• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

The examination of personality and individual differences is a major field of research in the modern discipline of psychology. Concerned with the ways humans develop an organised set of characteristics to shape themselves and the world around them, it is a study of how people come to be 'different' and 'similar' to others, on both an individual and a cultural level. This volume focuses on the multiple origins of personality and individual differences, in chapters arranged across three thematic sections: Part 1: Biological Origins of Personality and Individual Differences Part 2: Developmental Origins of Personality and Individual Differences Part 3: Environmental Origins of Personality and Individual Differences With outstanding contributions from leading scholars across the world, this is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate ...

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Personality and Individual Differences
Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Personality and Individual Differences
Jüri Allik Anu Realo

Although Immanuel Kant (Kant, 2006/1798) made the ancient theory of four temperaments – choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, and sanguine – popular, not only for his contemporaries but also for the following generations, nobody cared about measuring these and other individual differences for a long time. Except perhaps for Friedrich Bessel (1784–1846), the astronomer at the Königsberg Observatory, who proposed that errors of astronomical observation may be due to individual differences of the observers but that these could be compensated for by constructing ‘personal equations’ which characterize constant individual differences in the mean reaction times between two observers (Boring, 1929/1957). Prior ...

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