television formats, convergence culture, global media market, and qualitative methodology. He has published several books in German, for example Film- und Fernsehanalyse (Film and Television Analysis) (UVK, 2nd edition). His latest publications in English are ‘Travelling Style: Aesthetic Differences and Similarities in National Adaptations of Yo Soy Betty, La Fea’ in International Journal of Cultural Studies (with Marta Perrotta, 2012); and ‘National Heroes on the Global Stage: The 2002 Olympic Games and Football World Cup’ in Bodies of Discourse: Sport Stars, Media, and the Global Public (Peter Lang, 2012).

    Janice M. Morse has PhDs in nursing and anthropology, is a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, and as a Professor holds a Presidential Endowed Chair at the University of Utah College of Nursing, as well as being Professor Emeritus, University of Alberta. She was the founding Director and Scientific Director of the International Institute for Qualitative Methodology, University of Alberta, founding editor for the International Journal of Qualitative Methods, and presently serves as the founding editor for Qualitative Health Research (Sage). From 1998 to 2007 she was the editor for the Qual Press, and is currently editor for the series Developing Qualitative Inquiry: The Basics of Qualitative Inquiry (Left Coast Press). She is a recipient of the Lifetime Achievement in Qualitative Inquiry, from the International Center for Qualitative Inquiry (2011), in the International's Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame, of the Episteme Award (Sigma Theta Tau), and has honorary doctorates from the University of Newcastle (Australia) and Athabasca University (Canada). She is the author of 370 articles and 18 books on qualitative research methods, suffering, comforting and patient falls.

    Michael Murray is Professor of Social and Health Psychology at Keele University, UK. Previously he worked in Northern Ireland and Canada. He is particulary interested in developing innovative change-oriented qualitative research designed to enhance community capacity and wellbeing. He has conducted research on various topics including smoking among young people, cancer screening practices and attitudes, occupational health and safety, baby-boomers, and older people and arts. He has published extensively, including Smoking Among Young Adults (1988, with L. Jarrett, A.V. Swan and R. Rumun), Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods (1999, with K. Chamberlain) and Critical Health Psychology (2014).

    Daniel C. O'Connell received his doctorate in experimental psychology at the University of Illinois (Urbana–Champaign), and did postdoctoral work at Harvard. Until his retirement, he served as Professor of Psychology successively at St. Louis, Loyola (Chicago) and Georgetown Universities. His research with Sabine Kowal has spanned more than 40 years. In the last decade of the twentieth century, their orientation shifted from mainstream psycholinguistic research on speech production to an emphasis on spoken dialogue and empractical speech under field observational conditions, and to empirical research on transcription and rhetorical language use. More recently, radio and TV interviews as well as American feature films have provided their empirical database, and the emphasis on spoken discourse has led to neglected phenomena: fillers, pauses, interjections, laughter, and empractical speech in both English- and German-language corpora.

    Monika Palmberger is a Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity in Göttingen, Germany. In her doctoral research project, which she completed at the University of Oxford in 2010, she concentrated on the comparison of memory discourses among different generations in post-war and post-socialist Bosnia-Herzegovina. She has published the results of her research in various journals and currently is finishing her book How Generations Remember: Contested Memories in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presently she is focusing her work on older first-generation migrants in a diverse Viennese neighbourhood. Her research is based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork including a mix of qualitative methods.

    Beth Perry is Senior Research Fellow and Associate Director of the Centre for Sustainable Urban and Regional Futures, University of Salford, Manchester. Her interests are in urban and regional policy and governance and the role of universities in regional development and the knowledge economy. She is currently Director of the Greater Manchester Local Interaction Platform and undertaking work with support from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). Among her recent publications are a book on social research and reflexivity (with Tim May); chapters on case study methods and comparative research; and a special edition of the Built Environment journal, with Tim May, on ‘The Roles of Universities in Building Knowledge Cities’.

    Tim Rapley is a Lecturer in Medical Sociology at the Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, UK. When not conducting research on a range of topics in medical settings, he is interested in thinking, talking and teaching about the practical, taken-for-granted ways that qualitative research gets done. He has written about the (extra)ordinary work undertaken in relation to qualitative interviews and analysis. He has also written a book, Analysing Conversations, Discourse and Documents (Sage).

    Jo Reichertz, is a Professor of Communication Science. He has studied mathematics, sociology and communication science at the Universities of Bonn, Essen and Hagen; gained his doctorate in 1986 (University of Hagen); and his Habilitation in 1991 (University of Hagen). Since 1992 he has held a professorship at the University of Essen. His focus of research covers the sociology of communication, sociology of science, sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, qualitative research, and hermeneutics. His publications include the methodology of social-scientific hermeneutics, manifestations of religiosity in the modern era, social forms of self-representation, sociology of the media, logic of research, pragmatism and abduction. He has held several guest professorships in Austria at the University of Vienna (Sociology) and at the Institute for Advanced Studies (Vienna) and in Switzerland at the University of St Gallen (Sociology).

    Kathryn Roulston is a Professor in the Qualitative Research Program at the University of Georgia, Athens. Her research interests include qualitative research methodology, qualitative interviewing, teaching qualitative research, ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, doctoral education and topics in music education. She has published in a range of journals, including Applied Linguistics, International Journal of Music Education, Music Education Research, Oxford Review of Education, Text, Qualitative Inquiry and Qualitative Research. In addition to her book on qualitative interviewing, Reflective Interviewing: A Guide to Theory and Practice (Sage, 2010), she was a contributor to The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft (2nd edition, 2012).

    Bernt Schnettler is Chair for Sociology of Culture and Religion at the University of Bayreuth. He has undertaken studies on communicative genres including computer-supported visual presentations, extraordinary experiences and commemoration ceremonies. Recently he has become especially interested in combining hermeneutical and ethnomethodological approaches to sequential analysis for analysing video data. He is working in several national and international scientific associations, including the ESA Research Network ‘Qualitative Methods’ and the German Sociological Association's Section ‘Sociology of Knowledge’. Among his recent publications are Video-Analysis: Methodology and Methods: Qualitative Audiovisual Data Analysis in Sociology, published by Lang (3rd edition, 2012).

    Margrit Schreier has been Professor of Empirical Research Methods at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany, since 2003. She received her PhD in psychology from Heidelberg University and completed her Habilitation at Cologne University. Her research interests include qualitative research methods and methodology, mixed methods, media psychology, empirical study of literature, and health research. She has been a principal investigator in several DFG-funded research projects on these topics, and has authored and co-authored more than 90 book chapters and articles. She is co-editor of the issue ‘Qualitative and quantitative research: Conjunctions and divergences’ of Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2001, with Nigel Fielding) and author of Qualitative Content Analysis in Practice (Sage, 2012).

    Corinne Squire is Professor of Social Sciences and Co-director of the Centre for Narrative Research, University of East London. Her research interests are in narrative theory and methods, popular cultures and subjectivity, and HIV and citizenship. Her publications include Doing Narrative Research (with M. Andrews and M. Tamboukou; Sage, 2008 and 2013); HIV in International Perspective (with M. Davis; Palgrave, 2010), HIV in South Africa (Routledge, 2007) and Public Emotions (with Perri 6, S. Radstone and A. Treacher; Palgrave, 2006).

    Robert Thornberg is an Associate Professor in Education in the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning at Linköping University in Sweden as well as an international research faculty member of the Center for Research on School Safety, School Climate and Classroom Management at Georgia State University in Atlanta, GA. His current research is on school bullying as moral and social processes. His second line of research is on school rules, student participation, and moral practices in everyday school life. He uses a range of research methods such as qualitative interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork, but has particular expertise in grounded theory. He is also a board member of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), and on the Editorial Board for the peer-reviewed journal Nordic Studies in Education. He has published in a range of journals, including Teaching and Teacher Education, International Journal of Educational Research, Research Papers in Education, Children and Society, Ethnography and Education, and Journal of Adolescence.

    Ladislav Timulak is Associate Professor and Course Director of the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. His main research interest is psychotherapy research, particularly the development of emotion-focused therapy. He has written four books, over 50 peer-reviewed papers and various chapters in both his native language, Slovak, and English. His most recent books include Research in Psychotherapy and Counselling (Sage, 2008) and Developing Your Counselling and Psychotherapy Skills and Practice (Sage, 2011).

    Merran Toerien's primary research interest is the application of conversation analysis (CA) to the study of talk in institutional settings. This has included nurse–patient interaction during recruitment appointments for a cancer trial; adviser–claimant interaction during ‘work-focused interviews’ in the UK's Jobcentre Plus; and beauty therapist–client interaction during salon hair removal sessions. Her current, collaborative research (funded by the UK's National Institute for Health Research) is examining how neurologists facilitate patient involvement in decision-making. She teaches CA at undergraduate and postgraduate level and has contributed to a range of CA short courses in the UK, China and South Africa.

    René Tuma studied sociology at the TU Berlin and at King's College London. He served as a Research Assistant to a DFG Project on PowerPoint presentation and was a Fellow of the Studienstiftung. In 2008, he finished his MSc Dissertation in Medicine, Science & Society (‘Learning to See – The Role of the Visual in Dermatology’) at King's College London where he also collaborated with the Work, Interaction & Technology Research Team on the research project on Pervasive Computing for Markets (UTIFORO). Since 2009, he has been working and teaching as a full-time researcher at the Chair of General Sociology and Theory of Modern Societies, TU Berlin. He is currently finishing his PhD on vernacular video analysis.

    Dan Verständig is a Research Assistant and Lecturer in the Department of Educational Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, Germany. In his current research project, he is exploring the relation of participation and social formations with a focus on digital activism.

    David Wästerfors is Associate Professor in Sociology in the Department of Sociology, Lund University, Sweden. His recent publications include ‘Disputes and Going Concerns in an Institution for “Troublesome” Boys’ in the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography (2011), and ‘Analyzing Social Ties in Total Institutions’ in Qualitative Sociology Review (2012). Apart from his interests in institutional youth care, he has also been engaged in studies of corruption, scandals, disabilities and masculinities, often from interactionist, ethnomethodological, narrative and constructionist standpoints.

    Andreas Wernet is Professor of Science Education in the Department of Education at the Leibniz University of Hannover. His main research fields are theory of professionalization, classroom interaction, student biographies, and hermeneutic methodology and methods.

    Carla Willig is Professor of Psychology at City University London, UK. She has a long-standing interest in qualitative research methodology in general, and discourse analysis in particular. She has published books and papers concerned with both methodological and epistemological issues. Her most recent book Qualitative Interpretation and Analysis in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2012) is concerned with the practical, conceptual and ethical challenges that qualitative researchers face when embarking upon qualitative data analysis.

    Rainer Winter is Chair of Media and Cultural Theory and Head of the Institute of Media and Communications at Alpen Adria Universität Klagenfurt in Austria. He is Chair of the Section ‘Sociology of Media and Communications’ of the German Society of Sociology as well. In 2010 he taught as a Visiting Professor at Capital Normal University in Beijing and at Shanghai International Studies University. Since 2012 he has been Adjunct Professor at Charles Sturt University in Sydney (Australia). He is the author and editor of more than 50 books on Cultural Studies, including Die Kunst des Eigensinns: Cultural Studies als Kritik der Macht (2001), Global America? The Cultural Consequences of Globalization (2003; German Translation 2003; Chinese translation 2012), Widerstand im Netz (2010), Die Zukunft der Cultural Studies (2011, Chinese translation 2013) and Transnationale Serienkultur (2013).

    Tania Zittoun is a Professor of Psychology and Education at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. She is interested in the dynamics by which, through their interactions with others and things, people create their life courses. For this she explores methodologies capturing people's changing experience in a complex cultural world. She is Associate Editor of Culture & Psychology; with Sergio Salvatore she recently co-edited Cultural Psychology and Psychoanalysis: Pathways to Synthesis (Information Age, 2011); and is co-author of the Human Development in the Life Course: Melodies of Living (Cambridge University Press, 2013).


    The idea for this handbook goes back to some conversations with Patrick Brindle at Sage. Despite the central role of data analysis in qualitative research, we both had the feeling, that this step was not sufficiently covered in the varieties of its practices in the existing literature. Thus we started to think about a line-up for a handbook in this area. Patrick and then Katie Metzler and Anna Horvai at Sage supported the process of developing the outline of the handbook, the contact with contributors and the writing process patiently but also with very helpful ideas. To them and to all the other people at Sage involved in this process, I want to say “thank you”.

    A major role in supporting the development of the book from proposal to manuscript was played by the members of the International Advisory Board. They also helped to extend the vision on qualitative data analysis with an international perspective covering not only Europe and the United States, but also African, Asian and Latin American backgrounds. The Board members were also very helpful in reviewing the chapters of the book in the writing process. A big “thank you” to all of them!

    The most important role in such a handbook in the end is that of the authors. Without their readiness to write their chapters, to deliver them in time and format and to revise them after the reviews, the book would not have come up like it looks now. Also, the authors were ready to engage in the peer reviewing process for other chapters. Both, writing their own and reviewing other chapters, is most appreciated!

    Uwe Flick
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